This mixed methods study examined the manifestations of deference behavior in teaching-focused academic librarians in higher education. The study highlights examples of why teaching-focused academic librarians engage in deference behavior particularly when working with disciplinary faculty colleagues in the classroom. Findings indicate that despite being extremely qualified and competent, teaching-focused academic librarians often engage in deference behavior, and yield power to their disciplinary faculty colleagues out of fear of losing their jobs or being regarded as necessary, as well as a strategy to keep their jobs and maintain access to classrooms. Understanding the perspectives of teaching-focused academic librarians is crucial to advancing and sustaining the library profession, in addition to expanding the discourse of how disciplinary faculty can work with their librarian colleagues to dismantle the current structures and systems in place that uphold inequitable practices. Implications for research and practice are provided in order to bring awareness to the underlying reasons for deference behavior in teaching-focused academic librarians, and garner support for teaching-focused academic librarians who continue to navigate rocky terrain with their faculty colleagues.
In this study, we consider the effects of the U.S military participation in direct and indirect foreign conflicts, defense budget announcements, and various political factors have on the abnormal returns to five largest U.S. defense companies’ share prices. We conducted this analysis by using a fixed effect panel approach along with event studies, using quarterly data over 30 years, from 1990 through the end of 2019. Our findings contribute to the largely dated and highly fragmented literature on the geopolitical drivers of the MIC (military-industrial complex) shares performance. We find that, in contrast to the established literature, defense budgets announcements have complex and dynamic statistically significant positive impacts on defense company stock performance through current period budget announcements, changes to the prior budget announcements and lagged budget announcements. We also find that a single party control over the House of Representatives and the Senate has no significant impact on abnormal returns, whereas solely having a Republican President in office acts as a significant catalyst for excess returns to MIC stocks when compared to the Democratic Party Presidencies. Consistent with potential for overshooting expectations by investors, direct conflict participation has a significantly positive impact on stock performance. This effect is almost fully moderated by the subsequent period negative reaction. Overall, our evidence suggests that defense companies perform better in those periods with greater likelihood of unexpected conflict-related news, greater geopolitical volatility, less informationally efficient markets, and the potential for conflict escalation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of determinants of abnormal returns to MIC stocks that takes explicit account of the nature of U.S. participation in a military conflict (direct vs indirect), while controlling for an exhaustive range of complex budgetary and political factors and lags.
Bashania fargesii is one of the main food sources for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountains and an important part of forest regeneration after cultivation. The species typically invades old fields through clonal rhizome growth, but we lack knowledge on the importance of clonal integration in this response to episodic changes. Here, we first established 25 transects at eight sites to reveal the invasion of B. fargesii into old-fields. Secondly, we examined the existence of clonal integration (water sharing) in this species using acid fuchsin dye (0.5 %; m/v). Thirdly, we set up a controlled experiment to examine whether clonal integration helps bamboo regeneration under giant panda herbivory. Together, the experiments help understand the use of B. fargesii for giant panda forest management. B. fargesii invasion into old-fields was detected and decreased during change; that is, older fields had less invasion. Clonal integration occurred distally (to old-fields) and proximally (to bamboo forests), with maximum distal distance 3.84 m and proximal 2.13 m. Rhizome severing and culm clipping initially enhanced the performance of bamboo regeneration, especially number of leaves and branches (foraging). Furthermore, for the second year, number of leaves and branches were significantly more while we found no significant effects in the third year. In conclusion, B. fargesii is one of the pioneer plants invading into old-fields but the invasion decreases with change. Ramets at the boundary of old-fields and bamboo forest share water via clonal integration. Intermediate episodic changes (including ramet disconnection and moderate herbivory) could initially help B. fargesii growth, though the impact lessened over time. These findings provided some scientific bases for the management of B. fargesii bamboo forests for giant panda habitat; additional water/soluble nutrients and intermediate episodic changes could be considered for future Bashania bamboo forest management.
Although the idea of consolidation has seemed to enjoy relative unanimity, the questions of who and how to consolidate have always proved a greater challenge. In this article, we describe rehabilitation counseling professionals’ thoughts about these more challenging questions. More specifically, we sought greater understanding about whether private rehabilitation counseling providers and educators would like to see their specializations represented in a consolidated association. We also sought participant perspectives about how to consolidate through a combination of quantitative and qualitative inquiry. Results suggest that most participants desired to see a more inclusive consolidated association. Opinions were more mixed on how to consolidate the existing associations, with the greatest frequency of participants being undecided. Implications and recommendations grounded in the business and professionalization literature offer insights into how the discipline can proactively move forward in an effort to sustain our preeminence among human service providers in the provision of counseling and vocational services to people with disabilities.
Most professions are represented by one unified association, but not rehabilitation counseling. From its earliest years of professionalization, rehabilitation counseling has been represented by multiple associations. Initially, representing the discipline through multiple associations was deemed necessary to capture nuanced differences within the field. However, the existence of multiple associations has come under increasing scrutiny in the face of declining membership and a changing professional and political landscape. The lively debates of the 1970s and 1980s have more recently devolved into what seems to be an apathy induced stalemate on this issue of consolidation. The primary aim of this article is to revitalize a conversation about the future of rehabilitation counseling associations by assessing professionals’ perspectives on consolidation. Data from 2,608 rehabilitation counseling professionals indicated that the majority of participants either favored consolidating into a single association or were unsure of their choice. Fewer than 7% of respondents opposed consolidation. We conclude the article with a brief discussion of actions that are supported by the research.
Braille reading consists of three basic components: tactile sensitivity, memorization of dot placement, and positional perception or detection of the location of the dots within the braille cell. Difficulty in any of those three areas leads to trouble decoding words. The presence of a visual spatial learning disability greatly decreases a student’s ability to determine positional perception. Multi-sensory reading strategies have proven effective for sighted readers who have learning disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of multi-sensory strategies when used with a braille reader with a visual spatial learning disability. In this study, they were proven effective. Strategies used with this student will be shared.
The purpose of this study was to survey a random sample of police departments in Colorado to assess their views on the impact of marijuana legalization in the state. While police perceptions have been used in prior research to assess other topics, very few studies have assessed police perceptions of marijuana legalization. To address this, police officers and sheriff deputies at 64 randomly selected police departments across Colorado were administered surveys that assessed the impact marijuana has had on enforcement and their personal perceptions of marijuana. In addition, qualitative questions were asked to explore these topics in greater detail. The findings of the 131 respondents suggest that most police officers in Colorado are slightly supportive of legalization, but have noted that it has made their job more difficult.
Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) training has the potential to influence graduates’ decisions as physical educators. Utilizing themes from Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations and Lawson’s Occupational Socialization theories, we focused on graduates from a single PETE program which, beginning in 2007, began integrating content, expectations, and experiences relating to an expanded role of the physical educator such as in comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine transfer in terms of university training leading to teaching practices in expanded physical activity programming. Method: An electronic questionnaire was sent to 335 graduates from May 2000 through May 2019. Sixty-seven graduates’ questionnaires were investigated looking at perceptions of CSPAP as an innovation, current expanded physical activity (PA) offerings, and memories of PETE. Additionally, 13 participants participated in a school visit and interview which acted as a fidelity check for self-reported levels of expanded PA programming reported in the questionnaire. Results: All 67 graduates included some amount of expanded PA programming. Positive correlations were found with perception of CSPAP as an innovation, for both year of graduation and memory of PETE programming, thus students exposed to CSPAP programming during PETE were implementing components at their schools at higher levels. Conclusion: There is positive potential for professional socialization to influence graduates’ practices. Perceptions of CSPAP as an innovation were positive and support the promotion of triability and starting small when PETE programs encourage expanded PA programming.
Young children with visual impairment and their families often require specialized assistance through early intervention to develop adaptive routines, cues, and environmental settings during mealtimes and other daily tasks. There is little empirical data in the area of mealtime routines available to support families of young children with visual impairment, and the need for research-based interventions is great. The purpose of this initial needs assessment survey was to gather information as little is already known about what teachers of students with visual impairment trained in early intervention (TSVI-EIs) and other early interventionists who work with infants and toddlers with visual impairment already know about the development of independent mealtime skills. The results of this survey indicate that early intervention professionals would like additional opportunities to learn about mealtime routine strategies for young children with visual impairment, confirm their current experiences and knowledge, and identify additional training and resources.
Immunotherapies relying on type 1 immunity have shown robust clinical responses in some cancers yet remain relatively ineffective in solid breast tumors. Polarization toward type 2 immunity and expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) confer resistance to therapy, though it remains unclear whether polarization toward type 3 immunity occurs or has a similar effect. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of type 3 Th17 and Th22 cells and their association with expanding MDSC populations in the 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma model. Th17 and Th22 were detected in the earliest measurable mass at d 14 and remained present until the final sampling on d 28. In peripheral organs, Th17 populations were significantly higher than the non-tumor bearing control and peaked early at d 7, before a palpable tumor had formed. Peripheral Th22 proportions were also significantly increased, though at later times when tumors were established. To further address the mechanism underlying type 3 immune cell and MDSC recruitment, we used CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out 4T1 tumor production of interleukin-6 (4T1-IL-6-KO), which functions in myelopoiesis, MDSC recruitment, and Th maturation. While 4T1-IL-6-KO tumor growth was similar to the control, the reduced IL-6 significantly expanded the total CD4+ Th population and Th17 in tumors, while Th22 and MDSC were reduced in all tissues; this suggests that clinical IL-6 depletion combined with immunotherapy could improve outcomes. In sum, 4T1 mammary carcinomas secrete IL-6 and other factors, to polarize and reshape Th populations and expand distinct Th17 and Th22 populations, which may facilitate tumor growth and confer immunotherapy resistance.
Historically, land tenure theory tends to present the relationships between agricultural landowners and their renter as either a dominant renter-subordinate landlord relationship where the renter holds the power in decision-making on the land, or a dominant landlord-subordinate renter relationship where the landlord maintains the power over decisions on the land. However, these relationships are much more complex and nuanced, as more recent studies have begun to emphasize. In our study, we contribute to this evolving re-orientation in land tenure theory by showing the varying ways women landowners manage their renter relationship. Using qualitative interview data from 56 women agricultural landowners in the Midwestern U.S., we add detail to the nuances that exist in the landowner-renter relationship, helping to re-orient land tenure theory by increasing the understanding of the power dynamics at play within the patriarchal structure of U.S. agriculture.
Background Nearly 20% of children in the United States experience one or more chronic health conditions. Parents of a child with a special healthcare need (CSHCN) experience increased stress caring for a child with chronic illness. Purpose The purpose of this descriptive study is to describe stress in parents of a child with chronic illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Parents of CSHCN (n = 34) were asked to fill out the Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP) and answer two questions related to caring for their child during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions The means of the PIP-F (M = 146.6, SD = 20.5) and PIP-D (M = 141.9, SD = 23.9) were significantly higher than in previous studies. There is statistically significant positive correlation between parent stress and variables of age of the child and the length of time since diagnosis. In response to the questions about the impact of COVID, nearly all parents reported COVID increased their stress and reported their stress was related to isolation, lack of resources, and concern for the mental health of other children in the household. Practice implications COVID-19 likely exacerbated feelings of stress for parents of children with chronic health conditions. Although unprecedented, COVID-19 shed light on the existing fragility and high stress of parents of CSHCN. Pediatric nurses not only care for children, but must be advocates for the mental health of their patient's parents.
This paper examines the influence of distance to biorefinery plants on agricultural land value. The research utilizes micro-level data on characteristics of parcels and the locations of ethanol facilities in Central Nebraska, USA. I employ a theoretical model and an empirical hedonic approach to determine the effect of proximity. To address potential endogeneity, the econometric model adopts an instrumental variable. Estimates from the model provide evidence that land values significantly decrease as the distance from a parcel to a biorefinery plant increases. The results also reveal a non-linearity pattern in the model, with land prices falling at a decreasing rate with distance from ethanol plants.
Hybrid zones provide valuable opportunities to understand the genomic mechanisms that promote speciation by providing insight into factors involved in intermediate stages of speciation. Here we investigate introgression in a hybrid zone between two rattlesnake species (Crotalus viridis and C. oreganus concolor) that have undergone historical allopatric divergence and recent range expansion and secondary contact. We use Bayesian genomic cline models to characterize genomic patterns of introgression between these lineages and identify loci potentially subject to selection in hybrids. We find evidence for a large number of genomic regions with biased ancestry that deviate from the genomic background in hybrids (i.e., excess ancestry loci), which tend to be associated with genomic regions with higher recombination rates. We also identify suites of excess ancestry loci that show highly correlated allele frequencies (including conspecific and heterospecific combinations) across physically unlinked genomic regions in hybrids. Our findings provide evidence for multiple multilocus evolutionary processes impacting hybrid fitness in this system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Previous studies found an onset of holistic face processing in the age range between 0–4 and 7 months of age. To validate these studies, the present study investigated infants 4 and 7 months of age with a different experimental approach. In a habituation‐dishabituation experiment, the infants were tested with stereoscopic stimuli in which stripes floated above a face, thereby occluding some parts of the face (amodal completion condition), and stereoscopic stimuli in which the same face parts floated above stripes (modal completion condition). Research with adults indicates that faces are processed holistically, that is as global wholes, in the amodal, but as independent parts in the modal completion condition, resulting in superior face recognition when the occluding bars are in front of than when they are behind the visible face parts. The present study found that infants regardless of whether they are 4 or 7 months old reliably recognized and differentiated the faces in the amodal but not in the modal completion condition. Moreover, the difference between the experimental conditions was statistically significant. These findings show that approximately at the age of 4–7 months of life, infants begin to holistically unify disjoint face parts into a coherent whole.
We examined the changes in academic qualifications of incoming freshmen to the general student population and the Academic Progress Rate (APR) of football student-athletes at universities who transition within National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). Eight institutions that made the transition between 2012 and 2017 were included to see the changes in applications received, grade point averages (GPA) of the entire incoming class, and football team APR. Data analysis consisted of pre-and post-reclassification tests in 4-year and 8-year windows to explore the duration of changes. The results showed there was a significant increase in GPA of incoming students and a significant decrease in APR of football student-athletes. The findings suggest that the transition is positively correlated with the quality of students entering the general student population, while conversely having a negative correlation with football student-athlete academic progress metrics.
Many factors may contribute to women being underrepresented and marginalized in college-level geoscience majors. Limited research has examined students’ math anxiety as a possible factor. To address the dearth of research, we conducted a qualitative study to explore the math anxiety experiences held by students in college-level geoscience classes. Through analysis of students’ written math narratives, we identified three themes capturing students’ integrated math anxiety experiences (IMAEs), which integrated students’ feelings, physiological reactions, and thoughts. Students with Thriving IMAEs liked math and had positive assessments of themselves in math. Students with Agonizing IMAEs had negative feelings and thoughts about math and experienced negative physiological reactions. Students with Persisting IMAEs had positive and negative feelings and thoughts, but thought that, ultimately, they could persist in math. A higher percentage of women than men held Agonizing IMAEs, and a lower percentage of women than men held Thriving IMAEs. Students in introductory geoscience classes had a range of IMAEs, which may have an important role in their success in class and in their decisions to take additional geoscience classes.
Chatbots have become an important part of the financial services ecosystem. To accommodate their rise, many financial firms have turned to button-input interfaces that simplify the customer-chatbot interaction. While prior work suggests that these interfaces do indeed increase the efficiency of communication, the present research investigates whether such efficiency comes at the cost of some consumers' satisfaction. Specifically, the current work draws on literature in gender-based communication styles to explore whether males versus females react differently to button-input versus more traditional text-input chatbot interfaces. Across two studies, results indicate that males evaluate button-input interfaces to be less usable than females and that this preference is reversed for more traditional text-based live chat interfaces. Underlying this effect, males perceive button-input chatbot interfaces as having lower controllability. These findings are the first to indicate that consumer demographics (such as gender) can influence usability evaluations of different chatbot interfaces.
The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of music educators at varying career stages and teaching positions who experience chronic illnesses. Participants ( n = 8) represented a variety of chronic illnesses and self-identified career stages. Research questions centered on how participants described navigating their chronic illnesses and how their illnesses impacted or influenced their work. Data included individual and focus group interviews. We found two themes. The first theme connected to realities and misconceptions of illness, including living with ever-present and often invisible symptoms and unpredictable flare-ups, which led to silence and isolation. The second theme described how participants adjusted their work with an emphasis on flexibility, including personal and professional modifications and considerations due to COVID-19. Recommendations are described in terms of professional support, representation, understanding, communication, community, self-advocacy, and broadening the scope of teacher wellness.
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