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ABSTRACT: We present a method for analysing the deviation in transient behaviour between two parameterised families of nonlinear ODEs, as initial conditions and parameters are varied within compact sets over which stability is guaranteed. This deviation is taken to be the integral over time of a user-specified, positive definite function of the difference between the trajectories, for instance the L2 norm. We use sum-of-squares programming to obtain two polynomials, which take as inputs the (possibly differing) initial conditions and parameters of the two families of ODEs, and output upper and lower bounds to this transient deviation. Equality can be achieved using symbolic methods in a special case involving Linear Time Invariant Parameter Dependent systems. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed methods in the problems of model discrimination, and location of worst case parameter perturbation for a single parameterised family of ODE models.
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ABSTRACT: CD200 is a widely distributed membrane protein that gives inhibitory signals through its receptor (CD200R) on myeloid cells. CD200 has been acquired by herpesviruses where it has been shown to interact with host CD200R and downmodulate the immune system. It has been hypothesized that poxviruses have acquired CD200; but the potential orthologues show less similarity to their hosts. Myxoma virus M141 protein is a potential CD200 orthologue with a potent immune modulatory function in rabbits. Here, we characterized the rabbit CD200, CD200R and tested the CD200-like sequences for binding CD200R. No binding could be detected using soluble recombinant proteins, full length protein expressed on cells or myxoma virus infected cells. Finally, using knockdown models, we showed that the inhibitory effect of M141 on RAW 264.7 cells upon myxoma virus infection is not due to CD200R. We conclude that the rabbit poxvirus CD200-like proteins cause immunomodulation without utilizing CD200R.
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ABSTRACT: In natural environments, neural systems must be continuously updated to reflect changes in sensory inputs and behavioral goals. Recent studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation and learning involve multiple mechanisms that operate at different timescales and stages of processing, with other sensory and motor-related inputs playing a key role. We are only just beginning to understand, however, how these processes interact with one another to produce adaptive changes at the level of neuronal populations and behavior. Because there is no explicit map of auditory space in the cortex, studies of sound localization may also provide much broader insight into the plasticity of complex neural representations that are not topographically organized. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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