University of Port Harcourt
  • Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Recent publications
This study investigates the effectiveness of bone char (organic) and inorganic nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers as stimulants in the degradability of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants on soil. The physicochemical properties of the hydrocarbon sludge were used to assess the effectiveness of this process over an 8-week period using 0.5–3.5 kg mass of each fertilizer at different experiments. A first order kinetic model was used to estimate the rate of degradation of the total hydrocarbon content (THC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contaminants and the half-life of the remediation process. The microbial population within the period was also determined. The p -value ( p < 0.05) indicated that these fertilizers were effective in degrading these contaminants on the soil, because of the significant difference between the treated and the control soil samples. A direct relationship was observed between with the mass and performance of the fertilizers. With 3.5 kg mass of the fertilizers, rate constants of 0.018 and 0.019 d − 1 were obtained for the removal of the THC and TOC contaminants, respectively, using the bone char fertilizer, whereas NPK fertilizer gave rates of 0.03 and 0.023 d − 1 respectively. The performance of the NPK fertilizer is attributable to its nitrogen and phosphorous content. The model adequately described the process and showed the effectiveness of both fertilizers in the remediation process.
This paper explains a new Adaptive Path Sensing Method (APSM) for indoor radio wave propagation prediction. Measurement campaigns, which cover indoor line-of-sight (LoS), non-line-of-sight (NLoS) and different room scenarios, are conducted at the new Wireless Communication Centre (WCC) block P15a) of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor, Malaysia. The proposed APSM is evaluated through a computerized modelling tool by comparing the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) with measurement data and the conventional Shooting-Bouncing Ray Tracing (SBRT) method. Simulations of the APSM and SBRT are performed with the same layout of the new WCC block P15a by using the exact building dimensions. The results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a better agreement with measured data, compared to the conventional SBRT outputs. The reduced computational time and resources required are also important milestones to ray tracing technology. The proposed APSM method can assist engineers and researchers to reduce the time required in modelling and optimizing reliable radio propagation in an indoor environment.
Methane–air mixtures (ϕ =1.2) enriched with hydrogen at different concentrations (RH 0, RH 0.1, RH 0.2, RH 0.3 and RH 0.4) were ignited in an open-ended horizontal tube at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1.013 bar. Flame propagation was filmed with a high-speed camera and the pressure captured to study the thermoacoustic interaction of flames at different hydrogen concentration. Two-thirds along the tube, the flames encountered an acoustic field and were subjected to longitudinal oscillations. Depending on the hydrogen content, significant differences were observed in the behaviour of the flames. For lower hydrogen concentrations (RH 0.1 – 0.3), the flame speed initially decreased as it entered the field, and was then subjected to violent oscillations, resulting in a high acceleration and speed. The accelerations were attributed by the formation of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities, which existed in the form of spikes of unburned mixture into the burned gasses that coupled with the pressure oscillations. This satisfied the Rayleigh criteria that the acoustically driven instabilities require the heat release and pressure waves to be in phase. When the hydrogen content was increased, as the flame passed through the acoustic field, the flame speed decreased, and no Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities were observed, attributed to the higher flame speeds at RH 0.4. The main concern with high hydrogen addition to the existing natural gas infrastructure (for transportation or direct use by consumers) is mainly related with safety. The absence of violent oscillations in RH 0.4 flames shows that they do not increase monotonically with hydrogen addition, and may potentially be investigated further to be applied in existing natural gas infrastructures.
Background Oxido-inflammatory stress and dysregulation of nitric oxide (NO) system has been implicated in lead toxicity. Cabbage is an antioxidant-rich household vegetable with plethora of therapeutic potentials. The present study investigated the anti-oxido-inflammatory activity of cabbage in lead-induced endothelial dysfunction. Methods Twenty (20) male Wistar rats were selected into four groups (n = 5) and treated with distilled water (1 mL/100 g b.wt), lead acetate (25 mg/kg b.wt), cabbage juice (1 mL/100 g b.wt) and lead acetate (25 mg/kg b.wt) plus cabbage juice (1 mL/100 g b.wt) respectively. Treatment was done orally for 28 days, thereafter, oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA), inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-6) and apoptotic (Bcl-2) markers were assayed using standard biochemical assays as well as histoarchitectural study of the endothelium. Results The results showed that they were significant increase in MDA, ET-1, TNF-α and IL-6 while SOD, GSH, CAT, NO and Bcl-2 protein expression were decreased in Lead exposed animals. Endothelial histoarchitecture was also altered. Following Cabbage juice treatment, MDA, ET-I, TNF-α and IL-6 were down-regulated while SOD, GSH, CAT, NO and Bcl-2 protein expression were up-regulated. Histoarchitecture was significantly recovered. Conclusion The study suggests that cabbage juice could mitigates Lead-induced endothelial dysfunction by modulating oxido-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mediators. Data Availability All data are available upon request.
The nonrelativistic treatment of the Varshni–Shukla potential (V–SP) in the presence of magnetic and Aharanov–Bohm fields is carried out using the asymptotic iteration method (AIM). The energy equation and wave function are derived analytically. The energy levels are summed to obtain the partition function, which is employed to derive the expressions for the thermomagnetic properties of the V–SP. These properties are analyzed extensively using graphical representations. It is observed that in the various settings of the analysis, the system shows a diamagnetic characteristic, and the specific heat capacity behavior agrees with the recognized Dulong–Petit law, although some slight anomaly is observed. This irregular behavior could be attributed to a Schottky anomaly. Our findings will be valuable in a variety of fields of physics, including chemical, molecular and condensed matter physics, where our derived models could be applied to study other diatomic molecules and quantum dots, respectively.
This paper provides a comparative analysis of the contributions of Local Volunteer Mappers (LVM, resident in Nigeria) and Remote Volunteer Mappers (RVM, not resident in Nigeria) in an organized crowd-sourced disaster response mapping using OpenStreetMap. The study sampled two Local Government Areas in Ogoni land - a major oil spill disaster vulnerable area of the Niger Delta Region. The study engaged mappers using the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap (HOT) tasking manager for Tai (Project task 6358, with 596 grids –RVM) and Gokana LGA (Project task 6359, with 706 grids –LVM), respectively in a Mapathon battle challenge. The result shows that project task 6358 was completely mapped and validated in six months, while project task 6359 took 28 months. Each of the 56 RVM spent an average of 20.77 minutes/grid, generating a total of 16,416 edits of 13,552 building footprints and 858km of roads. The 173 LVM spent an average of 41.1 minutes/grid to generate 18,367 edits of 14,983 building foot prints and 521km of roads. The study also showed that a total of 103 RVM joined but only 56 completely mapped the task within six months whereas 173 LVM joined and completely mapped the task within 28 months. Demographic characteristics of both categories of mappers showed that 52% of the RVM were advanced mappers whereas 72% of the LVM were beginner mappers on the HOT Tasking Manager. Conclusively, the lacuna or differential response of RVM and LVM requires investigation in terms of geographic context, digital citizenry, economic disposition and demographic characteristics of online volunteer mappers.
Background Several population-based case-control studies have reported concurrent presentation of cancer and congenital malformations. Many associations have been made between oral clefting and cancers, though some of these results are conflicting. Some studies have reported an increased risk of cancer among 1st-degree relatives of cleft cases and vice versa, and also an excess risk of cancers of the breast, lung, and brain among those with oral clefts. This study aimed to determine if the genetic polymorphisms found in some cancers are also associated with orofacial cleft in an African cohort. Methods The study was a case-control and case-triad study in which cases were 400 individuals clinically diagnosed with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), while controls were 450 individuals without CL/P. Samples were obtained from three African countries while DNA extraction, PCR, and genotyping were carried out at the University of Iowa, US. Eleven SNPs in genes coding for SWI/SNF subunits and 13 GWAS significant SNPs for cancers associated with orofacial cleft were selected. Case-control analysis, transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), and DFAM to combine the parent-offspring trio data and unrelated case/control data in a single analysis were carried out using PLINK. Results For the case-control analyses that included all the clefts and for the CLP subtype, none of the SNPs were statistically significant. Statistically increased risk for the following SNPs rs34775372 ( p = 0.02; OR = 1.54, CI:1.07–2.22), rs55658222 ( p = 0.009; OR = 2.64, CI:1.28–5.45) and rs72728755 ( p = 0.02; OR=2.27, CI:1.17–4.45) was observed with the CL only sub-group. None of these were significant after Bonferoni correction. In the TDT analyses, a significantly reduced risk with rs10941679 ( p = 0.003; OR = 0.43, CI:0.24–0.75) was observed and this was significant after Bonferroni correction. The rs10941679 was also significant ( p = 0.003) in the DFAM analyses as well even after Bonferroni correction. Conclusion The results from this study represent an important starting point for understanding the concurrent presentation of some cancers in orofacial clefts, and cancer risks in cleft patients. The associations observed warrant further investigation in a larger cohort and will set the stage for a more mechanistic approach toward understanding the risk for cancers in families with clefts.
The urgent need for Africa, as a continent, to start galvanizing resources and strengthening its capacity to win the fight against the looming threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was once again brought to the limelight by the recent study on the "Global Burden of Bacterial Antimicrobial Resistance" (The Lancet 2022, 399, 629). According to the study, western sub-Saharan Africa is a super-region for AMR, with overall mortality rates due to and associated with AMR standing at 27.3 and 114.8 per 100 000 people, respectively. Putting this in perspective, if the leaders of this region do not take effective action, Africa will indeed be one of the two worst-affected regions, along with Asia, with the possibility of over 4.1 million people dying annually from AMR by 2050. The development of a National Action Plan, as directed by the World Health Organization, provides an important framework for addressing the complex and multi-faceted nature of the rise and spread of drug-resistant bacteria. This paper reviews the AMR National Action Plans of African countries and calls on the leaders of this region to move from paper to action and to look beyond just the reduction of antibiotic consumption and, as a more comprehensive response to the threat of AMR, focus also on expanding access to safe drinking water, bettering sanitary conditions, maintaining effective leadership at all levels of governance, increasing government spending on healthcare services, and strengthening regulatory oversight.
Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) associated with the suppression of various oxido-inflammatory pathways and the controller of several gene expressions involving “antioxidant response elements” (AREs) in their promoters to mediate and restores homeostatic functions is now considered as one of the main switch regulating the immune response, and it is also now involved in inflammatory cascade in PD. Whether therapeutic approach using Ginkgo biloba would have significant protective effects against cortico-cerebellar dopaminergic degeneration in rotenone-induced mice remains unknown. In this present study, we studied the therapeutic effects of Ginkgo biloba-supplement (Gb-S) administration in cortico-cerebellar dopaminergic degeneration. The results revealed that treatment with Gb-S suppresses cognitive decline and neuromuscular incompetence in the mice, abated tyrosine hydroxylase depletion and synucleinopathy development in the cortico-cerebellar neurons of the mice before and after rotenone induction. However, our data further shows increase Nrf2 immunoexpression with decrease oxido-nitrergic and neuroinflammatory release, increase cholinergic enzyme activity and downregulated executioner caspase-3 that may mediate cortico-cerebellar apoptosis. Also, the loss of cortico-cerebellar neurons was attenuated, marked by increase in dendritic spine length and width with numerous viable neurons. Overall findings suggest that Gb-S could be a potential pharmacotherapeutic candidate providing a strong protection for cortico-cerebellar neurocellular substances and against Parkinsonism-like non-motor and motor symptoms. Graphical Abstract
The potential of phytoremediation of oil-based drill cuttings contaminated soil was assessed by measuring the level of petroleum hydrocarbons reduction. The contamination experiment was simulated in a randomized complete block design by factorial of 6 x 3 x 2 x 2 for grass species (Pennisitum purpureum, Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Heteropogon contortus, Axonopus compressus, and Chloris virgata), drill cuttings treatments (0%, 25%, and 50% oil-based drill cuttings contamination), time (0 day of planting and 105 days of harvesting), and growth stage (young and mature). The parameters assessed were total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, roots and shoots, bioconcentration factor in roots and shoots, and translocation factor. The TPH reductions achieved in 25% treatment level were young A. compressus (58.01%), mature P. purpureum, young A. gayanus and C. virgata (44.24%), young P. purpureum (27.67%), mature A. compressus (25.29%), mature H. contortus (2.56%), mature P. maximum (4.01%), and unplanted soils (2.10%). Thus young A. compressus, A. gayanus, C. virgata, and mature P. purpureum are recommended for TPH reduction in 25% oil-based drill cuttings contaminated soils. Young P. purpureum and mature A. compressus can be used to achieve 25% - 27% TPH reduction.
Energy audit and mass flow studies of commercial agricultural systems are increasingly becoming of utmost importance, due to high operation costs and dependence on energy. This research was designed to study energy input, output and efficiency for daily table egg production from commercially managed poultry birds. Three commercially operated poultry farms in Ibadan, Nigeria were visited for assessment of management procedures, data collection, equipment observation and personnel interview. The energy required for each management procedure was calculated from standard methods. Each farm housed average of 25,000 actively laying birds and had average daily egg production of 21,250 egg pieces. This amounted to 1169 kg egg and 3000 kg faecal materials production per day from the average energy input of 122,461.12 MJ/day. The highest energy consumption was biological energy which resulted from daily feed consumption of 3000 kg at the rate of 120 g per bird per day. This made up 83.81% of the total energy consumed. These resulted in an energy consumption ratio of 1.05, energy productivity of 0.034 kg/MJ, specific energy of 29.29 MJ/kg and net energy of 6,569.09 MJ/day, respectively. Faecal materials constituted the bulk of the output from the system. Making use of the faecal material in its treated form for the production of feed components would reduce energy costs, increase farmers’ net income and also encourage environmentally efficient processes.
Background In spite of the high prevalence of the sickle cell trait (SCT) in Nigeria, the electrocardiographic characteristics of SCT athletes remain unknown. Objective To compare the electrocardiographic findings in athletes of the University of Port Harcourt based on hemoglobin genotype. Methods 76 athletes (41 males, 35 females) were recruited. All had normal ECGs and echocardiograms. The prevalence of SCT was 31.6%. Results Mean heart rate was lower among the SCT athletes (57.3 [8.6] vs 64.6 [10.4] beats/min; p = .002; Hedges' g = 0.74). Mean T-wave axis was also higher among SCT athletes (39.1 [12.8] vs 32.3 [12.9] degrees; p = .036 Hedges' g = 0.53). Conclusion SCT is associated with significant electrocardiographic changes in Nigerian athletes. The biological basis and clinical significance of these changes are presently uncertain.
Background: The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) is a compulsory one-year programme for graduates of tertiary schools including doctors. This study was conducted to explore the perceived benefits and challenges of serving corps medical doctors. The study would influence policy making so as to improve the experiences of corps medical doctors and help NYSC to achieve its objectives. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 399 medical doctors doing their compulsory national youth service in Nigeria. The research instrument was developed by the researchers and pretested before use. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test using p < 0.05. Results: The majority (83.5%) of respondents believed that the scheme offers one or more benefits to corps medical doctors. These include Exposure to new culture (47.6%), Gaining of medical/surgical skills (36.3%) and finding lover/spouse (4.5%). Similarly, most of respondents (89.2%) reported one or more serious challenges. Some of the perceived challenges reported include; No provision of accommodation (51.6%), poor remuneration (44.7%) and exploitation (41.4%). Majority of the corps doctors expressed dissatisfaction with their job on the scheme reporting that it would have no role to play in their professional development. There was a significant association between job satisfaction and region of deployment (p-value: <0.001), gender (p-value: 0.021) and marital status (p-value: 0.008). The region of deployment and marital status were found to have a statistically significant association with the overall perceived challenges with p-value of 0.012 and < 0.001 respectively. Treatment at Places of Primary Assignment (PPAs) was mostly reported to be fair and it had a statistically significantly association with region of deployment (p-value: 0.012), location of medical school (p-value: 0.023) and gender (p-value: <0.001) Conclusions: The overall perception of NYSC among corps doctors is poor and majority have suggested that the scheme be scrapped or revamped.
Over the years, technology has revolutionized the operations of many industries, ranging from manufacturing and agriculture to financial institutions which are usually the first users of innovations. Owing to the recent technological trends in the financial sector, such as mobile money, artificial intelligence, and medical robotics, as well as the rapidly increasing human population and the emergence of new patterns of disease, it is necessary for the healthcare sector to adopt new strategies to deliver efficient and effective healthcare services. Financial technology (FinTech), a combination of financial services and technology, entails the incorporation of modern, innovative technologies by industries into their financial services. FinTech is an endless array of applications, products, and services which includes mobile banking, cryptocurrency, insurance, and investment apps among many others. Any enterprise that employs technology to enhance or automate financial services and processes is referred to as FinTech. This fast-growing industry serves the interests of both the business sector and the consuming public. There have been many applications and uses of FinTech, however, its employment in the field of health remains to be explored further and maximized, particularly in the developing world like Africa. This paper aims to explore the prospects of FinTech for healthcare in Africa.
Illness exists in situations of adverse health conditions disrupting the normal homeostasis often due to viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or compromised body immunity leading to clinically apparent disruption of normal operating procedure. A disease could be infectious or non‐infectious. An infectious disease may start through an interaction with pathogenic organisms, like bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, from infected persons or vectors, by ingesting contaminated consumables or exposure to a contaminated environment. Infectious diseases lead to a high mortality rate or substantial encumbrances of incapacitation on a population due to the rapid and unexpected nature of their spread with serious global impacts e.g. coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. They include diphtheria, influenza, Ebola virus disease (EVD), COVID‐19, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), etc. STDs are contracted through sexual interactions with an infected individual and include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, trichomoniasis, chancroid, HIV/AIDS, and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), like genital herpes, pubic lice, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), genital warts, etc. STDs could be diagnosed and treated with approved antibiotics or antiviral remedies. Owing to emerging strains of multidrug‐resistant (MDR) STDs due to antimicrobial‐resistant (AMR) bacteria, the phytochemicals and phytopharmaceuticals become considered as the source of bioactive ingredients to restore the purposes of synthetic antibiotics which became ineffective. Phytochemicals are chemical compounds of plant origin of primary or secondary metabolism retaining activities in biological systems and referred to as “bioactive phytochemicals”. They include carbohydrates, lipids, phenolics, terpenoids, alkaloids, and other nitrogen‐containing compounds. They constitute the antioxidants and free radical scavengers preventing oxidative damage. These activities abound in polyphenols. Since the key concern with synthetic drugs is their unwanted side effects, sometimes more harmful than the treated disease, phytopharmaceuticals emerged, addressing phytomedicines with efficacy derivable from plant bioactive ingredients in managing diseases within an indigenous healing practice. The approach of phytopharmaceutical therapy has numerous gains and drawbacks. The categories of antimicrobial compounds of plant origin considered as the sources of antimicrobial phytopharmaceuticals comprise the phenolics and polyphenols, quinones, flavones, flavonoids, flavonols, tannins, coumarins, terpenoids, essential oils, alkaloids, lecithins, polypeptides, etc. Several plants have been screened and could be potential sources of numerous antimicrobial agents, some being available commercially and gained ground globally and are depended upon by several economies.
Energy aggregation strategy is a long-term plan that resulted from the deregulation of the energy sector. It is a strategy where smaller companies and institutions come together to buy energy either from a fossil or renewable energy developer at smaller volumes, such that they are able to retain all the benefits of a high-volume purchase. Selecting smaller buyers, and the coordination of stakeholders from each company to meet their particular requirements and approvals, has remained the major challenges in the implementation of strategy. In this paper however, an integrated model that is based on the intuitionistic fuzzy VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I KompromisnoResenje (IF-VIKOR) model and the dynamic intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein Geometric Averaging (DIFWGϵ) operator has been proposed for the selection of suitable energy partner from among a finite set to actualize an energy aggregation project. Furthermore, two existing multi-criteria models were used to validate the proposed model performances. Results from the evaluation shows that energy solution and integration (En2) company has the higher potential to be selected and incorporated for the actualization of the energy aggregation project.
The use of antiviral COVID-19 medications can successfully inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and prevent disease progression to a more severe form. However, the timing of antiviral treatment plays a crucial role in this regard. Oral antiviral drugs provide an opportunity to manage SARS-CoV-2 infection without a need for hospital admission, easing the general burden that COVID-19 can have on the healthcare system. This review paper (i) presents the potential pharmaceutical antiviral targets, including various host-based targets and viral-based targets, (ii) characterizes the first-generation anti-SARS-CoV-2 oral drugs (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and molnupiravir), (iii) summarizes the clinical progress of other oral antivirals for use in COVID-19, (iv) discusses ethical issues in such clinical trials and (v) presents challenges associated with the use of oral antivirals in clinical practice. Oral COVID-19 antivirals represent a part of the strategy to adapt to long-term coexistence with SARS-CoV-2 in a manner that prevents healthcare from being overwhelmed. It is pivotal to ensure equal and fair global access to the currently available oral antivirals and those authorized in the future.
A solution of the radial Schrödinger equation for an improved Tietz potential function was obtained using the concept of the supersymmetric approach. The energy equation obtained for the nonrelativistic wave equation was used to generate numerical values for chlorine dimer, iodine dimer and bromine dimer with the aid of their respective spectroscopic constants. The calculated results were compared with RKR values for each of the molecules. The calculated results were found to be in excellent agreement with the RKR values.
The majority (85%) of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) cases occur sporadically, suggesting a role for de novo mutations (DNMs) in the etiology of nsCL/P. To identify high impact protein-altering DNMs that contribute to the risk of nsCL/P, we conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses in 130 African case-parent trios (affected probands and unaffected parents). We identified 162 high confidence protein-altering DNMs some of which are based on available evidence, contribute to the risk of nsCL/P. These include novel protein-truncating DNMs in the ACTL6A, ARHGAP10, MINK1, TMEM5 and TTN genes; as well as missense variants in ACAN, DHRS3, DLX6, EPHB2, FKBP10, KMT2D, RECQL4, SEMA3C, SEMA4D, SHH, TP63, and TULP4. Many of these protein-altering DNMs were predicted to be pathogenic. Analysis using mouse transcriptomics data showed that some of these genes are expressed during the development of primary and secondary palate. Gene-set enrichment analysis of the protein-altering DNMs identified palatal development and neural crest migration among the few processes that were significantly enriched. These processes are directly involved in the etiopathogenesis of clefting. The analysis of the coding sequence in the WGS data provides more evidence of the opportunity for novel findings in the African genome.
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2,431 members
Abiodun Arigbede
  • Department of Restorative Dentistry
Ekeke Chimezie
  • Department of Plant Science & Biotechnology
Olufemi Gbenga Omitola
  • Department of Oral Pathology & Oral Biology
Gabriel Sunday Oladipo
  • Department of Anatomy
East-West Road,Choba, 234, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Head of institution
Prof.Ndowa E.S.Lale
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