# University of Rostock

• Rostock, Germany
Recent publications
Mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) tumors show a good response toward immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), but developing resistance impairs patients' outcomes. Here, we compared the therapeutic potential of an α-PD-L1 antibody with the CDK4/6 inhibitor abemaciclib in two preclinical mouse models of dMMR cancer, focusing on immune-modulatory effects of either treatment. Abemaciclib monotherapy significantly prolonged overall survival of Mlh1-/- and Msh2loxP/loxP;TgTg(Vil1- cre) mice (Mlh1-/-: 14.5 wks vs. 9.0 wks (α-PD-L1), and 3.5 wks (control); Msh2loxP/loxP;TgTg(Vil1- cre): 11.7 wks vs. 9.6 wks (α-PD-L1), and 2.0 wks (control)). The combination was not superior to either monotherapy. PET/CT imaging revealed individual response profiles, with best clinical responses seen with abemaciclib mono- and combination therapy. Therapeutic effects were accompanied by increasing numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4+/CD8+ T-cells and lower numbers of M2-macrophages. Levels of T cell exhaustion markers and regulatory T cell counts declined. Expression analysis identified higher numbers of dendritic cells and neutrophils within tumors together with high expression of DNA damage repair genes as part of the global stress response. In Mlh1-/- tumors, abemaciclib suppressed the PI3K/Akt pathway and led to induction of Mxd4/Myc. The immune-modulatory potential of abemaciclib renders this compound ideal for dMMR patients not eligible for ICI treatment.
Background Domestic pigs have an evolutionary conserved exploratory behaviour. To comply with this requirement, the European Union aims at setting standards for appropriate enrichment materials for pigs (Council Directive 2008/120/EC). As recommended characteristics include ‘chewable’ and ‘edible’, pigs might also consume these materials (Commission Recommendation (EU) 2016/336), which are often additionally advertised to enhance lying comfort and hygienic conditions in stables. To date, a wide range of bedding, enrichment and disinfectant materials is available on the market to ensure environmental enrichment, a dry, hygienic environment or lying comfort. Previous studies revealed considerable amounts of undesirable substances in some of these materials possibly being a risk for food safety considering oral uptake by the animal. To determine interest and indicators for consumption of different types of materials by pigs during exploratory behaviour, a camera-assisted observational study with 12 female pigs (German Landrace) was conducted. We tested their preference for a disinfectant powder, peat, biochar and straw as reference material in a 4 × 6 factorial arrangement. Results Pigs manipulated and consumed all offered materials. However, longest manipulation time per pig was observed for biochar (63 min/day) and peat (50 min/day) (p < 0.05). Analyses of the bulk molecular-chemical composition and n-alkanes and acid insoluble ash as markers in the materials and in faeces clearly revealed the consumption of these materials by pigs. Conclusions Whether the consumption of considerable amounts together with certain levels of undesirable substances represents a risk for pig and consumer health could yet not be established. Future studies will address the quantitative contribution of undesirable substances by oral ingestion of bedding and enrichment materials and disinfectant powders to the daily feed ration.
The modern, over 250-m-deep basin of Lake Constance represents the underfilled northern part of an over 400-m-deep, glacially overdeepened trough, which reaches well into the Alps at its southern end. The overdeepening was formed by repeated glacial advance-retreat cycles of the Rhine Glacier throughout the Middle to Late Pleistocene. A seismic survey of Lake Constance revealed a Quaternary sediment fill of more than 150 m thickness representing at least the last glacial cycle. The stratified sedimentary fill consists at the base of ice-contact deposits on top of the molasse bedrock, overlain by glaciolacustrine to lacustrine sediments. During the successful field test of a newly developed, mid-size coring system ("HIPERCORIG"), the longest core (HIBO19) ever taken in Lake Constance was retrieved with an overall length of 24 m. The sediments recovered consist of a nearly continuous succession of lacustrine silts and sands including more than 12 m of Late Glacial sediment at the base. 14 lithotypes were identified through petrophysical and geochemical analyses. In combination with a ¹⁴ C- and OSL-based age-depth model, the core was divided into three main chronostratigraphic units. The basal age of ~ 13.7 ka BP dates the base of the succession back to the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, with overlying strata representing a complete and thick Younger-Dryas to Holocene succession. The sediments offer a high-resolution insight into the evolution of paleo-Lake Constance from a cold, postglacial to a more productive and warmer Holocene lake. The Late Glacial succession is dominated by massive, m-thick sand beds reflecting episodic sedimentation pulses. They are most likely linked to a subaquatic channel system originating in the river Seefelder Aach, which is, despite the Holocene drape, still apparent in today’s lake bathymetry. The overlying Holocene succession reveals a prominent, several cm-thick, double-turbiditic event layer representing the most distal impact of the Flimser Bergsturz, the largest known rockslide of the Alps that occurred over 100 km upstream the river Rhine at ~ 9.5 ka BP. Furthermore, lithologic variations in the Holocene succession document the varying sediment loads of the river Rhine and the endogenic production representing a multitude of environmental changes.
Background Ceroid lipofuscinoses neuronal 6 (CLN6) disease belongs to the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), complex and genetically heterogeneous disorders with wide geographical and phenotypic variation. The first clinical signs usually appear between 18 months and 8 years, but examples of later-onset have also been reported. Common manifestations include ataxia, seizures, vision impairment, and developmental regression. Because these are shared by other neurological diseases, identification of CLN6 genetic variants is imperative for early diagnosis. Results We present one of the largest cohorts to date of genetically diagnosed CLN6 patients screened at a single center. In total 97 subjects, originating from 20 countries were screened between 2010 and 2020. They comprised 86 late-infantile, eight juvenile, and three adult-onset cases (two patients with Kufs disease type A, and one with teenage progressive myoclonic epilepsy). The male to female ratio was 1.06: 1.00. The age at referral was between six months and 33 years. The time from disease onset to referral ranged from less than 1 month to 8.3 years. The clinical phenotype consisted of a combination of symptoms, as reported before. We characterized a total of 45 distinct variants defining 45 distinct genotypes. Twenty-four were novel variants, some with distinct geographic associations. Remarkably, c.257A > G (p.H86R) was present in five out of 23 unrelated Egyptian individuals but in no patients from other countries. The most common genotype was homozygosity for the c.794_796del in-frame deletion. It was present in about one-third of CLN6 patients (28 unrelated cases, and 2 familial cases), all with late-infantile onset. Variants with a high likelihood of causing loss of CLN6 function were found in 21% of cases and made up 33% of all distinct variants. Forty-four percent of variants were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Conclusions Our study significantly expands the number of published clinical cases and the mutational spectrum of disease-associated CLN6 variants, especially for the Middle Eastern and North African regions. We confirm previous observations regarding the most prevalent symptoms and recommend including CLN6 in the genetic diagnosis of patients presenting with early-onset abnormalities of the nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and eye.
Background Immune cell dysfunction plays a central role in sepsis-associated immune paralysis. The transfusion of healthy donor immune cells, i.e., granulocyte concentrates (GC) potentially induces tissue damage via local effects of neutrophils. Initial clinical trials using standard donor GC in a strictly extracorporeal bioreactor system for treatment of septic shock patients already provided evidence for beneficial effects with fewer side effects, by separating patient and donor immune cells using plasma filters. In this ex vivo study, we demonstrate the functional characteristics of a simplified extracorporeal therapy system using purified granulocyte preparations. Methods Purified GC were used in an immune cell perfusion model prefilled with human donor plasma simulating a 6-h treatment. The extracorporeal circuit consisted of a blood circuit and a plasma circuit with 3 plasma filters (PF). PF1 is separating the plasma from the patient’s blood. Plasma is then perfused through PF2 containing donor immune cells and used in a dead-end mode. The filtrated plasma is finally retransfused to the blood circuit. PF3 is included in the plasma backflow as a redundant safety measure. The donor immune cells are retained in the extracorporeal system and discarded after treatment. Phagocytosis activity, oxidative burst and cell viability as well as cytokine release and metabolic parameters of purified GCs were assessed. Results Cells were viable throughout the study period and exhibited well-preserved functionality and efficient metabolic activity. Course of lactate dehydrogenase and free hemoglobin concentration yielded no indication of cell impairment. The capability of the cells to secret various cytokines was preserved. Of particular interest is equivalence in performance of the cells on day 1 and day 3, demonstrating the sustained shelf life and performance of the immune cells in the purified GCs. Conclusion Results demonstrate the suitability of a simplified extracorporeal system. Furthermore, granulocytes remain viable and highly active during a 6-h treatment even after storage for 3 days supporting the treatment of septic patients with this system in advanced clinical trials.
The triglycerides with the saturated alkyl chains containing 3, 4, and 6 carbon atoms, as renewable energy sources were investigated. Specific energies of combustion were measured by using high-precision combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of combustion and formation were derived from these results. Validation of the new calorific data for triglycerides was performed using the structure-property relationships. The experimental and additive enthalpies of formation for triglycerides measured in this work agree well and could be recommended for the thermochemical calculations for triglyceride technologies.
Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers are substances that store hydrogen by reversible hydrogenation of aromatic compounds. A major advantage is the fact that they enable the safe and dense storage of large amounts of hydrogen. Nitrogen-containing heterocycles, particularly with five-membered rings, have demonstrated the advantage of lower heats of reaction for dehydrogenation compared to homocyclic systems. In this work, 6,7-benzindole and its hydrogenated form, dodecahydro-6,7–benzindole, have been analyzed regarding their thermodynamic properties. The results have been obtained via high-precision combustion calorimetry and accompanied by quantum-chemical calculations to validate the results. The enthalpy of reaction for dehydrogenation has been determined as ΔrHmo(gas) = +348.9 ± 3.5 kJ·mol⁻¹ in the gas phase and ΔrHmo(liq) = +325.7 ± 3.7 kJ·mol⁻¹ in the liquid phase (ΔrHmo(gas) = +58.2 ± 0.6 kJ·molH2–1 and ΔrHmo(liq) = +54.3 ± 0.6 kJ·molH2–1, respectively). This reaction enthalpy is similar to values for other heterocyclic systems like indole and about 11 kJ·molH2–1 lower than that of homocyclic systems, such as perhydro dibenzyl toluene. As a consequence, it can be expected that the temperature needed thermodynamically to enable hydrogen release from dodecahydro-6,7–benzindole will be lower than for the dehydrogenation of perhydro dibenzyl toluene.
The number of people with dementia is increasing worldwide. At the same time, family and professional caregivers' resources are limited. A promising approach to relieve these carers' burden and assist people with dementia is assistive technology. In order to be useful and accepted, such technologies need to respect the values and needs of their intended users. We applied the value sensitive design approach to identify values and needs of patients with dementia and family and professional car-egivers in respect to assistive technologies to assist people with dementia in institutionalized care. Based on semi-structured interviews of residents/patients with cognitive impairment, relatives, and healthcare professionals (10 each), we identified 44 values summarized by 18 core values. From these values, we created a values' network to demonstrate the interplay between the values. The core of this network was caring and empathy as most strongly interacting value. Furthermore, we found 36 needs for assistance belonging to the four action fields of activity, care, management/administration, and nursing. Based on these values and needs for assistance, we created possible use cases for assistive technologies in each of the identified four action fields. All these use cases already are technologically feasible today but are not currently being used in healthcare facilities. This underlines the need for development of value-based technologies to ensure not only technological feasibility but also acceptance and implementation of assistive technologies. Our results help balance conflicting values and provide concrete suggestions for how engineers and designers can incorporate values into assistive technologies.
We describe an experimental concept at the National Ignition Facility for specifically tailored spherical implosions to compress hydrogen to extreme densities (up to ~800x solid density, electron number density n e ~4x10^25 cm^-3) at moderate temperatures (T ~200 eV), i.e., to conditions, which are relevant to the interiors of red dwarf stars. The dense plasma will be probed by laser-generated x-ray radiation of different photon energy to determine the plasma opacity due to collisional (free-free) absorption and Thomson scattering. The obtained results will benchmark radiation transport models, which in the case for free-free absorption show strong deviations at conditions relevant to red dwarfs. This very first experimental test of free-free opacity models at these extreme states will help to constrain where inside those celestial objects energy transport is dominated by radiation or convection. Moreover, our study will inform models for other important processes in dense plasmas, which are based on electron-ion collisions, e.g., stopping of swift ions or electron-ion temperature relaxation.
Objective: To investigate how risk of bias and intervention type modify effect sizes of exercise interventions that are intended to reduce chronic low back pain (LBP) intensity. Design: Systematic review with meta-epidemiologic regression analysis. Literature search: PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, CINAHL (until 31st of January 2021). Study selection criteria: Systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomized controlled exercise trials (RCT). Data synthesis: The dependent variable was pain, calculated as standardised mean difference (SMD). Potential effect modifiers were risk of bias, exercise modes, study, and meta-analyses characteristics. Multilevel meta-regressions and inverse variance-weighted meta-regressions with random intercepts were modelled. Results: Data from 26 systematic reviews (k=347 effect sizes, n=18,879) were analysed. The overall mean effect was SMD:-0.35 (k=347, [95%CI-0.02 to -0.7]). There was a clinically-relevant mean effect was SMD:-0.35 (k=347, [95%CI-0.02 to -0.7]). There was a clinically-relevant 36 overestimation of effect in studies with a high risk of bias due to missing outcomes (each k=197, Beta coefficient=-1.9 [95%CI-2.9 to -.9]) and low sample size (B=0.01 [.001 to .01], (i.e., one participant more leads to an SMD-decrease of 0.01)). There was a clinically-relevant underestimation of effect when studies were at high risk of bias in allocation concealment (B=1.3[.5 to 2.1]) and outcome measurement (B=1.3 [.44 to 2.0]). Motor control and stabilisation training (B=-1.3 [-2.3 to-.37]) had the largest effects; stretching (B=1.3 [-.03 to .5]) had the smallest effect. Conclusion: The effects of exercise trials at high risk of bias may be over- or underestimated. After accounting for risk-of-bias, motor control and stabilisation exercises may represent the most effective exercise therapies for chronic LBP.
Breath analysis was coupled with ergo-spirometry for non-invasive profiling of physio-metabolic status under exhaustive exercise. Real-time mass-spectrometry based continuous analysis of exhaled metabolites along with breath-resolved spirometry and heart rate monitoring were executed while 14 healthy adults performed ergometric ramp exercise protocol until exhaustion. Arterial blood lactate level was analyzed at defined time points. Respiratory-cardiac parameters and exhalation of several blood-borne volatiles changed continuously with the course of exercise and increasing workloads. Exhaled volatiles mirrored ventilatory and/or hemodynamic effects and depended on the origin and/or physicochemical properties of the substances. At the maximum workload, endogenous isoprene, methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, acetaldehyde, butanal, butyric acid and acetone concentrations decreased significantly by 74, 25, 35, 46, 21, 2 and 2%, respectively. Observed trends in exogenous cyclohexadiene and acetonitrile mimicked isoprene profile due to their similar solubility and volatility. Assignment of anaerobic threshold was possible via breath acetone. Breathomics enabled instant profiling of physio-metabolic effects and anaerobic thresholds during exercise. Profiles of exhaled volatiles indicated effects from muscular vasoconstriction, compartmental distribution of perfusion, extra-alveolar gas-exchange and energy homeostasis. Sulfur containing compounds and butyric acid turned out to be interesting for investigations of combined diet and exercise programs. Reproducible metabolic breath patterns have enhanced scopes of breathomics in sports science/medicine.
Bioactive cations, including calcium, copper and magnesium, have shown the potential to become the alternative to protein growth factor-based therapeutics for bone healing. Ion substitutions are less costly, more stable, and more effective at low concentrations. Although they have been shown to be effective in providing bone grafts with more biological functions, the precise control of ion release kinetics is still a challenge. Moreover, the synergistic effect of three or more metal ions on bone regeneration has rarely been studied. In this study, vaterite-calcite CaCO 3 particles were loaded with copper (Cu ²⁺ ) and magnesium (Mg ²⁺ ). The polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) was deposited on CaCuMg-CO 3 particles via layer-by-layer technique to further improve the stability and biocompatibility of the particles and to enable controlled release of multiple metal ions. The PEM coated microcapsules were successfully combined with collagen at the outmost layer, providing a further stimulating microenvironment for bone regeneration. The in vitro release studies showed remarkably stable release of Cu ²⁺ in 2 months without initial burst release. Mg ²⁺ was released in relatively low concentration in the first 7 days. Cell culture studies showed that CaCuMg-PEM-Col microcapsules stimulated cell proliferation, extracellular maturation and mineralization more effectively than blank control and other microcapsules without collagen adsorption (Ca-PEM, CaCu-PEM, CaMg-PEM, CaCuMg-PEM). In addition, the CaCuMg-PEM-Col microcapsules showed positive effects on osteogenesis and angiogenesis in gene expression studies. The results indicate that such a functional and controllable delivery system of multiple bioactive ions might be a safer, simpler and more efficient alternative of protein growth factor-based therapeutics for bone regeneration. It also provides an effective method for functionalizing bone grafts for bone tissue engineering.
Accurate formation of antibody – antigen complexes has been relied on in both, multitudes of scientific projects and ample therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Mass spectrometrically‐determined dissociation behavior of immune complexes with the antiHpTGEKP antibody revealed that the ten most frequently occur­ring phospho‐hexapeptide linker sequences from C2H2 zinc finger proteins could be divided into two classes: orthodox binders, where strong non‐covalent interactions developed as anticipated, and unorthodox binders with deviating structures and weaker binding. Phosphorylation of threonine was compulsory for antibody binding in an orthodox manner. Gas phase dissociation energy determinations of seven C2H2 zinc finger protein linker phospho‐hexapeptides with orthodox binding properties revealed a bipolar binding motif of the antibody´s paratope. Epitope peptides, which in addition to the negatively charged phospho‐threonin residue were C‐terminally flanked by positively charged residues provided stronger binding, i.e. dissociation was endothermic, than peptides with acidic amino acid residues at these positions, for which dissociation was exothermic.
The most important predictors for outcomes after ischemic stroke, that is, for health deterioration and death, are chronological age and stroke severity; gender, genetics and lifestyle/environmental factors also play a role. Of all these, only the latter can be influenced after the event. Recurrent stroke may be prevented by antiaggregant/anticoagulant therapy, angioplasty of high-grade stenoses, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. Blood cell composition and protein biomarkers such as C-reactive protein or interleukins in serum are frequently considered as biomarkers of outcome. Here we aim to provide an up-to-date protein biomarker signature that allows a maximum of mechanistic understanding, to predict health deterioration following stroke. We thus surveyed protein biomarkers that were reported to be predictive for outcome after ischemic stroke, specifically considering biomarkers that predict long-term outcome (≥ 3 months) and that are measured over the first days following the event. We classified the protein biomarkers as immune‑inflammatory, coagulation-related, and adhesion-related biomarkers. Some of these biomarkers are closely related to cellular senescence and, in particular, to the inflammatory processes that can be triggered by senescent cells. Moreover, the processes that underlie inflammation, hypercoagulation and cellular senescence connect stroke to cancer, and biomarkers of cancer-associated thromboembolism, as well as of sarcopenia, overlap strongly with the biomarkers discussed here. Finally, we demonstrate that most of the outcome-predicting protein biomarkers form a close-meshed functional interaction network, suggesting that the outcome after stroke is partially determined by an interplay of molecular processes relating to inflammation, coagulation, cell adhesion and cellular senescence.
In 1985 Borgen and Kowalski published a geometry-based mathematical approach in order to determine the set of feasible solutions of the multivariate curve resolution problem for chemical systems with three species. Twenty years later Rajkó and István devised an algorithm for the analytical derivation of the feasible regions. They showed that the precise boundary of the solution set is piecewise representable in terms of analytical expressions for the boundary curve. This paper generalizes the approach for finding analytical boundary curves by means of duality arguments, provides the precise functional form of the curves in detail, shows how to determine the contact change values and suggests improved analytical expressions which can numerically be evaluated in a stable way. Additionally, it offers detailed instructions for an algorithmic solution and provides the underlying analysis. A program code is presented which generates a piecewise functional representation of the boundary curve.
Background The lower extremity may play a crucial role in compensating for gait perturbations. The study aimed to explore the mechanism of perturbation compensation by investigating the gait characteristics and lower extremity joint moment effects in young (YS) and older subjects (OS) during the first recovery gait following slipping (slipping_Rec1) and stumbling (stumbling_Rec1). Method An automatic perturbation-triggered program was developed using D-Flow software based on the Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab to induce the two aforementioned perturbations. Marker trajectories and ground reaction forces were recorded from 15 healthy YS (age: 26.53 ± 3.04 years; body height: 1.73 ± 0.07 m; body mass: 66.81 ± 11.44 kg) and 15 healthy OS (age: 68.33 ± 3.29 years; body height: 1.76 ± 0.10 m; body mass: 81.13 ± 13.99 kg). The Human Body Model was used to compute the variables of interest. One-way analysis of variance and independent samples t-test statistical analyses were performed. Results In slipping_Rec1 and stumbling_Rec1, the change in gait pattern was mainly reflected in a significant increase in step width, no alterations in step length and stance/swing ratio were revealed. Based on perturbed task specificity, lower extremity joint moments increased or decreased at specific phases of the gait cycle in both YS and OS in slipping_Rec1 and stumbling_Rec1 compared to normal gait. The two perturbed gaits reflected the respective compensatory requirements for the lower extremity joints, with both sagittal and frontal joint moments producing compensatory effects. The aging effect was not reflected in the gait pattern, but rather in the hip extension moment during the initial stance of slipping_Rec1. Conclusions Slipping appears to be more demanding for gait recovery than stumbling. Gait perturbation compensatory mechanisms for OS should concentrate on ankle strategy in the frontal plane and counter-rotation strategy around the hip.
We consider image sets of differentially d-uniform maps of finite fields. We present a lower bound on the image size of such maps and study their preimage distribution. Further, we focus on a particularly interesting case of APN maps on binary fields F2n\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathbb {F}_{2^n}$$\end{document}. We show that APN maps with the minimal image size are very close to being 3-to-1. We prove that for n even the image sets of several important families of APN maps are minimal, and as a consequence they have the classical Walsh spectrum. Finally, we present upper bounds on the image size of APN maps. For a non-bijective almost bent map f, these results imply 2n+13+1≤|Im(f)|≤2n-2(n-1)/2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\frac{2^n+1}{3}+1 \le |{\text {Im}}(f)| \le 2^n-2^{(n-1)/2}$$\end{document}.
We report strong isotope effects for the protic ionic liquid triethylammonium methanesulfonate [TEA][OMs] by means of deuterium solid‐state NMR spectroscopy covering broad temperature ranges from 65 K to 313 K. Both isotopically labelled PILs differ in non‐deuterated and fully deuterated ethyl groups of the triethyl ammonium cations. The N‐D bond of both cations is used as sensitive probe for hydrogen bonding and structural ordering. The 2 H NMR line shape analysis provides the deuteron quadrupole coupling constants and the characteristics of a broad heterogeneous phase with simultaneously present static and mobile states indicating plastic crystal behavior. The temperatures where both states are equally populated differ by about 80 K for the two PILs, showing that deuteration of the ethyl groups in the trialkylammonium cations tremendously shifts the equilibrium towards the static state. In addition, it leads to a significant less cooperative transition, associated with a significantly reduced standard molar transition entropy.
A nonlinear Black–Scholes-type equation is studied within counterparty risk models . The classical hypothesis on the uniform Lipschitz-continuity of the nonlinear reaction function allows for an equivalent transformation of the semilinear Black–Scholes equation into a standard parabolic problem with a monotone nonlinear reaction function and an inhomogeneous linear diffusion equation. This setting allows us to construct a scheme of monotone, increasing or decreasing, iterations that converge monotonically to the true solution. As typically any numerical solution of this problem uses most computational power for computing an approximate solution to the inhomogeneous linear diffusion equation, we discuss also this question and suggest several solution methods, including those based on Monte Carlo and finite differences/elements.
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• Institute of Computer Science
• Institut für Nachrichtentechnik
• Organic Chemistry
• Institute of Electronic Appliances and Circuits
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