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    ABSTRACT: Background: Aims of surgical correction for isolated sagittal synostosis are functional and aesthetic. Multiple surgical techniques exist; however, reliable assessment of aesthetic outcome is poorly documented, limiting direct comparisons. The pinched appearance of the temporal regions is particularly challenging to correct. A visual analogue scale was designed to grade skull shape in patients who had total or subtotal calvarial remodeling for isolated sagittal synostosis. Methods: Twenty-two assessors graded preoperative and postoperative photographs from 42 consecutive cases of sagittal synostosis under a single surgeon. Five aspects were graded (i.e., narrow elongated skull, frontal bossing, temporal pinching, occipital bullet, and overall shape) from 0 (normal) to 100 (severe). Interobserver and intraobserver agreement were analyzed by calculating within-subject standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and intraclass correlation coefficient. Linear regression analysis determined predictors of outcome. Results: Surgery improved outcome dramatically across all five aspects of skull shape, with a 72.6 to 76.4 percent decrease in severity score. Improvements in severity score were greater after total calvarial remodeling, and type of calvarial remodeling (total versus subtotal) was an independent predictor of outcome in all aspects of skull shape (p 0.001). Temporal pinching was improved in a subset of patients who also had onlay bone grafts in this region. Conclusions: Calvarial remodeling is a powerful technique for improving skull shape. A panel can detect gross and subtle aesthetic changes after surgical correction of sagittal synostosis using a visual analogue scale, with moderate interobserver and intraobserver agreement. This provides a tool for future outcome assessment. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: To develop enzyme-activatable Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) substrate probes to detect matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) and MMP-13 activities in vivo in mouse models of inflammatory arthritis. Peptidic FRET probes activated by MMP-12 and MMP-13 were reverse designed from inhibitors selected from a phosphinic peptide inhibitor library. Selectivity of the probes was demonstrated in vitro using MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-12, and MMP-13. In vivo activation of the probes was tested in the zymosan-induced mouse model of inflammation, and probe specificity was evaluated by the MMP inhibitor GM6001 and specific synthetic inhibitors of MMP-12 and MMP-13. The probes were used to monitor these enzyme activities in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model in vivo. The MMP-12 and MMP-13 activity probes (MMP12ap and MMP13ap, respectively) discriminated between the activities of the 2 enzymes. The in vivo activation of these probes was inhibited by GM6001 and by their respective specific inhibitors. In the CIA model, MMP12ap activation peaked 5 days after disease onset and showed strong correlation with disease severity during this time (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001). MMP13ap activation increased gradually after disease onset and correlated with disease severity over a longer period of 15 days (r = 0.58, P < 0.0001). We generated two selective FRET probes that can be used to monitor MMP-12 and MMP-13 activities in live animals. MMP12ap follows the initial stage of inflammation in CIA, while MMP13ap follows the progression of the disease. The specificity of these probes is useful in monitoring the efficacy of MMP inhibitors.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether, in the management of stable paediatric fractures of the forearm, flexible casts that can be removed at home are as clinically effective, cost-effective and acceptable to both patient and parent as management using a cast conventionally removed in hospital. A single-centre randomised controlled trial was performed on 317 children with a mean age of 9.3 years (2 to 16). No significant differences were seen in the change in Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire index score (p = 0.10) or EuroQol 5-Dimensions domain scores between the two groups one week after removal of the cast or the absolute scores at six months. There was a significantly lower overall median treatment cost in the group whose casts were removed at home (£150.88 (sem 1.90) vs £251.62 (sem 2.68); p < 0.001). No difference was seen in satisfaction between the two groups (p = 0.48). Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1714-20.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Bone and Joint Journal
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