Depression is the most prevalent and devastating neuropsychiatric disorder. There are several conventional antidepressants used for the treatment of depression. But due to their undesired adverse effects, patient compliance is very poor. Thus, developing novel medications for the treatment of depression is a critical strategic priority for meeting therapeutic demands. Current research is looking for alternatives to traditional antidepressants to reduce undesired side effects and increase efficacy. Phytoconstituents provide a wide research range in antidepressant treatments. In the present article, we have conducted a comprehensive assessment of neurological evidence, which supports the usefulness of phytoconstituents in the treatment of the depressive disorder. Secondary plant metabolites including alkaloids, polyphenols, glycosides, saponins, and terpenoids were found to exhibit antidepressant action. Most of the phytoconstituents were found to mediate their antidepressant effect through the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Some were also found to exert antidepressant effects by inhibiting the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis overactivity.
Background/aim: Post-stroke spasticity is a significant debilitating condition with negative consequences on individual functional independence and quality of life. This study aimed to identify the differences between transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS), ultrasound therapy and paraffin procedures on post-stroke upper extremity spasticity and dexterity. Patients and methods: Twenty-six patients were enrolled in the study, divided into three therapy groups: TENS (n=9), paraffin (n=10) and ultrasound therapy (n=7). For 10 days, the patients received specific group therapy and conventional physical therapy exercises for upper extremities. Modified Ashworth Scale, Functional Independence Measure, Functional Coefficient, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, Activities of Daily Living score and ABILHAND questionnaire were used to assess the participants before and after therapy. Results: The results of the group comparisons by analysis of variance showed no significant difference between outcomes by the applied treatments. In contrast, one-way analysis of variance suggested significant improvements in patients in all three groups after therapy. Step-wise regression results on functional independence measure and quality-of-life scales suggested that functional range of motion values for elbow and wrist influence individual independence and quality of life. Conclusion: TENS, ultrasound, and paraffin therapy bring equal benefits in the management of post-stroke spasticity.
Heat-shock proteins are upregulated in cancer and protect several client proteins from degradation. Therefore, they contribute to tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis by reducing apoptosis and enhancing cell survival and proliferation. These client proteins include the estrogen receptor (ER), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), and cytokine receptors. The diminution of the degradation of these client proteins activates different signaling pathways, such as the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB, Raf/MEK/ERK, and JAK/STAT3 pathways. These pathways contribute to hallmarks of cancer, such as self-sufficiency in growth signaling, an insensitivity to anti-growth signals, the evasion of apoptosis, persistent angiogenesis, tissue invasion and metastasis, and an unbounded capacity for replication. However, the inhibition of HSP90 activity by ganetespib is believed to be a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer because of its low adverse effects compared to other HSP90 inhibitors. Ganetespib is a potential cancer therapy that has shown promise in preclinical tests against various cancers, including lung cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia. It has also shown strong activity toward breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric cancer, and acute myeloid leukemia. Ganetespib has been found to cause apoptosis and growth arrest in these cancer cells, and it is being tested in phase II clinical trials as a first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we will highlight the mechanism of action of ganetespib and its role in treating cancer based on recent studies.
The COVID-19 pandemic represented a tremendous shock for both public and private sectors and put pressure on the economic environment alongside national healthcare systems. Our article examined the economic resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic in the EU Member States and assessed if countries with more intense use of digitalization instruments (e-government features, e-commerce, ITC skills, etc.) in both public and private sectors registered a lower economic decline during 2019–2020. Our approach was based firstly on statistical correlation analysis applied to several indicators obtained from Eurostat and European Commission. Secondly, we elaborated different regional models of economic and social homogenous characteristics that could be found among EU Member States based on a hierarchical cluster analysis model applied to several structural socio-economic and digitalization indicators. The main conclusion was that there is a strong positive correlation between the share of ITC employment and the share of ITC in GDP, and the level of digital skills for individuals and the share of companies with high intensity of digitalization.
In this paper, we study the statistical convergence almost everywhere, in measure and in Lp in Korovkin-type theorem for monotone and sublinear operators. Our results are illustrated by a series of concrete examples.
Social integration of people with disabilities is a significant issue, therefore effective interventions to provide improvement of quality of life for people who have some kinds of disabilities are crucial. Specialists from various fields, including those in the field of clothing design, are working on creating products that meet people with disabilities’ needs. These products must be ergonomic, comfortable and provide the necessary psychological comfort. The whole process of designing functional products is very complex, it requires continuous research, using knowledge from various fields for better development of products. This paper addresses the topic of developing adaptive clothing for people with multiple sclerosis in the context of social inclusion and adaptation to new ways of life. All the proposals and ideas are analysed accordingly and different constructive and technological solutions are proposed to customize and adapt the basic clothing.
In the present work, the drape characteristics of second-hand textile fabrics were determined. The results can be used to implement the concepts of the circular economy. Automated software tools have been adapted and researched to apply the proposed methods and procedures for digital image analysis of used textile drape, which will be utilized to describe their shapes and predict their characteristics, as well as their classification into groups and assessment of classification accuracy in recognizing their elements. A radius-vector function was used to determine the main drape characteristics, such as the number of peaks, their size, and their location. Analytical models have been created for automated forecasting of the drape characteristics from used textiles, which can be applied to predict changes in these characteristics. It obtained an accuracy of 68–92% in the prediction of the main drape characteristics of used textiles. Due to changes in their main characteristics, the errors in classification and prediction increased by 10–15%. More complex computational procedures have been implemented to obtain a higher predictive power for second-hand textile fabrics. The results can be applied in the manufacture of new products such as curtains, tablecloths, napkins and fashion accessories.
In the aluminum industry, one of the most sensitive economic and environmental problems is the management of resulting waste such as slag, ash and sludge, which become potential sources of pollution. Red sludge, which results from the aluminum industry, is a mixture made up of different forms of iron and aluminum oxides, sodium and aluminum silicates, various titanium compounds, constituted in the residue left after the alkaline solubilization of alumina. The Purpose of this research is to quantify the environmental aspects involved in the storage of sludge in a landfill that has an area of 381,189 square meters and is located in the hearth of a former ballast tank in the western industrial area of the town of Oradea, Romania. The objective of the research was to determine the impact of red sludge dumps, which originated from industrial activity, on the soil and groundwater. The degree of degradation of the soil cover was highlighted by analyzing a number of 12 soil samples (4 collection points, at 3 depths). A total of 14 samples (7 samples on 2 depths) were investigated to monitor the migration mode of the sludge in the structure of the dam. In order to monitor the quality of groundwater, samples from 3 observation boreholes were analyzed. Soil monitoring results did not indicate values of the analyzed parameters above the values imposed by the national legislation on soil quality. Since the dumps were not waterproofed, the quality parameters of the water from the observation boreholes were exceeded, and gravity caused the water to drain into the underground water network in the area. Based on the samples from the observation boreholes, several measurements exceeded allowable values: pH values of the water sample taken from upstream of the dump exceeded the value limits by about 7%, and both upstream and downstream, water samples indicate an excess of 13.60% in the aluminum indicator, 267% in the sulfate ion, and 417% in the sodium ion. This shows a risk of pollution which requires additional monitoring.
Cardiac diseases form the lion's share of the global disease burden, owing to the paradigm shift to non-infectious diseases from infectious ones. The prevalence of CVDs has nearly doubled, increasing from 271 million in 1990 to 523 million in 2019. Additionally, the global trend for the years lived with disability has doubled, increasing from 17.7 million to 34.4 million over the same period. The advent of precision medicine in cardiology has ignited new possibilities for individually personalized, integrative, and patient-centric approaches to disease prevention and treatment, incorporating the standard clinical data with advanced "omics". These data help with the phenotyp-ically adjudicated individualization of treatment. The major objective of this review was to compile the evolving clinically relevant tools of precision medicine that can help with the evidence-based precise individualized management of cardiac diseases with the highest DALY. The field of cardi-ology is evolving to provide targeted therapy, which is crafted as per the "omics", involving ge-nomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics, for deep phe-notyping. Research for individualizing therapy in heart diseases with the highest DALY has helped identify novel genes, biomarkers, proteins, and technologies to aid early diagnosis and treatment. Precision medicine has helped in targeted management, allowing early diagnosis, timely precise intervention, and exposure to minimal side effects. Despite these great impacts, overcoming the barriers to implementing precision medicine requires addressing the economic, cultural, technical, and socio-political issues. Precision medicine is proposed to be the future of cardiovascular medicine and holds the potential for a more efficient and personalized approach to the management of cardiovascular diseases, contrary to the standardized blanket approach.
In the last decades total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become a standard procedure with many benefits but also a few still unsolved complications, which can lead to surgical revision in 19-23% of cases. Thus, aseptic loosening and metal hypersensitivity remain challenges. The phenomenon of wear debris causes chronic inflammation, which produces osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Wear debris promotes osteoclast production and inhibits osteoblasts by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Micro-abrasions can be induced by abrasive, adhesive and fatigue wear and cause a liberation of metal ions, which lead to another immune response elicited mostly by macrophages. Another reaction in the neocapsule can be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to various alloys, containing metals such as nickel, cobalt and chromium. Patch testing and the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) are not the best diagnostic possibilities to exclude a postoperative hypersensitivity reaction, because of the different alignment of the epicutaneous cells compared to the periprosthetic deep tissue. This hypersensitivity reaction is mostly induced by cytokines, which are secreted by macrophages rather than lymphocytes. In cell cultures and in animal studies, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to play a role in improving initial implant integration, to limit periprosthetic osteolysis and also to reconstitute peri-implant bone stock during implant revision. Thus, MSC might be used in the future to prolong the durability of THA. A better understanding of the interactions between primary chronic inflammation, corrosion, osteolysis and hypersensitivity is mandatory to develop new therapeutic strategies, aiming at the reduction of the incidence of implant failures. In this article the underlying immunological mechanisms to aseptic loosening are presented.
The significant retreat of glaciers in terms of climate change compels researchers to increase the frequency of studies regarding the transformations occurring in glacier boundaries. In this study, we provided glacier area delineation of Ala-Archa valley glaciers by using a Sentinel-1 SAR dataset and the InSAR Coherence technique. Since glaciers have specific patterns of movement, the low coherence method signals the presence of ice. The analysis used the pair of Sentinel-1 datasets for the summer, to ensure the lowest coherence and provide an areal estimation during the peak of ablation. The independence of the SAR images from cloud and light conditions permits us to acquire the images in a timely manner, which highly affects the results of glacier monitoring. This method has shown high potential in the mapping of debris-covered ice and the indication of dead ice. To identify and separate areas of low coherence, such as glacier lakes and unstable slopes, we used object-based mapping by using the geomorphological features of the ice. In this study, we defined a coherence value of less than 0.3 in the glacier area. Our research identified a number of 56 glaciers within the study area of 31.45 km2 and obtained highly accurate glacier maps for the glaciers with a smooth terminus. The analysis shows that automatic and manual delineation of the glaciers’ boundaries have certain limitations, but using the advantages of both scientific approaches, further studies will generate more accurate results.
The reduction in environment pollutant emissions is one of the main challenges regarding ground transportation. Internal combustion engines, used especially in hybrid propulsion systems, may be a solution in the transition to fully electric cars. Therefore, more efficient engines in terms of fuel consumption, emission generation and power density must be developed. This paper presents research regarding the architecture of the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine with opposed pistons. The aim of this research was to find a combustion chamber architecture that would enable the engine to perform close to the program target of: NOx < 3.5 g/kWh, smoke (FSN) < 1, specific fuel consumption (bsfc) < 198 g/kWh. Three variants of the combustion chamber’s architecture have been studied. After the experimental research, the conclusion was that none of them fully reached the target; however, significant improvements have been achieved compared with the starting point. As a result, further research needs to be carried out in order to reach and even exceed the target.
The purpose of this Special Issue is to present the impact in clinical practice as well as in medical research of novel molecules that have been introduced in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and cardiovascular disease [...]
The etiology of acute hepatic cytolysis is complex, and a thorough laboratory investigation is needed to find the causative agent and guide the clinician toward a specific treatment. Viral hepatitis A is a well-known cause of acute hepatitis, but other viruses and bacteria can lead to or contribute to liver damage. We report the case of a young male patient with triple infection with hepatitis A virus, Epstein–Barr virus, and Leptospira spp. To our knowledge, this is the first case of an HAV, EBV, and Leptospira triple infection, and it aims to bring awareness about the possibility of double or triple infection with such pathogens that are highly cytotoxic for the liver tissue since all three pathogens are known to cause or contribute to the onset of acute hepatitis. It was deduced that the source of the infection likely happened during a two-week visit to the countryside in Romania, returning 16 days before the onset of symptoms. The evolution was favorable receiving treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1200 mg/8 h); glucose 5% 500 mL/day; 0.9% saline 500 mL/day; phenobarbital 1 tablet/day (200 mg); vitamins B1 and B6 and a complex of vitamin C and D3 and zinc. Lactulose syrup was also administered when the patient had no bowel movement for more than 24 h to prevent the onset of hepatic encephalopathy, and the patient was discharged after 20 days. This case suggests that a detailed anamnesis can raise suspicion about more uncommon causes of hepatic cytolysis and lead to a broader and more complex laboratory investigation, thus improving the quality of patient care. Yet, this is the only case previously reported to compare different management options and patient outcomes.
The results obtained by the authors in the present paper refer to quantum calculus applications regarding the theories of differential subordination and superordination. These results are established by means of an operator defined as the q-analogue of the multiplier transformation. Interesting differential subordination and superordination results are derived by the authors involving the functions belonging to a new class of normalized analytic functions in the open unit disc U, which is defined and investigated here by using this q-operator.
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, second in prevalence after Gaucher disease. The onset of symptoms occurs in childhood or adolescence with palmo-plantar burning pains, hypo hidrosis, angiokeratomas, and corneal deposits. In the absence of diagnosis and treatment, the disease will progress to the late phase, characterized by progressive cardiac, cerebral and renal damage, and possible death. We present the case of an 11-year-old male boy who was transferred to the Pediatric Nephrology Department for palmo-plantar burning pain and end stage renal disease. Following the evaluations for the etiology of end stage renal disease we excluded the vasculitis, the neurologic diseases, extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Because of suggestive aspect at CT scan and lack of etiologic diagnosis of renal insufficiency we performed lymph node and kidney biopsy, with a surprising result for storage disease. The specific investigation confirmed the diagnosis.
This study aimed to determine the impact of teacher verbal encouragement on physical fitness performance, technical skill, and physiological responses during small-sided soccer games (SSGs) of adolescent female students’ during a physical education session. Fifty-two adolescent female students were divided into a verbal encouragement group (VEG, 15.57 ± 0.50 years) and a contrast group (CG, 15.50 ± 0.51 years). Anthropometric measurements, soccer-specific cardiorespiratory endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1; YYIRT1), muscle power (countermovement jump (CMJ); 5-jump-test (5JT), agility (t-test), sprint speed (30 m)), technical skill, and heart rate (HR) responses during SSG were measured. Additionally, heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the SSG, and video analysis was used to quantify technical actions. The independent samples Student’s t-test was used to compare the difference between the verbal encouragement group and the CG. There was no difference between the verbal encouragement group and the CG in anthropometric characteristics and 30 m speed (p > 0.05). The total distance measured with YO-YOIRT level 1, t-test performance, CMJ, and 5JT performance results of the verbal encouragement group were considerably higher than the CG (p = 0.001, ES = 1.8, large; p = 0.001, ES = 1.09, large; and p = 0.001, ES = 1.15, large, respectively). Furthermore, the ball contacts, successful balls, and average heart rate were higher in the verbal encouragement group compared with the CG (p = 0.001, ES = 3.69, large; p = 0.001, ES = 5.25, large; and p = 0.001, ES = 5.14, large, respectively). These results could inform teachers of the usefulness of verbal encouragement in the teaching-learning process in the school setting during small-sided soccer games.
Reducing food waste is an important objective in order to raise awareness of the negative effects it produces. The lack of information regarding the efficient use of food will affect the environment and the health of each of us. The objective of the paper is to present the behaviour of Romanian consumers regarding food waste. By means of a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 267 consumers, the following aspects were investigated: the place where they serve meals, the preparation of meals at home, purchase preferences, the motivation for food waste, and selective collection. Consumption typologies identify a higher share of food waste in urban areas and a better use of food in rural areas. The people from rural areas ate more than 50% of their meals at home. The preferred location for procuring food was, by far, the supermarket or hypermarket in both urban and rural environments. Young people throw away more waste than older food consumers. Awareness about food waste is more accentuated in young adults, without a significant correlation to the area of origin.
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is one of the most frequent types of malignancy in the human body with an increasing incidence. Short, non-coding RNA molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) can control post-transcriptional gene expression and they have a significant role in several physiological cellular processes and pathologies, including cancer. Depending on the functions of the genes, miRNAs may function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The aim of this paper was to describe the role of miRNA-34a and miRNA-221 in head and neck NMSC. Thirty-eight NMSC match paired (tumor and adjacent) tissue samples were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Total RNA was extracted and isolated from tissue samples using the phenol-chloroform (Trireagent) method according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The concentration of RNA was measured by a NanoDrop-1000 spectrophotometer. The expression level of each miRNA was calculated by threshold cycle. For all statistical tests, the 0.05 significance level was used and two-tailed p values. All analyses were conducted in an R environment for statistical computing and graphics. We found the miRNA-221 being overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (p < 0.05), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and basosquamous cell carcinoma (BSC) compared with adjacent normal tissue. Additionally, the levels of miRNA-221 were two times higher (p < 0.05) in cases where the excision of the tumor was done with positive margins (R1), which means that we are the first to highlight the potential role of miRNA-221 in the microscopical local invasion. Mi-RNA-34a expression was altered in the malignant tissue compared with the adjacent normal one both in BCC and SCC but not statistically significantly. In conclusion, NMSC are challenging because of their increasing incidence and rapidly evolving development and discovering their molecular mechanisms of action lead us to understand tumorigenesis and evolution, while also contributing to the implementation of novel therapeutic keys.
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Universitatii 1, 410087, Oradea, Bihor, Romania
Head of institution
Professor Habil., PhD, Eng. CONSTANTIN BUNGAU