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ABSTRACT: This paper aims to propose a framework to manage the transition to e-learning in Higher Education by fixing a legal framework, a roadmap and key performance indicators for the recognition of online Courses as equivalent to in-class course lacks of a clear legal and procedural framework in most of the countries in the world. The lack of legislation creates a lack of visibility and transparency on the e-learning market in general and the distance learning market in particular. As a core element of recognition we propose to base the equivalence on the model of Competence Quotient (CQ) that we present in this paper. A clear legal framework for the recognition of online Courses as equivalent to in class course will create visibility and transparency on the e-learning market in general and distance learning in particular for Higher Education.
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ABSTRACT: Reactions of the hydrated electron with divalent aqueous transition-metal ions, Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), and Mn(2+), were studied using a pulse radiolysis technique. The kinetics study was carried out at a constant pressure of 120 bar with temperatures up to 300 °C. The rate constants at room temperature agree with those reported in the literature. The reaction of Cd(2+) is approximately diffusion-limited, but none of the first-row transition-metal ion reactions are diffusion-controlled at any temperature studied. The activation energies obtained from the Arrhenius plots are in the range 14.5-40.6 kJ/mol. Pre-exponential factors are quite large, between 1 × 10(13) and 7 × 10(15) M(-1) s(-1). There appears to be a large degree of entropy-enthalpy compensation in the activation of Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), and Cu(2+), as the larger pre-exponential factors strongly correlate with higher activation energy. Saturation of the ionic strength effect suggests that these reactions could be long-range nonadiabatic electron "jumps", but Marcus theory is incompatible with direct formation of ground state (M(+))aq ions. A self-consistent explanation is that electron transfer occurs to excited states derived from the metal 4s orbitals. The ionic strength effect in the Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) reactions suggests that these proceed by short-range adiabatic electron attachment involving breakdown of the water coordination shell.
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ABSTRACT: The authors compared measurement-based care with standard treatment in major depression. Outpatients with moderate to severe major depression were consecutively randomized to 24 weeks of either measurement-based care (guideline- and rating scale-based decisions; N=61), or standard treatment (clinicians' choice decisions; N=59). Pharmacotherapy was restricted to paroxetine (20-60 mg/day) or mirtazapine (15-45 mg/day) in both groups. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR). Time to response (a decrease of at least 50% in HAM-D score) and remission (a HAM-D score of 7 or less) were the primary endpoints. Outcomes were evaluated by raters blind to study protocol and treatment. Significantly more patients in the measurement-based care group than in the standard treatment group achieved response (86.9% compared with 62.7%) and remission (73.8% compared with 28.8%). Similarly, time to response and remission were significantly shorter with measurement-based care (for response, 5.6 weeks compared with 11.6 weeks, and for remission, 10.2 weeks compared with 19.2 weeks). HAM-D scores decreased significantly in both groups, but the reduction was significantly larger for the measurement-based care group (-17.8 compared with -13.6). The measurement-based care group had significantly more treatment adjustments (44 compared with 23) and higher antidepressant dosages from week 2 to week 24. Rates of study discontinuation, adverse effects, and concomitant medications did not differ between groups. The results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of measurement-based care for outpatients with moderate to severe major depression, suggesting that this approach can be incorporated in the clinical care of patients with major depression.
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Rg score distribution
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