University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus
  • Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
Recent publications
This study explored whether British and Malaysian drivers differ in their use of explicit (turn signals) and implicit (e.g., vehicle position, speed) communicative cues when judging the intention of other road users. Participants viewed videoclips of car drivers and motorcyclists who either continued straight or turned into a junction. The clips terminated immediately prior to any manoeuvre being made and participants were asked to judge whether or not the vehicle would turn. Explicit signals (turn indicators) were manipulated such that valid signals were made 50% of the time. Although both groups of drivers were more accurate on validly signalled trials, British drivers were more affected by signal validity, performing particularly poorly on invalid trials. British drivers were better at judging intentions of cars than motorcycles, whereas Malaysians performed better for motorcycles than cars on invalid trials. We conclude that British drivers heavily rely on explicit signals when judging intention whereas Malaysian drivers are more attuned to implicit signals. Familiarity with vehicle type may also impact performance, especially where cues are ambiguous. Implications for driving abroad and autonomous vehicles are discussed.
Sustainable biodiesel synthesis from waste, toxic and non-edible oil seeds give a sustainable opportunity to combat energy crises and environmental depreciation. A new non-edible oil of Diospyros malabarica (Malabar Ebony) was analyzed for the synthesis of eco-friendly biodiesel using newly synthesized green nanoparticles (NPs) of Cadmium oxide (CdO 2) prepared from leaf extract of Buxus papillosa via biological method followed by in situ wet impregnation approach. The highest fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of 94 wt% was attained through the process of transesterification at ideal experimental conditions i.e., 1:9 M ratio of oil to methanol, catalyst loading 0.5 wt%, experiment duration 180 min and reaction temperature of 90 • C. Optimize biodiesel yield from Diospyros malabarica using response surface methodology was also applied. Scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized for the characterization of newly synthesized CdO 2 NPs. The findings obtained from SEM revealed that CdO 2 NPs were cubic in shape. The size of CdO 2 NPs was 45 nm, which obtained from XRD analysis. EDX analysis showed 83.72 % cadmium composition. In thermogravimetric analysis, 5.2 % thermal degradation was observed which revealed that CdO 2 NPs have strong thermal stability. The production of FAME was confirmed by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonanceand Fourier transform infrared spec-troscopy techniques. 9-Octadecenoic acid is the key fatty acid with the highest abundance in the GC-MS spectrum. This study revealed that inedible oil seed of Diospyros malabarica and newly synthesized green NPs of CdO 2 has the highest potential to be used as highly reliable cost-effective and sustainable entrants for synthesizing eco-friendly diesel which is ultimately open up the avenue for further research in the exploration and application of economical feedstock for biodiesel industry at a larger scale.
There is a great demand for a clean, economical, and long-term energy source, due to the depletion of fossil fuels. Large-scale production of microalgae biomass for biofuel production is likely attributable to several challenges, including the high cost of photobioreactors, the need for a sustainable medium for optimum development, and time-consuming algal growth monitoring techniques. Firstly, the research novelty aims at improving the strategy of recycling culture media for semi-batch cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris. Two cycles were performed with varying amounts of recycled medium replacement to evaluate algal growth and biochemical content. As compared to all other culture ratio combinations, the mixing ratio of recycled medium to fresh medium is at 40 % (40RB) combination yielded the greatest biomass growth (4.52 g/L), lipid (317.40 mg/g), protein (280.57 mg/g), and carbohydrate (451.37 mg/g) content. Next, custom vision was applied to Chlorella vulgaris maturing stages, and a unique digital architecture framework was developed. The iteration model delivers result interpretation with an accuracy of more than 92 % of every data set based on the trained Model Performance.
Concerns have been raised about the effects of fossil fuel combustion on global warming and climate change. Fuel consumer behavior is also heavily influenced by factors such as fluctuating fuel prices and the need for a consistent and reliable fuel supply. Microalgae fuel is gaining popularity in the aviation industry as a potential source of energy diversification. Microalgae can grow in saltwater or wastewater, capture CO2 from the atmosphere and produce lipids without requiring a large amount of land. As a result, the production of oil from microalgae poses no threat to food availability. The low carbon footprint of microalgae-derived fuels has the potential to mitigate the impact of traditional aviation fuels derived from petroleum on climate change and global warming. Therefore, aviation fuels derived from microalgae have the potential to be a more environmentally friendly and sustainable alternative to conventional fuels. Gathering microalgal species with a high lipid content, drying them, and turning them into aviation fuel is an expensive process. The use of biofuels derived from microalgae in the aviation industry is still in its infancy, but there is room for growth. This study analyses the potential routes already researched, their drawbacks in implementation, and the many different conceptual approaches that can be used to produce sustainable aviation fuel from microalgal lipids. Microalgae species with fast-growing rates require less space and generate lipids that can be converted into biofuel without imperiling food security. The key challenges in algal-based aviation biofuel include decreased lipid content, harvesting expenses, and drying procedure that should be enhanced and optimized to increase process viability.
Polysaccharide nanoconjugates are becoming popular due to various reasons, including increased water solubility, capability to control the drug release at the target site, and decreased side effects. At the cellular level, polysaccharide nanoconjugates can be designed for receptors with the aim to improve cancer diagnosis. The nanoconjugates may also be used in delivering genes. The overview of nanoconjugates formulated using polysaccharides for precise diagnosis, mitigation, and treatment of disease has been demonstrated in this chapter.
The uses of natural polysaccharides in biomedical applications including drug delivery have been growing owing to their biosafety, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Since long, natural polysaccharides are being used as drug delivery excipients, such as thickening agents, gelling agents, emulsifying agents, binding agents, disintegrating agents, swelling agents, encapsulating agents, matrix formers, foam stabilizers, and so on, in the formulations of many kinds of dosage forms. To improve their physicochemical and functional properties to be used as high-quality excipients in tablets, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, gels and hydrogels, films and patches, scaffolds, and so on, natural polysaccharides are being tailor made via chemical derivatization of various functional groups (such as oxidation, phosphorylation, sulfation, thiolation, carboxymethylation, amidation, esterification, etc.), graft copolymerization, and crosslinking (using different crosslinkers). The current chapter deals with a comprehensive discussion about various drug delivery dosage forms, which have been reported to be composed of tailor-made natural polysaccharides.
Starch is well-known category of natural polymers being extensively explored in pharmaceutical industry and mainly obtained from different plant parts and organs. To maximize the utility of starches as excipients to develop various drug delivery dosage forms, their functional properties can be modified by chemical modifications, i.e., oxidation, esterification, etherification, cross-linking, grafting, and so on. Chemically modified starch materials have been found capable of meeting the requirements of pharmaceutical excipients. The present chapter provides details on various chemical modifications of starches and the uses of chemically modified starch materials as pharmaceutical excipients in various drug delivery formulations.
Sustainable and cheaper intercession coupled with green technologies could be the feasible and finest approach for addressing the solicitous snags like energy crises, greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletions globally. Biodiesel appeared as a feasible substitute to achieve net zero emissions globally. Biodiesel produced from waste, toxic and non-edible oil seeds is clean, cheaper and capable for producing greener energy which ultimately contributed positively in boosting bio-economy (close circular economy). In the present study, the potential of Carthamus lanatus L. seed oil (CSO) as novel, non-edible and waste feedstock was investigated for producing biodiesel using cobalt tungstate loaded reduced graphene oxide (CoWO 3 @rGO) as novel, green and recyclable catalysts. The catalyst (CoWO 3 @rGO) was synthesized via Hummers method followed by characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Optimize biodiesel yield (99.7 wt%) was achieved with optimum reaction conditions of 0.8 wt% catalyst, oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:12 and temperature 65 • C for 2 h reaction time. The optimized Carthamus lanatus L. biodiesel (CBD) yield was also predicted by drawing 3D surface plots with response surface methodology (Box-Behnken design). The synthesized CBD was also characterized using latest techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1 H and 13 C), Gas Chromatography/Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and FT-IR. The green nanocomposite exhibits excellent reusability of seven times without significant drop in its reactivity during transesterification process. Fuel properties of fatty acid methyl ester complied with biodiesel international standards EN Fuel 332 (2023) 126265 2 greener and sustainable energy approach. The acceptance and adoption of the green energy approach could bring positive outcomes in the environment which ultimately create healthier societal and economic development.
Despite being directly related to anthropogenic consumption and production, researchers have paid less attention to understanding the dynamics of non-methane volatile organic compounds. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the persistence of potential shocks to non-methane volatile organic compounds in 20 developed from 1820 to 2019 performing traditional unit root approaches and a newly developed Fourier quantile unit root test. Great portion of the empirical results obtained by traditional unit root tests reveal that the sectoral non-methane volatile organic compounds follow a non-stationary process, while the Fourier quantile unit root test indicate quite different results. The Fourier quantile test shows that non-methane volatile organic compounds are stationary in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, France and Austria. In the other 15 countries, government interventions to reduce non-methane volatile organic compounds can have lasting effects and success. The inferences and policy outcomes of the empirical results are discussed in the main body of the paper.
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), commonly known as biocorrosion, is a destructive phenomenon that can be initiated by the bioactivities of microbes. It can occur in the diesel mixture storage tank, especially due to the presence of biodiesel, because the biodegradability characteristic of biodiesel results in the enhancement of microbial growth and also the MIC process. The Bacillus genus, such as B. licheniformis, is one of the microbes that is detected in the diesel storage tank and can contribute to MIC pitting phenomena. This study examined biocorrosion in ST-37 carbon steel by B. licheniformis, with variation of biodiesel concentrations (B0, B15, B20, B30, and B100). The results showed that the bioactivity of B. licheniformis increased in all biodiesel concentration cultures compared to the sterile medium. Then the highest corrosion rate was found for samples dipped in the B15-blend. However, the corrosion rate decreased on the specimen immersed in the equal and higher than B20-blend, due to thicker and more uniform biofilm formation. In addition, B. licheniformis can produce γ-polyglutamate, which acts as a corrosion inhibitor. This shows that B. licheniformis-mediated biocorrosion may promote the use of the B100 product as an environmentally friendly biofuel. However, it is important to consider the effects of B. licheniformis on diesel blend medium, especially biodegradation. Furthermore, the study of the production, extraction and implementation of γ-polyglutamate as a green corrosion inhibitor may be very useful in the future as a corrosion prevention solution.
Policymakers in the Global South are drawn at foreign direct investments (FDI) for they are instrumental to economic growth and industriali�zation. However, confronted with a plethora of determinants, sometimes confusing, policy�makers are still puzzled concerning the lever to act on to attract FDI inflows. To respond to such a pressing need, we assess the effects of human capital, financial development, and macroeco�nomic policies—called economic fundamentals— on FDI inflows in developing countries and eval�uate the extent to which institutions strengthen the effects of the very economic fundamentals. We find that advancing the financial market would attract more foreign investors. Our findings also harmer that ameliorating the quality of institutions reinforces the effect of human capital on FDI inflows. Therefore, there is a need for fast�tracking financial development and investing in human capital in developing countries. More to the point, Policymakers in the Global South are advised to undergo institutional reforms to improve government effectiveness and reduce corrupt practices.
Palladium (Pd) membranes are a crucial device for separating hydrogen and are usually operated at normal pressure on the permeate side with a single outlet. Instead of these common operating conditions, the difference between using a double outlet and a single outlet is studied. Four different vacuum degrees (15–60 kPa) are applied on the permeate side, and the results are compared with the non-vacuum operations. Situations under the vacuum and the effects of temperatures (300–400 °C) on H2 permeation are discussed. Finally, the influences of different feed gas mixtures (H2/N2, H2/CO2, and H2/CO) on the Pd membrane performance are investigated. The results show that there is no difference in H2 permeation impact the single outlet and the double outlet on the permeate side. When a vacuum is imposed on the permeate side, the H2 permeation rate and H2 recovery are efficiently intensified, that is, when the pressure difference is 9 atm, they increase from 73.21 to 84.51% and from 0.0035378 to 0.0040808 mol∙s⁻¹, respectively. Moreover, the H2 recovery can be improved to up to 68.44% under a vacuum degree of 60 kPa. At a given Reynolds number, an increase in temperature increases the H2 permeation rate but lowers its recovery, stemming from more H2 in the feed gas. This study also investigates the feed gas of H2/N2 under a vacuum to provide a useful insight into H2 production and separation from ammonia, and the results are compared with two different feed gases of H2/CO2 and H2/CO mixtures. The results suggest that the impurities (i.e., N2, CO2, and CO) have a negative influence on the Pd membrane, which causes the H2 permeation rate to decrease, and the effect of N2 is the least significant compared to the other two.
Motivated by the growing interest in the application of renewable fuels and combustion efficiency, gaining a detailed understanding of the effect of oxygenated additives on the structure and shape of the biodiesel laminar coflow diffusion flame is of fundamental and practical importance. In the experiment, the amount of ethanol and methyl formate in the nitrogen-diluted biodiesel mixtures was 10% vol. while maintaining a constant fuel mole fraction. The results showed that adding ethanol and methyl formate decreased the flame height regardless of the variation of the fuel jet velocities, with methyl formate demonstrating a greater reduction effect on the flame height. Besides that, the addition of these oxygenated additives has a significant influence on the flame stability, which was characterised by the parameters such as liftoff height, liftoff velocity, and blowout velocity. The oxygenated additives addition reduced the flame stability limit, with methyl formate showing a greater decrease in flame stability limit based on the observation of the blowout velocity. The dilution effect of the oxygenated additives was identified as the dominant effect on the flame structure and stabilisation through the decoupling analysis when compared to the thermal and chemical effects. Further analysis revealed that the difference in the influence of the oxygenated additives on the combustion characteristics was attributed to the physicochemical properties of the fuel mixtures, such as the molecular diffusivity, energy density, and fuel decomposition. These parameters can be fundamentally related to the difference in the molecular structures between ethanol and methyl formate. On the other hand, the addition of these oxygenated additives decreased both carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations; however, the differences in the pollutant concentrations between ethanol and methyl formate were insignificant.
Background This paper presents a review of the literature and trends related to social values and sustainable development and describes a set of case studies from a variety of community-based projects which illustrate the advantages that social values bring about as part of efforts to promote sustainability. Three approaches were used to develop this study: a bibliometric analysis of the topic “social values and sustainable development”, an analysis of case studies that concretely present community projects addressing social values and sustainability, and the development of a framework linking up bibliometric clusters and the cases studies. Results While the bibliometric analysis revealed clusters where social values are strongly connected with sustainable development, the case studies indicated the lack of a common terminology and understanding of the relation between social values, sustainable development, and community-based projects. Conclusions The study concludes by suggesting a set of measures that could be deployed to better take social values into account when planning policies or making decisions related to community projects.
The Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO) Scheme was established by the government of Malaysia to mandate MSPO certification on all palm oil stakeholders within the country by year 2019 as an initiative for sustainable palm oil production. However, independent smallholders (ISH) who account for 16.71% of the total palm oil plantation area in Malaysia have shown a low MSPO registration rate of 24.82% by midyear 2020. Therefore, it is vital to encourage MSPO certification and incorporation of sustainable production practices in ISHs in order to maintain the supply of certified palm oil. The current study has compared the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) on the uncertified and MSPO-certified fresh fruit bunches (FFB) production among independent smallholders to determine the impacts of MSPO implementation. Based on the LCA findings using ReCiPe 2016 Endpoint (H), a net decline in environmental impacts will result when independent smallholders adopt MSPO certification. With at least 10.116% decrease in all impact categories except the Mineral Resource Scarcity category (18.065% increase), the endpoint results indicate that MSPO implementation in independent smallholders can overall reduce the environmental impacts from Human Health (99.913%), Ecosystem Quality (99.958%), and Resources (90.223%) categories. The study also finds out that certified ISH systems can further improve by replacing mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers. In terms of LCC, the net present value in MSPO-certified ISHs (127,092.56 USD) for a 3.94 ha plantation and 25-year life cycle was found to be approximately 39% higher than uncertified ISHs (91,017.84 USD), indicating an increased economic profitability in an ISH system when MSPO is implemented.
Supply chain managers are coming under pressure to accommodate multiple demands in their decision-making processes, including consideration of environmental-friendly, resilient, and digitally integrated supply chains. And a supplier selection and order allocation (SS/OA) solution that integrates such demands has not yet been identified. Thus, this article proposes a framework that integrates digitalization, economic, green, and resilient SS/OA criteria and tests this framework by means of multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) algorithms and multi-objective optimization approach methodologies. The applied methodologies can help purchasing managers to better evaluate suppliers based on multiple criteria and take direct action towards improving priority areas and order allocation. This article advances the current debate on supplier selection by proposing and testing an integrated framework, called ‘digitalized econogresilience’.
In this study, black chokeberries were dehydrated by sequential calcium pretreatment and ultrasonic/microwave drying. The investigation focused on exploring the mechanisms of water transport and metabolic pathways of polyphenols. A diffusional model was modified by considering the factors such as shrinkage, porosity and temperature-dependent water diffusivity to simulate the moisture transport. Accordingly, the Spatio-temporal evolutions of cytoplasm water, extracellular water and total water content in black chokeberry throughout drying were successfully revealed. On the other hand, the quality attributes involved in the metabolic pathways of polyphenols, i.e., free/bound phenolics, cell wall pectin, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) or peroxidase (POD), and viscoelastic properties under these drying treatments were intensively analysed. Through correlation analysis, it was found that CaCl2 pretreatment strengthened the oxidation of free procyanidin B2 by PPO. In contrast, both ultrasound and microwave drying weakened the negative influence of PPO on the stability of free rutin. Besides, temperature rise promoted the loss of free polyphenols and the degradation of cell wall pectin, weakening the attachment of bounded-caffeic acid on the cell wall. This investigation provides new physical and chemical understandings about fruit drying and reveals the potential benefits of hybrid drying technologies.
Falls are common and often lead to serious physical and psychological consequences for older persons. The occurrence of falls are usually attributed to the interaction between multiple risk factors. The clinical evaluation of falls risks is time-consuming as a result, hence limiting its availability. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to develop a clustering-based algorithm to determine falls risk. Data from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR), comprising 1411 subjects aged ≥55 years, were utilized. The proposed algorithm was developed through the stages of: data pre-processing, feature identification and extraction with either t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbour Embedding (t-SNE) or principal component analysis (PCA)), clustering (K-means clustering, Hierarchical clustering, and Fuzzy C-means clustering) and characteristics interpretation with statistical analysis. A total of 1279 subjects and 9 variables were selected for clustering after the data pre-possessing stage. Using feature extraction with the t-SNE and the K-means clustering algorithm, subjects were clustered into low, intermediate A, intermediate B and high fall risk groups which corresponded with fall occurrence of 13%, 19%, 21% and 31% respectively. Slower gait, poorer balance, weaker muscle strength, presence of cardiovascular disorder, poorer cognitive performance, and advancing age were the key variables identified. The proposed fall risk clustering algorithm grouped the subjects according to features. Such a tool could serve as a case identification or clinical decision support tool for clinical practice to enhance access to falls prevention efforts.
Using 5-minute high-frequency data, we study realized volatility spillovers in major cryptocurrencies, employing generalized forecast error variance decomposition. We also include COVID19 period observations and report time-varying and asymmetric connectedness across various cryptocurrencies using realized volatilities and semi-variances. Our study provides diverse connections after distinctly considering good- and bad volatilities, which is unique in the related literature. Bitcoin and Ethereum are central to the system and dominant transmitters of positive shocks, while Litecoin propagates negative shocks abundantly. Ripple and Stellar are the least connected currencies with others, whereas Cardano and EOS are isolated in the network. This feature makes these currencies suitable diversifiers in a portfolio with other cryptocurrencies. Further, the majority of these connections are asymmetric in the long- and short-run. The time-varying and asymmetric nature of connections offers potentially unique opportunities for diversification and portfolios strategies. Total volatility connectedness is not only significantly enhanced but also changed in its nature during the COVID19 period. We observe no significant changes in results after the robustness check through varying lengths of the rolling-window. The findings are important to crypto investors and regulatory authorities for better diversification strategies and effective market oversight, respectively.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a severe global issue that requires immediate attention. MicroRNA expression abnormalities are possibly disease-specific and may contribute to GDM pathological processes. To date, there is limited data on miRNA profiling in GDM, especially that involves a longitudinal study. Here, we performed miRNA expression profiling in the entire duration of pregnancy (during pregnancy until parturition and postpartum) using a miRNA- polymerase chain reaction array (miRNA-PCRArray) and in-silico analysis to identify unique miRNAs expression and their anticipated target genes in Malay maternal serum. MiRNA expression levels and their unique potential as biomarkers were explored in this work. In GDM patients, the expression levels of hsa-miR-193a, hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-23a, and hsa-miR-361 were significantly increased, but miR-130a was significantly downregulated. The area under the curve (AUC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve study demonstrated that hsa-miR-193a (AUC = 0.89060 ± 04,470, P = 0.0001), hsa-miR-21 (AUC = 0.89500 ± 04,411, P = 0.0001), and miR-130a (AUC = 0.6939 ± 0.05845, P = 0.0025) had potential biomarker features in GDM. In-silico analysis also revealed that KLF (Kruppel-Like family of transcription factor), ZNF25 (Zinc finger protein 25), AFF4 (ALF transcription elongation factor 4), C1orf143 (long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 2869), SRSF2 (serine and arginine rich splicing factor 2), and ZNF655 (Zinc finger protein 655) were prominent genes targeted by the common nodes of miR23a, miR130, miR193a, miR21, and miR361.Our findings suggest that circulating microRNAs in the first trimester has the potential for GDM screening in the Malay population.
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5,733 members
C.M.M. Chin
  • Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering
Yousif Abdalla Abakr
  • Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering
Tapan Kumar Nath
  • School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences
Cheng Foh Le
  • School of Biosciences
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