Background Adherence to inhaler medication is an important contributor to optimum asthma control along with adequate pharmacotherapy. The objective of the present study was to assess self-reported adherence levels and to identify the potential factors associated with non-adherence to the inhalers among asthma patients. Methods This facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the medicine outpatient department of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital from November 2020 to January 2021. A total of 357 clinically confirmed adult asthma patients were interviewed. Inhaler adherence was measured using the 10-item Test of Adherence scale (TAI).. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to express the socio-demographic of the patients and predictors of poor adherence to inhaler. Results A substantial number of participants were non-adherent (86%) to inhaler medication. Patients non-adherent to inhaler medication are often younger (23.15, 95% CI 3.67–146.08), lived in the rural area (23.28, 95% CI 2.43–222.66), less year of schooling (5.69, 95% CI 1.27–25.44), and belonged to the middle income (aOR 9.74, 95% CI 2.11–44.9) than those adherent with the inhaler. The presence of comorbidities (12.91, 95% CI 1.41–117.61), prolonged duration of inhaler intake (5.69, 95% CI 1.22–26.49), consulting non-qualified practitioners (13.09, 95% CI 3.10–55.26) were the significant contributor of non-adherence. Conclusion Despite ongoing motivation and treatment, non-adherence to inhalation anti-asthmatic is high and several factors have been found to contribute. Regular monitoring and a guided patient-centered self-management approach might be helpful to address them in long run.
Dispersive wave propagations are described by nonlinear models, such as regularized long waves and modified regularized long waves, where nonlinearity and dispersion are important aspects of wave evolution to model long-wave propagation in dispersive media with small amplitudes. In this article, solitary wave solutions to the formerly indicated nonlinear equations are computed as exponential, hyperbolic, and trigonometric structures and their integration by balancing the steeping and dispersion terms of the highest order, and different classes of definitive localized coherent structures with their interaction properties, such as soliton solutions, are extracted by assigning appropriate functions. We have also investigated the impact of steeping and wave spread on waveforms. The wave solutions are assessed using the enhanced modified simple equation approach, which organizes the soliton solutions based on the features of the dispersive interconnections with the nonlinear cubic and quadratic characters that exist in the equations. The consistent 3D and 2D soliton configurations show that the wave profile is modulated by the wave velocity function and the parameters associated with it, and most of the modulation is due to linear effects.
Background Crude ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem of Physalis minima (Solanaceae) were evaluated for in vitro anthelmintic activity on the Bangladeshi mature parasitic flatworm Paramphistomum cervi ( Trematoda ) in cattle. To compare the test results, Albendazole was used as a standard drug. Methods A leaves and stem extract of the P. minima was prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as a solvent. After concentrating in a vacuum rotary evaporator, the extract was analyzed for phytochemical activities. In vitro anthelmintic activity was tested against the flat worm P. cervi. Results The results of anthelmintic activity of P. minima were evaluated by paralysis instead of taking as of the paralysis time and death time of the flatworm. The study concluded that the ethanolic leaves and stem extracts of P. minima had anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent inhibition of spontaneous motility of flatworm. From the screening experiment, the crude extracts showed the best anthelmintic activity. Furthermore, our phytochemical studies point out that ethanolic extract of the leaves and stem of P. minima contains flavonoids, phenols alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, steroids, proteins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusions The studies of total phenolic and flavonoids content were quantified for all parts of the plant. The results of the present study suggest that P. minima extracts are a promising alternative to the commercially available anthelmintics for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. Further research is required to confirm the possibility of the antimicrobial and antiproliferative applications.
Shallow water waves are one of the most prominent and widely used waves in coastal areas. The anomalous bi-directional transmission of long waves over shallow water is described by the nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (NLFPDEs), namely space-time-fractional coupled Whitham-Broer-Kaup (WBK) and coupled approximate long water (ALW) wave equations. To achieve new analytical solutions, the enhanced extended tanh-function technique for the mentioned fractional equations in the sense of conformable derivative is used. Some well-known wave shapes of solitons, namely, kink, bell-shape, and other types, through the suggested technique are achieved, and the 3D, contour, list point plots, and vector plots of the solutions are sketched to further illustrate the wave profile. The results achieved in this study have been validated using the computational software Maple and found to be accurate. It is observed that the method is realistic, and dependable to investigate more generalized analytical wave solutions.
The performance parameters of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) solar cell with antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) hole transport layer (HTL) have been studied by One Dimension Solar Capacitance Simulator software program (SCAPS-1D). The detailed numerical analysis of the influence of band alignment, defect density, absorber layer thickness, electron affinity of HTL on open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (ɳ) have been investigated. The impact of interface defect density at Sb2S3/MoS2 and CdS/MoS2 has also been analyzed. The insertion of Sb2S3 HTL into the newly designed hetero-structure (Al/FTO/CdS/MoS2/Sb2S3/Ni) solar cell enhances Voc, and ɳ by creating appropriate band alignment as well as reducing recombination loss at rear surface. The effects of surface recombination velocity, shunt and series resistance, temperature on photovoltaic efficiency parameters have also been investigated. The determined value of ɳ is 27.96% along with Voc of 0.92 V, Jsc of 35.20 mA/cm² and FF of 85.51% at 1.0 μm optimized thickness of MoS2 with doping density 1 × 10¹⁵ cm⁻². These results may provide an insightful approach to fabricate low cost and superior performance solar cells with the Sb2S3 HTL layer.
In this work, we theoretically investigate the dynamic behaviors of multiple-solitons, such as single-, two-, three solitons etc. that propagate in a magnetized dusty plasma while the plasma system comprises moving inertial ions, Maxwellian distributed electrons and positrons, and stationary negatively charged dust particles. We examine the multiple-soliton solutions of the KdV equation in order to discuss the time evolution of multiple-solitons and the parametric effects on the soliton profiles. The reductive perturbation approach is exploited to extract the KdV equation. The simplified Hirota method (SHM) and the Cole-Hopf transformation (CHT) are applied to construct the multiple-soliton solutions of the equation. We observe that the magnetic field has a decreasing effect on the multiple-solitons' amplitudes and widths, whereas the dust particle concentration and obliquity angle have an increasing effect.
Several water quality indices exist to evaluate irrigation water quality (IWQ), but they have some limitations. This study attempted to develop a new Overall Irrigation Water Quality Index (Overall IWQIndex) using a rational subindex that is flexible enough and updated to signify irrigation water suitability. It considered the maximum verified desirable and permissible value of parameters, including the hazard class, a modified rating system of parameters in each hazard class, and diversified water parameters that have affected the soil and plants. A total of 40 calcite‐type groundwater samples were analyzed to evaluate the IWQ using the proposed Overall IWQIndex, some IWQ parameters, and different diagram‐based statistical methods. The study results were correlated with each other critically, and finally, the suitability for IWQ was determined. The results revealed that the samples of the postmonsoon and premonsoon felt under the ‘good’ and ‘excellent’ categories, respectively. The study developed an indexing model that is easy to compute, rationalize and deliver accurate information on the suitability of irrigation water. This study attempted to develop a new Overall Irrigation Water Quality Index (Overall IWQIndex) using a rational subindex that is flexible enough and updated to signify irrigation water suitability. The study results were correlated with each other critically, and finally, the suitability for irrigation water quality was determined. The study developed an indexing model that is easy to compute, rationalize, and deliver accurate information of the suitability of irrigation water.
The Kawahara equation (KE) and the modified Kawahara equation (MKE) are important modeling equations to interpret shallow water waves with surface tension, magneto-acoustic wave in plasma and gravity waves. In this study, the stable broad-ranging soliton solutions including the well-known bell-shape soliton, anti-bell shape soliton, periodic soliton, compacton, kink, etc. are established through the sine-Gordon expansion (SGE) method. The effect of the physical parameters, namely the dispersion and perturbed dispersive coefficients in the surface elevation are shown through the figure. The surface elevations remain ascertainable for diverse values of the physical and the associated free parameters. The 3D and contour plot of the ascertained solutions clarifies the surface wave properties. The achieved results for each modeling equation provide a significant contribution in analyzing the ion-acoustic waves in plasma, gravity waves, the surface waves in shallow water. This study asserts that the SGE method is reliable, competent, easy and powerful for extracting closed form soliton solutions.
COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating effect on the global food production system. Large-scale food producing countries restricted exports for food sovereignty, while small and import-dependent countries are at risk. After COVID-19 pandemic, integrated and planned action is necessary to overcome this global stalemate. In this review paper, we have tried to show the damage caused to global agriculture as well as in Bangladesh due to COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, the prospects and tasks of Bangladesh in the post-pandemic global economy have also been discussed. Due to the middlemen-based marketing system in Bangladesh, farmers have been deprived of their profits from the early period. The government should move forward with a long-term planning to find alternative food market such as processing and export alongside the one-way marketing system. On the other hand, it will benefit the farmers’ community of Bangladesh, as well as ensure global food security after this pandemic.
In the present study, the performance parameters of GaAsN dilute nitride-based semiconductor solar cell with and without AlGaAs blocking layers have been investigated in detail by Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in one dimensional software program (SCAPS-1D). The thickness of absorber, buffer, and blocking layers are varied to achieve the improvement of open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, efficiency and also to optimize the device structure. The impact of doping and defect densities on the solar cell performance parameters have been analyzed minutely inside the absorber, buffer, and blocking layers. The solar cell thermal stability parameters are also investigated in the temperature region from 273K to 373K. The efficiency of 43.90% and 40.05% are obtained from the proposed solar cells with and without AlGaAs blocking layer, respectively. The present findings may provide insightful approach for fabricating feasible, cost effective, and efficient dilute nitride solar cell.
Nonlinear models of fractional order have elaborately been taken place in the research field for their importance bearing the significant roles to depict the interior mechanisms of complicated phenomena belonging to the nature. This present exploration deals with the competent approach namely rational (G′/G)-expansion scheme to extract accurate wave solutions of two arbitrary order nonlinear Schrodinger models. The implementation of the advised technique combining with Cole–Hopf transformation purvey a heap of wave solutions in appropriate form. The achieved solutions are presented graphically in contour shape as well as in three- and two-dimensional frames. The wave structures in various profiles such as periodic, kink, anti-kink, bell, anti-bell, compacton etc. are appeared. The gained solutions are compared with the previous established results to exhibit diversity and novelty. The governing models are interesting and significant as they are related to logarithm law, Kerr law media, saturable law, triple-power law, dual-power law, power law and polynomial law.
This article proposes an integrated farming approach, namely environment-smart agriculture (ESA) that determines the climate-resilience potential of a farm. A composite index is formulated including various environment-smart agricultural practices (IEP) that focus on the five most affected target areas of farm environment and climate. The IEP is then validated by analysing the on-farm environmental impact and farmers’ behaviours in the underlying theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework. The TPB components, attitude and subjective norm are defined by the index of benefits from the ESA, and the index of experienced climate change conditions respectively, while perceived control corresponds to the index of constraints in adopting ESA and farm-specific agro-economic and socio-economic attributes. The empirical testing employed a structural equations model (SEM) to estimate the proposed IEP on a sample of 103 farms in two north-western districts of Bangladesh. Results demonstrate that the adoption of integrated ESA practices mitigates post-harvest environmental problems and helps cope with existing climate change conditions. Therefore, farm-level investment in ESA practices, i.e., the use of corrective, preventive, and local standard measures in an integrated way will contribute to the climate-resilience potential of a farm.
The hybrid microgrid (HMG) is an arrangement that empowers society to use renewable energy sources (RESs) in the power grid. It uses a common DC bus to operate various loads, utility grids and RESs interfaced with the power converters. The effective operation of the HMG relies on the transient response of the DC bus as well as the stability of the system state that may change due to the stochastic behavior of RESs and integration of several industrial loads. Thus, the HMG requires a control strategy to stabilize its efficiency against such variations. This work is motivated to develop a two-level decentralized control strategy consisting of a nonlinear and linear control scheme to augment the transient stability and tracking performance of an HMG. Firstly, a nonlinear partial feedback linearization control framework combined with a PI regulator (PFLC-PI) is designed for the DC-DC converter used with RESs and battery to enhance the transient stability of common bus. This is done by considering the DC bus voltage as the feedback element for the PFLC-PI and its control capability is tested via the regulation of DC bus voltage against the changes of meteorological factors of RESs. Secondly, a linear unified controller (UC) is developed to guarantee the constant load voltages over the several industrial loads via the control of a load-side inverter. The design of the UC is structured by adding two different controllers named integral and linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller and its effectiveness is measured by varying the industrial loads parameters associated with single- and three-phase load networks. The obtained results using the UC are then compared with the existing controllers to guarantee the augmented performance of proposed controller. Additionally, an external parametric uncertainty is intentionally added to the single-phase load network dynamics and studied to ensure the robustness of the controller.
Primary production is a key marine ecosystem driver in the Bay of Bengal and is important for the societies and economies of the surrounding countries. Although the availability of inorganic nutrients is known to control primary production in this region, the specific nutrient sources that affect primary production in different parts of the bay have not been identified. In this study, we assess the importance of nutrients from different sources in determining chlorophyll-a concentration, an indicator of primary production, in the Bay of Bengal by conducting multiple linear regression of satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentration, sea surface height anomaly, and sea surface temperature; modelled dust deposition; and in situ river discharge from 1997 to 2016. River-borne nutrients were important up to approximately 200 km from the coast. Deep-ocean nutrients influenced chlorophyll-a concentrations mainly in the south-western and western bay, whereas wind-borne nutrients were more important in the central and eastern bay. Any attempt to understand the impact of nutrients from a certain source should also consider the potential impacts of other nutrient sources. Although climate impacts on chlorophyll-a concentrations through river discharge were observed in our study, future studies should investigate climate-change impacts through atmospheric aerosols and mesoscale eddies.
Rare earth oxides (REOs) and metals as an important class of materials have generated global interest in modern technology. Here, eight REOs (R2O3, R = Yb, Er, Sm, Eu, Y, Gd, Dy, and Ce) are identified those are mostly used in diverse chemical and industrial sectors. In this concise review the applications of these REOs in corrosion protection, thermal barrier coating, hydrophobic coating, catalytic reactions, refrigeration, photoactivity, environmental, and tribological sector are briefly summarized, which are sparsely documented in the existing literature review. In what follows, recently published relevant literature is systematically evaluated and key insights are addressed. The use of REOs as nonstoichiometric compounds or as doping agents to enhance the system performance of specific applications is commendable. Related lab-scale studies, therefore, will invoke the potential exploitation of individual or blended REOs for large-scale commercialization. However, phase transformation and high energy consumption in the thermal coating, multi-step fabrication of hydrophobic coating, the building of aromatic pollutants in catalysis, magnetic entropy shift in refrigeration, and photo corrosion are some of the inherent hindrances of these oxides. These issues warrant prompt actions from the scientific community to deliver cost-effective, efficient, and environmentally sustainable applications. Regardless, this review is expected to provide critical insights into REOs for contrasting industrial applications and encourage interested researchers to dig deeper in finding the best strategic solutions to counter prevalent challenges.
This paper seeks to determine, explore and examine the factors affecting the job satisfaction of private commercial bank-employees in Bangladesh. A qualitative research design was employed to collect data from bank employees (n = 5) through in-depth semi-structured interviews and a focus group discussion (n=5). For the validity and reliability of the tool, the interview protocol was checked, discussed, refined and finalized. A thematic analysis was used to extract themes and subthemes that identifies the influ-encing factors for job satisfaction of private commercial bank employees and their attitudes towards satisfaction. Overall, the findings show that, employees have positive attitudes about their job because of enjoying some determinants of job satisfaction such as working environment, interpersonal relation-ship, financial remuneration, promotion and training and development facilities. The study discusses practical implications as well as future research direction. Therefore, it can be concluded that the re-spective bank authorities should be of highly concerned as to increase the values/standards of the job satisfaction determinants which have positive impact on the overall job satisfaction.
Regulation of oxidative stress towards origin of favorable internal redox cue plays a decisive role in salinity stress acclimation and least studied in rice and hence is the subject of present investigation. Redox landscaping of seedlings of ten experimental land races of rice of coastal Bangladesh grown under post imbibitional salinity stress (PISS) has been done through characterization of ROS-antioxidant interaction dynamics at metabolic interface, transcriptional reprogramming of redox-regulatory genes along with the assessment of biomarkers of oxidative threat for standardizing redox strategies and quality parameters for screening. The results exhibited a strong correlation between salinity induced redox status (pro-oxidant/antioxidant ratio, efficacy of H2O2 turnover through integrated RboH-Ascorbate–Glutathione/Catalase pathway and estimation of sensitive redox biomarkers of oxidative deterioration) and germination phenotypes of all landraces of rice. Transcript abundance of the marker genes of the enzymes associated with central antioxidant hub for H2O2 processing (CatA, OsAPx2, SodCc2, GRase and RboH) of all experimental landraces of the rice advocate the central role of H2O2 turnover dynamics in regulating redox status and salinity tolerance. Landraces suffering greater loss of abilities of decisive regulation of H2O2 turnover dynamics exhibited threat on the oxidative windows of the germinating seeds under salinity.
The phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and anti-cancer activities of Leucas indica bark extract in methanol were evaluated. Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity while antioxidant capability was determined by DPPH and H2O2 free radical scavenging assay. Cell growth inhibition was estimated through hemocytometric cell counting after 5 d of treatment using EAC cells in in vivo mice model. This inhibition was due to the induction of apoptosis observed through fluorescence microscopy. The extract showed anticancer activity against EAC cells with 58.27% cell growth inhibition at 100 mg kg−1 b.w. Morphological alterations identified demonstrated apoptosis induction supported by intracellular ROS generation and DNA fragmentation.
The present study investigates the impact of macroeconomic factors on the performance of banks in Bangladesh. The study analyzed 35 commercial banks consisting of both Islamic and conventional banks in Bangladesh from 2015 to 2020. The data was analyzed using the random effect regression model. Return on assets (ROA) is the dependent variable while macroeconomic variables such as GDP growth (GDPG), inflation (INF), and unemployment (UNEP) are the independent variables. The regression results showed that GDP growth and unemployment rate have a significant impact on the return on assets for banks in Bangladesh banks. There was no significant impact between inflation and return on assets.
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have captured the attention of the global energy research community in recent years by showing an exponential augmentation in their performance and stability. The supremacy of the light-harvesting efficiency and wider band gap of perovskite sensitizers have led to these devices being compared with the most outstanding rival silicon-based solar cells. Nevertheless, there are some issues such as their poor lifetime stability, considerable J–V hysteresis, and the toxicity of the conventional constituent materials which restrict their prevalence in the marketplace. The poor stability of PSCs with regard to humidity, UV radiation, oxygen and heat especially limits their industrial application. This review focuses on the in-depth studies of different direct and indirect parameters of PSC device instability. The mechanism for device degradation for several parameters and the complementary materials showing promising results are systematically analyzed. The main objective of this work is to review the effectual strategies of enhancing the stability of PSCs. Several important factors such as material engineering, novel device structure design, hole-transporting materials (HTMs), electron-transporting materials (ETMs), electrode materials preparation, and encapsulation methods that need to be taken care of in order to improve the stability of PSCs are discussed extensively. Conclusively, this review discusses some opportunities for the commercialization of PSCs with high efficiency and stability.
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Rajshahi University, 6205, Rājshāhi, Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh
Head of institution
Professor Golam Shabbir Sattar, Vice-Chancellor
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