University of Portsmouth
  • Portsmouth, Hampshire, United Kingdom
Recent publications
Introduction The demographic shift in the age profile of the UK is well established. Older people have more complex requirements to maintain their oral health. Objectives This research explored Gerodontology with influential and recognised UK experts in Dental Public Health, Dental Education and Gerodontology. Three main topics were explored: the dental challenges associated with the ageing population, the role of dental care professionals (DCPs) and the training of undergraduate dental professionals. Methods Quantitative data from the literature were used to develop a topic guide for semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of nine participants. Initial analysis of the qualitative data was undertaken using NVivo V12 software and themes were identified. Final themes and subthemes were confirmed after a series of remote round table discussions. Results Four themes and 14 subthemes were identified. These included disagreements and agreements, the challenges of providing dental care to the older adult population, and the delivery of dental care by the dental team and finally education. All participants had significant concerns about the oral and dental challenges of the older population. Conclusions The themes that emerged were complex and overlapping. Better utilisation of all members of the dental workforce was reported to be an essential approach, as was reorientation of existing care models with a focus on prevention. Regarding undergraduate education, the consensus was that the training was not adequate for both current and future needs.
Expert performers in fast-ball and combat sports continuously interact with their opponents and, if they are to be successful, adapt behaviour in order to gain an advantage . For example, disguise and deception are recognised as skilful behaviours that are employed to disrupt an opponent’s ability to successfully anticipate their actions. We contend that such skilled behaviour unfolds during the interaction between opposing players, yet typical research approaches omit and/or artificially script these interactions. To promote the study of skilled behaviour as it emerges during competitive interactions, we offer an account informed by contemporary ecological perspectives for shaping investigation into how deception and disguise can be used to gain an advantage over an opponent and the challenges it poses to anticipation. We propose that each player attempts to develop maximum grip on the interaction through exploiting information across multiple timescales to position themselves as to facilitate openness to relevant affordances. The act of deception can be understood as offering a misleading affordance that an opponent is invited to act on, imposing a significant challenge to an opponent’s ability to attain grip by manipulating the information available. Grounded in our ecological perspective, we emphasise the need for future investigation into: (1) the role of disguise for disrupting anticipation; (2) how deception can be employed to gain an advantage by manipulating information on multiple timescales, before detailing; (3) how opposing performers go beyond merely exploiting information and actively elicit information to deal with deception and disguise during an interaction.
Background Keel flowers are bilaterally symmetrical, pentamerous flowers with three different petal types and reproductive organs enclosed by keel petals; generally there is also connation of floral parts such as stamens and keel petals. In this study, the evolution of keel flowers within the order Fabales is explored to investigate whether the establishment of this flower type within one of the species-rich families, the Fabaceae (Leguminosae), preceded and could have influenced the evolution of keel flowers in the Polygalaceae. We conducted molecular dating, and ancestral area and ancestral state analyses for a phylogeny constructed for 678 taxa using published matK , rbcL and trnL plastid gene regions. Results We reveal the temporal and spatial origins of keel flowers and traits associated with pollinators, specifically floral symmetry, the presence or absence of a pentamerous corolla and three distinct petal types, the presence or absence of enclosed reproductive organs, androecium types, inflorescence types, inflorescence size, flower size, plant height and habit. Ancestral area reconstructions show that at the time keel flowers appeared in the Polygaleae, subfamily Papilionoideae of the Fabaceae was already distributed almost globally; at least eight clades of the Papilionoideae had keel flowers with a functional morphology broadly similar to the morphology of the first evolving Polygaleae flowers. Conclusions The multiple origins of keel flowers within angiosperms likely represent convergence due to bee specialization, and therefore pollinator pressure. In the case of the Fabales, the first evolving keel flowers of Polygaleae have a functional morphology that corresponds with keel flowers of species of the Papilionoideae already present in the environment. These findings are consistent with the keel-flowered Polygaleae exploiting pollinators of keel-flowered Papilionoideae. The current study is the first to use ancestral reconstructions of traits associated with pollination to demonstrate that the multiple evolutionary origins of the keel flower pollinator syndrome in Fabales are consistent with, though do not prove, mimicry.
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundamental physics where LISA observations of gravitational waves can be expected to provide key input. We provide the briefest of reviews to then delineate avenues for future research directions and to discuss connections between this working group, other working groups and the consortium work package teams. These connections must be developed for LISA to live up to its science potential in these areas.
Increasingly, researchers are putting their efforts into understanding more about self-made products (e.g. reasons for purchasing these type of products). Nevertheless, it remains poorly understood as to how to effectively promote such products. Understanding whether using emotions (e.g. gratitude) in an advertisement may increase the effectiveness of advertising is still open to debate. Based on the cognitive theory of emotions, in the present study, the effect of emotional appeals on purchase intentions is explored through three experiments. Study 1 examines the effect of gratitude (vs. no-appeal) on consumer's click through behavior for self-made products. The results show that gratitude appeal poses a stronger effect on consumers' click through behavior for self-made products as opposed to no appeal. Study 2 provides further evidence of the gratitude effect (versus happiness, no-appeal) on purchase intention for self-made products in comparison to pre-made ones. Finally, Study 3 establishes desire to put in more effort as an underpinning mechanism for gratitude appeal and adds level of effort as a moderator. The findings suggest that marketers should incorporate gratitude appeal into their advertisements to increase consumers' purchase intentions by stimulating the desire to put in more effort.
Personality traits are robust predictors of the likelihood of involvement in criminal behaviour, but how such traits predict behaviour while committing a crime is unclear. This study investigates associations between HEXACO personality traits and burglars' scouting process, as well as how burglars differ in this respect from non-offenders due to their unique burglary expertise. In a virtual reality experiment, 181 incarcerated burglars and 172 non-offenders (university students) were asked to scout two virtual neighbourhoods for potential targets. For burglars, two main findings were observed: (1) lower honesty-humility was associated with increased perceived neighbourhood deterrence and the perceived likelihood of residents intervening, and (2) higher honesty-humility and self-control, but lower conscientiousness were all associated with taking less time scouting and travelling less distance in the virtual neighbourhood as well as target selection (e.g., selecting corner houses). For non-offenders, only extraversion emerged as a trait associated with increased efficiency in scouting the neighbourhood. We conclude that honesty-humility, conscientiousness, and self-control are primarily associated with the burglar scouting process, and suggest that burglary expertise is key to explaining why these effects were only observed for burglars rather than non-offenders.
We lack an in-depth understanding of how the different roles played by public innovation intermediaries during their engagement in collaborative projects enable them to generate ambidexterity. By adopting a sequential mixed methods research design to gather data from 122 Research and Technology Organizations (RTOs) operating in Europe, the findings suggest that public innovation intermediaries performed two different roles in collaborative projects namely, knowledge integration and network building, and these have a differential impact on the generation of distinct types of in-house innovation. The knowledge integration role is conducive to exploratory innovation, whereas the network building role contributes to exploitative innovation. Importantly, relational, and internal capabilities mediate between these roles and innovation. Yet, this mediation effect varies depending on the nature of the public innovation intermediary’s role and innovation profile. How public innovation intermediaries should utilise their key roles to generate in-house ambidexterity is crucial in leveraging the impact of public funding in this area.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a call to action for governments, companies and communities to rebalance the relationship between the economy, the environment and society. Although companies represent a vital partner in achieving the SDGs, the discussion about the involvement of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in such goals is scarce. Drawing upon the ‘powercube’ approach, this research investigates what sustainable development means to SMEs, how they view the SDGs and why they engage – or do not engage – with such goals. Sixteen face-to-face interviews were conducted within rural and urban locations in the UK. The results show that although SMEs are interested in sustainable development, power dynamics impede their understanding and implementation of SDGs guidelines. This research offers to SME managers actionable insights on SDGs' implementation strategies and it provides a research agenda on how institutions and stakeholders can facilitate SMEs adoption of SDGs.
Small pelagic fish (SPF) are among the most traded fishery products in small-scale fishing in coastal areas in low-income countries. Small-scale fisheries play a key role in the supply of fish products and form an integral component of the world’s fish production. However, due to post-harvest losses, distribution, and marketing issues, most SPFs struggle to increase the market value of their fishery products. We examined the current flow of small pelagic fish products, benefit distribution, trade relationships and quality issues in the small-scale fisheries in Ghana. The purpose of the assessment was to provide relevant information for future management strategies aimed at promoting sustainable fisheries while also ensuring fisherfolk received a higher proportion of the market value of their harvest. A mixed-method approach, involving questionnaire administration, direct observation and secondary data from the Fisheries Scientific Survey Division of the Fisheries Commission of Ghana was used to elicit information and data from actors along the SPF value chain. The pattern of the value chain was mapped and differences in profit analysed. From this analysis, fisherfolk made lower profit than fish processors and traders. We found that all actors received lower profit during the peak season relative to the lean season. Provision of post-harvest facilities, credit facilities and improved value-chain governance could increase efficiency and increase the income of fisherfolk.
The global economy today is working towards neutralizing greenhouse gas emissions which has been viciously polluted the ecosystem beyond many expectations. Therefore, this study probes how regulatory quality and green innovations intermediate among disintegrated energy resources (renewable, nuclear, and nonrenewable energy), structural change, and financial development to promote environmental sustainability in BRICS. The study relies on recent econometric procedures such as second generation unit root and cointegration tests, homogeneity tests, and cross-sectional autoregressive distributed lag (CS-ARDL) estimation technique using data from 1996 to 2019. The results show how the interventions of regulatory quality and green innovations enhance the effects of other regressors to substantially moderate the surge in GHG emissions. Among others, renewable energy, nuclear energy, and structural change provide adequate support for achieving environmental sustainability in the presence of the two mediating variables. In contrast, nonrenewable energy and financial development serve as setbacks in the pursuance of sustainable environment. In addition, robustness checks based on common correlated effects mean group, augmented mean group and quantile regression estimators provide support to show persistence in the CS-ARDL results. Practicable policies enhance the pathway to carbon free environment are suggested for the BRICS economies.
Ambiguity in communicative signals may lead to misunderstandings and thus reduce the effectiveness of communication, especially in unpredictable interactions such as between closely matched rivals or those with a weak social bond. Therefore, signals used in these circumstances should be less ambiguous, more stereotyped and more intense. To test this prediction, we measured facial movements of crested macaques ( Macaca nigra ) during spontaneous social interaction, using the Facial Action Coding System for macaques (MaqFACS). We used linear mixed models to assess whether facial movement intensity and variability varied according to the interaction outcome, the individuals' dominance relationship and their social bond. Movements were least intense and most variable in affiliative contexts, and more intense in interactions between individuals who were closely matched in terms of dominance rating. We found no effect of social bond strength. Our findings provide evidence for a reduction in ambiguity of facial behaviour in risky social situations but do not demonstrate any mitigating effect of social relationship quality. The results indicate that the ability to modify communicative signals may play an important role in navigating complex primate social interactions. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates’.
Array transducers are commonly used to generate several types of waves, such as ultrasonic guided waves. They consist of a series of periodic wave source elements, and thus define a nominal or dominant wavelength of generated waves. A common approach to generating waves in a single direction is to use two identical wave sources, or two arrays of sources forming a dual-array transducer, that are separated by a quarter wavelength. Then, one source is activated a quarter of a time period after the other. In this way, constructive interference arises in one direction, whilst destructive interference arises in the opposite direction, making the total wave source unidirectional. This principle assumes that the frequency content of the generated wave is monochromatic. When there is some frequency bandwidth to the wave generated, such as with finite-length pulses, one cannot satisfy simultaneously constructive and destructive interference in opposite directions with dual-array transducers. For a non-dispersive wave mode, ideal destructive interference for pulsed waveform is obtained if one of the sources is inverted relative to the other, so that, in theory, complete cancellation can be achieved. Moreover, most guided wave modes are dispersive, meaning that, different frequencies propagate at different phase speeds. This limits the amount of wave cancellation in one direction and constructive interference in the other. Here, we describe the operation of the dual-array transducer in the frequency–wavenumber domain and use it to propose two new excitation methods, based on a frequency-dependent phase-shift strategy, that is designed through the dispersion relationship of the wave mode of interest. These provide ideal constructive or destructive interferences for dispersive waves, and achieve optimal unidirectional generation behaviour for dispersive wave modes. The new methods were experimentally assessed with shear horizontal ultrasonic waves, generated by a dual periodic permanent magnet electromagnet acoustic transducer. The optimal excitation signal yielded up to 30 dB unidirectionality, when generating the dispersive SH1 wave mode in an aluminium plate.
CO2 molecular diffusion in underground reservoir fluids, quantified by diffusion (D) coefficient, is of great importance for CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. The reported CO2 D coefficients values are uncertain due to difficulty of accurately measuring this parameter specifically at high pressure-high temperature conditions. Hence, this study aims to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the value of CO2 D coefficient on both oil recovery and CO2 storage during intermittent CO2 assisted gravity drainage (CO2-GAGD) injection in oil reservoirs. The impact of the CO2 diffusion on oil compositional changes and fluid distribution in porous medium was also investigated here. To do so, using data from a Malaysian oil field, a tuned equation of state along with a composition simulation model were used to emphasis on the effect of diffusion during the intermittent CO2-GAGD process. The effects of reservoir permeability, reservoir porosity, injection rate, and soaking time on oil recovery and gas storage were tested across different values of CO2 D coefficient. Including the gas diffusion in the simulation resulted in enhancement of the gas penetration though the porous medium leading to the enhanced oil recovery especially at the final soaking-injection/production cycles of the intermitted CO2 injection. The lowest impact of the uncertainty in the CO2 D coefficient on the oil recovery and gas storage efficiency was found in the high permeability case. Additionally, decreasing the gas injection rate or increasing the soaking time magnified the impact of the uncertainty of the CO2 D coefficient. Furthermore, the CO2 storage efficiency was found to be highly sensitive to the changes in the D coefficient in the high porosity case. To verify the results, the obtained simulation results were compared and found to be consistent with previous findings reported in the literature. This study adds accuracy to predicting CO2 EOR and storage projects through understanding the uncertainty of molecular diffusivity.
Rhino rays, such as guitarfishes, are increasingly targeted or retained as incidental catch and have become an economically important component in fisheries worldwide. Despite their importance, information about the catch and socioeconomics of these fisheries are virtually non-existent in West Africa. We address a significant knowledge gap about the characteristics and drivers of guitarfish fisheries in four key ray-fishing communities in the Western and Central Regions in Ghana. We conducted landing and market surveys of guitarfishes over 80 days from November 2020 to August 2021. We also interviewed 51 fishers actively involved in the guitarfish fishery across the four communities during this period using semi-structured interviews. The findings confirm the likely disappearance of sawfishes Pristis spp., as most fishers have not captured any in their lifetime. We also confirm no known catches of the African wedgefish Rhynchobatus luebberti. Our surveys documented 537 individuals from four guitarfish species across the various landing and market sites. The spineback guitarfish (Rhinobatos irvinei) was the most frequently landed species comprising 71 % (n = 383) of all guitarfishes, with 57 % of the specimens not yet sexually mature. Most fishers (71 %) stated that catches of the two larger guitarfishes (blackchin guitarfish Glaucostegus cemiculus and common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos) have declined by 80–90 % based on their recollection. At the same time, over half (59 %) of the fishers indicated that the catches of the smaller guitarfishes (spineback guitarfish and whitespotted guitarfish Rhinobatos albomaculatus) have declined by 40–60 %. The main drivers for the catch or retention of guitarfishes were for both international trade of their fins, and meat which are both traded locally (45 % of 51 fishers) and used as a source of food for local consumption (37 %). While we know high economic value drives the catch and trade of giant guitarfishes and wedgefishes, we show that this trade extends to the other guitarfish species. The interviews and contemporary pattern of catches are consistent with a serial depletion of rhino rays from the largest, most valuable species to the remaining smaller-bodied, less valuable guitarfishes. We recommend the development of national regulations for their protection complemented by education programs to ensure that fishers are aware of the threatened status of guitarfishes.
This paper identifies the effect of Mauritian regulation changes on EU industrial vessels' fishing activities and their implications for food security. The rich resources of Mauritanian waters have historically been utilized by large foreign trawlers, creating small ripple effects and jobs in Mauritania. However, in 2012, Mauritanian authorities introduced new restrictive access conditions; a 20 nautical mile limit and an obligation to land fish caught in this area in Mauritania, so as the national fishing industry to play a more important role. This resulted in significant changes to vessel fishing strategies and distribution channels. For instance, EU vessels that had supplied markets in the Gulf of Guinea, providing a low-cost source of protein to populations, were now unable to exploit the important sardinella resources that migrate along the coast for such purposes. Instead, these resources are now harvested by Turkish coastal vessels, supplying a very recent large fishmeal and oil industry based in Mauritania. Large quantities of small pelagics have thus been redirected from being valuable food products to creating fishmeal aimed at non-human uses. Moreover, this change has put the small pelagics stocks under pressure and most species are currently overexploited. Mauritania, under its current 2021-25 policy, is presently implementing measures to develop a fish processing industry aimed at human consumption, to which European vessels can supply fish. Yet, further improvements are still required in the business environment, such as transparency, regulatory framework and fiscal issues, to enhance regional food security.
This paper is a further step toward the construction of an ecologically valid framework for the emergence of symbolic communication in development. Building on recent advancements, which view language learning in terms of the increasingly skillful usage and navigation of interactive affordances within a re-enacted social world, we present a more detailed investigation of the timing of such affordances and the role of that timing in the progressive structuring of communication toward symbolic language. Seeking conceptual similarities with an action-based ecological framework, we extend the concepts of that framework to the context of early social interaction. We abandon a conception of language learning by infants as based on sound-reference mappings and envision this process as an attunement to structures in time, which entails the infant becoming increasingly able to engage in those structures, that is, to navigate and shape the relevant interactive dynamics skillfully. We illustrate attunements to several timing orders that are essential to the emergence of language: i) to participants' actions within routines, which leads to the emergence of social affordances; ii) to partners’ vocalizations within an individuated layer, which supports perception of the systemic properties of language; and iii) to larger structures in time, shaped by energetic and affective envelopes, which facilitates discerning important semantic units. The goal of this work is to show how embodied interactions gain their linguistic character for the infant and how the structure of interactive engagements becomes increasingly complex and language-dependent without ever becoming fully ungrounded from interaction. Highlighting the importance of timing for learning to participate should improve our understanding of the progressive saturation of language with interactive structures for a child on the one hand and our understanding of the structuring of language as an interactive control on different timescales on the other.
Introduction Young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at heightened risk of road traffic injury and their caregivers are often concerned about independent mobility and the safety risks it poses. This qualitative research aimed to increase understanding of the facilitators and barriers to independent mobility for 7–10 and 11-13 year-olds with SEND. Method Thirteen young people (11 male and two female, six children 7-10 years-old and seven children 11-13 years-old) diagnosed with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or learning disabilities video recorded three journeys they regularly undertook and then participated in a semi-structured interview with their caregiver. A thematic analysis of travel films and interview transcripts was conducted. Results Younger children were typically not travelling independently, but both older and younger children were anxious about independent mobility. Younger and older children with SEND demonstrated unsafe behaviours in the road, had limited awareness at times of road safety, could become overwhelmed, and required longer to process information. Conclusions The findings informed recommendations for how to effectively support the independent mobility of young people with SEND. Children are often diagnosed with multiple conditions, and it is the profile rather than the specific diagnosis that impacts their road safety. Targeting specific behaviours rather than specific disorders may therefore be a more effective approach. Road safety was a central concern for caregivers, but it was one aspect of independent mobility and a broad focus on teaching independent mobility was preferable. Support with independent mobility and road safety should be provided by a range of people who come into contact with the young person and education may need repeating at key transition points.
This paper employs an event study approach to examine stock price reactions around announcements of regulatory changes to strengthen UK financial regulation and financial institutions stability from 2000 to 2014. These announcements include the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, the Market Abuse Directive, the Banking Act 2009, Basel III, the Finance Act 2012, and MiFID II, among other regulatory announcements. Our data covers the period 2000–2014 and five UK financial sectors. Event study results indicate mixed evidence on market reaction to announcements of regulatory changes, owing to the source of the regulation. A key finding is the presence of market inefficiency in the pricing in of impending regulatory announcements on equities. Stock price reactions differed concerning the impact of announcements on bank and insurance firms’ CDS spreads to recommendations linked to the Turner review and the Vickers reform proposals.
Introduction: Thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) events were reported very rarely following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria). Clinical and demographic characteristics of the affected people, including the outcomes of TTS events, need to be examined using available information to better understand aspects of this association. Objective: To analyse clinical and demographic information of TTS events, including calculating the case fatality of reported cases of TTS by age and sex, using spontaneously reported data from the UK's Yellow Card spontaneous reporting system of suspected adverse drug reactions. Methods: TTS events reported to the Yellow Card scheme were extracted at weekly time points between 12 May 2021 and 25 May 2022. Cumulative numbers of TTS cases and deaths were recorded for each weekly interval, overall and stratified by age, sex, and vaccine dose. Results: To 25 May 2022, 443 cases (81 fatal, 18.28%) had been reported in the UK. Events more frequently occurred following the first vaccine dose. No trends were observed for case fatality overall, or by age or sex. Conclusion: In the UK, case fatality of TTS events reported to the Medicines and Health products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) following Vaxzevria has been approximately 17-18% since May 2021. There were no statistical differences in fatality based on age or sex. Most reports followed the first vaccine dose; none have been reported following a third dose to date, although Vaxzervia was not recommended for a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine in the UK. TTS remains very rare, and benefits of vaccination outweigh the risks.
Nuclear energy has sparked international attention as one of the most important strategies for reducing emissions thanks to its ability to provide low-carbon power. Based on this interesting fact, the current research explores the effect of nuclear energy on CO 2 emissions in the leading countries by nuclear power consumption using a quarterly dataset from 1990 to 2019. The study employs the quantile-on-quantile (QQ) estimator, which accounts for both non-parametric and conventional analyses and enhances the provision of unbiased and consistent estimates. In addition, the Granger causality in quantiles approach is adopted to assess the causality in quantiles between the variables of investigation. The outcomes from the QQ estimator reveals that in the majority of the quantiles, nuclear energy contributes to decreased degradation of the environment in the USA, France, Russia, South Korea, Canada, Ukraine, Germany, and Sweden. Contrawise, the feedbacks from Spain and China expose that Nuclear Energy Consumption (NUC) contributes to the deterioration of the environment. Moreover, the outcomes of the causality test disclose that nuclear energy and CO 2 emissions can predict each other in the majority of the quantiles. The findings above provide profound ramifications for policymakers planning nuclear energy and CO 2 -emission policies towards achieving sustainable environment in the sample countries and beyond..
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Jim House
  • Department of Sport and Exercise Science
Chris Mills
  • Department of Sport and Exercise Science
James Smith
  • School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences
Nigel L Williams
  • Department of Operations and Systems Management
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