Adult learning facilitators in any setting (ALFAS) seek to facilitate learning that is lifelong and meaningful. The purpose of this interpretive research study was to explore how instructional designers (IDs) construct knowledge when preparing graduate faculty to develop and teach courses online. The study involved five IDs and their perceptions of their knowledge construction when collaborating with graduate faculty to transition their courses to online instruction. The four main themes that emerged from the data were learning community or community of practice, individual experiences as adult educators, individual experiences as adult learners, and challenges to the learning process. These themes broaden the understanding of IDs’ perceived knowledge construction within a constructivist framework, an area that can inform adult educators and workplace learning as online instruction continues to gain much momentum.
Purpose Greater femoral internal rotation (via anteversion or passive hip ROM) is associated with knee biomechanics thought to contribute to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, but it is unknown if femoral internal rotation contributes to actual ACL injury occurrence. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantify the extent to which femoral anteversion and hip range of motion (ROM) influence knee biomechanics consistent with ACL injury and actual ACL injury occurrence. Methods Using PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, CINAHL, SportDiscus, and Scopus databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were available passive hip ROM or femoral anteversion measure, ACL injury OR biomechanical analysis of functional task. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full texts when warranted. Included studies were submitted to Downs & Black Quality Assessment Tool. Meta-analyses were conducted for comparisons including at least two studies. Results Twenty-three studies were included (11 injury outcome, 12 biomechanical outcome). Decreased internal rotation ROM was significantly associated with history of ACL injury (MD -5.02°; 95% CI [-8.77°—-1.27°]; p = 0.01; n = 10). There was no significant effect between passive external rotation and ACL injury (MD -2.62°; 95% CI [-5.66°—- 0.41°]; p = 0.09; n = 9) Participants displaying greater frontal plane knee projection angle had greater passive external rotation (MD 4.77°; 95% CI [1.17° – 8.37°]; p = 0.01; n = 3). There was no significant effect between femoral anteversion and ACL injury (MD -0.46°; 95% CI [-2.23°—1.31°]; p = 0.61; n = 2). No within-sex differences were observed between injured and uninjured males and females ( p range = 0.09 – 0.63). Conclusion Though individuals with injured ACLs have statistically less passive internal and external rotation, the observed heterogeneity precludes generalizability. There is no evidence that femoral anteversion influences biomechanics or ACL injury. Well-designed studies using reliable methods are needed to investigate biomechanical patterns associated with more extreme ROM values within each sex, and their prospective associations with ACL injury. Level of evidence: IV.
Objective The purpose of this study is to examine how cannabis legalization and corresponding taxation would affect the supply-side of the cannabis market. Specifically, the study considers various scenarios in which Oklahoma legalizes recreational cannabis for adult use and simulates changes in state-level market sales for other legal states and the average grower profits in Oklahoma. We assume that legalizing recreational cannabis in medical-only states would significantly increase the demand quantity in the legalized states and the local government would levy a significant level of tax on recreational cannabis. These assumptions are based on the post-legalization phenomena in other legalized US states. Method We simulate outcomes in the cannabis industry under the assumption of representative consumers with constant elasticity of substitution demand behavior and profit-maximizing firms with a Cobb-Douglas profit function. All agents are assumed to take exogenous prices as given. We calibrate the model using state-level sales data from 2020 and explore potential policies in Oklahoma and at the federal level. Results We find that, under the scenarios we consider, legalization of recreational cannabis in Oklahoma would lead to a decrease in the quantity of cannabis sold in Oklahoma’s medical cannabis market as well as decreases in the quantity of cannabis sold in other states on average. Furthermore, we find that as the excise tax rate on recreational cannabis in Oklahoma is increased, the demand quantity in recreational cannabis market would decrease while the other markets’ demand quantity would increase on average. As the elasticity of substitution between state-level products increases, the overall demand quantity would increase and the market quantity across states become more sensitive to Oklahoma’s tax policies. This pattern could become starker as the elasticity of substitution between recreational and medical cannabis increases. In terms of profit, heavy taxation and price decrease due to legalization would significantly decrease cannabis producers’ production and profit levels unless the cost reduction strategies complement legalization. Conclusion Based on our results, the legalization of recreational cannabis has the potential to generate tax revenue to fund critical government projects and services. However, such legalization would have to be done carefully because heavy excise taxes would decrease the legal cannabis market demand and growers’ profit, which would incentivize producers and consumers to move to the illicit cannabis market. Policymakers would have to compromise between the levels of interstate transportation and taxation to ensure that cannabis suppliers also realize some profit within the cannabis supply chain.
The aims of this study were to investigate glucosinolate variations in Chinese cabbage cultivars at different growth periods. Glucosinolates in two types of Chinese cabbage (Xiayangbai and Zaoshu-5) at different growth periods (seeds, germination, seedling, and rosette period) were investigated. Thirteen glucosinolates were identified and quantified using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Concentrations of the glucosinolates were significantly different between Xiayangbai and Zaoshu-5. The seed period generated the highest concentration of glucosinolates, and aliphatic glucosinolate predominated in seeds, seedling, and leaves of the rosette as well as during germination. However, the dominant glucosinolate in the roots was an aromatic glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). In addition, glucoerucin was only found in the roots of rosettes. There were positive significant correlations with each other among gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoraphanin, glucoalyssin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Our results released the metabolism pathways of glucosinolates in Chinese cabbage, which provided scientific evidence to develop functional foods with higher glucosinolate.
Vertical displacement is a common concrete slab sidewalk deficiency, which may cause trip hazards and reduce wheelchair accessibility. This paper presents an automatic approach for trip hazard detection and mapping based on deep learning. A low-cost mobile LiDAR scanner was used to obtain full-width as-is conditions of sidewalks, after which a method was developed to convert the scanned 3D point clouds into 2D RGB orthoimages and elevation images. Then, a deep learning-based model was developed for pixelwise segmentation of concrete slab joints. Algorithms were developed to extract different types of joints of straight and curved sidewalks from the segmented images. Vertical displacement was evaluated by measuring elevation differences of adjacent concrete slab edges parallel to the boundaries of joints, based on which potential trip hazards were identified. In the end, the detected trip hazards and normal sidewalk joints were geo-visualized with specific information on Web GIS. Experiments demonstrated the proposed approach performed well for segmenting joints from images, with a highest segmentation IoU (Intersection over Union) of 0.88, and achieved similar results compared with manual assessment for detecting and mapping trip hazards but with a higher efficiency. The developed approach is cost- and time-effective, which is expected to enhance sidewalk assessment and improve sidewalk safety for the general public.
The on-demand economy (or gig economy) is touted “the future of work” characterized by heterogeneous laborers “on the cloud.” Turnover intention (TI) models have been developed to describe employees in the conventional settings and thus may be insufficient for understanding on-demand workers. This study aims to fill this important gap and beyond. We derive a model of discontinuance intention (DI) where job satisfaction is a prominent mediator of the effect of reward fairness. We further theorize and test how and why on-demand workers’ dual commitments toward their online communities arising from workers’ informal social interactions (ISI) may create boundary conditions for the mediating role of job satisfaction. Data were collected from a large sample of 1493 on-demand workers over a four-year span and facilitated the analysis of a moderated mediation model. Results indicate that job satisfaction largely mediates a negative relationship between workers’ perceptions that their rewards are just (i.e., fairness of rewards) and their intention to discontinue work for the on-demand firm. Moreover, workers’ dual commitments toward their online peer communities (OPCs) disrupted this mediating effect. More interestingly, the dual commitments did not moderate the mediation path equally. Overall, our theoretical model and empirical results delineate how discontinuance intention can be affected by a parsimonious set of antecedents in the context of the on-demand economy.
Although testing the effectiveness of crisis response strategies has been a prominent topic in crisis communication research, studies have rarely addressed whether the manipulation of these strategies accurately reflects their theoretical definitions in experiments. Through a systematic review, this study first identified nuances in the manipulation of apology, diminishing, and scapegoating strategies. The study then tested the effect of the variation of the same strategy on the public’s responses using three experiments. The findings revealed that an explicit apology was more effective than an implicit apology, while an apology with corrective action was even more effective than an apology alone. Internal scapegoating significantly harmed an organization compared to external scapegoating. Following the results of the study, researchers are encouraged to review their crisis response strategy manipulations to ensure the internal validity of experimental studies in crisis communication.
Many communities have been marginalised in the ongoing policy and planning debates surrounding transportation electrification, even though well allocated charging infrastructure is essential for the environmental and societal benefits of Electric Vehicles (EVs) to be realised. This scoping review aims to synthesise the current state of knowledge and gaps surrounding transportation equity in EV charging research. Following PRISMA-Scr protocols, a literature search is conducted to locate articles that explicitly or implicitly discuss EV charging equity. Our review finds that research on charging equity is nascent and lacking in clear normative evaluations of equity compared to the wider body of transportation equity literature. Only slightly more than one-in-four of an identified 37 articles discuss equity and justice explicitly. Equity perspectives in charging research are dominated by North American and European perspectives, with limited perspectives from the rest of the world. Charging incentivisation schemes and planning efforts may not be equity focused and may favour wealthier individuals, and there are differences in the charging needs and desires of high adoption groups compared to low adoption groups. These findings, however, often come from geographically and philosophically limited contexts and there are gaps in the literature for new methodological and topical contributions to this area. ARTICLE HISTORY
Objective: The goal of this research was to uncover narratives around food access and consumption among Black women who attend HBCUs before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants: Black women, ages 18–25. Methods: Focus groups were used to understand how participants defined healthy foods as well as barriers and facilitators of consumption. During the pandemic follow-up focus groups uncovered how COVID-19 impacted their access and consumption patterns. Results: Findings revealed that HCBU women faced similar and distinct concerns around food access prior to and during the pandemic. Students were limited by price, budgets, proximity to healthy foods, kitchen access, and cooking tools. However, proximity or transportation both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic encouraged students to access healthy foods. Conclusion: For students who are already at a societal disadvantage and attend a university located in a food desert, access to nutritious foods can be an exacerbated plight.
Water and sanitation (wastewater) infrastructure in the United States is aging and deteriorating, with massive underinvestment over the past several decades. For many years, lack of attention to water and sanitation infrastructure has combined with racial segregation and discrimination to produce uneven access to water and wastewater services resulting in growing threats to human and environmental health. In many metropolitan areas in the U.S., those that often suffer disproportionately are residents of low-income, minority communities located in urban disadvantaged unincorporated areas on the margins of major cities. Through the process of underbounding (the selective expansion of city boundaries to exclude certain neighborhoods often based on racial demographics or economics), residents of these communities are disallowed municipal citizenship and live without piped water, sewage lines, and adequate drainage or flood control. This Perspective identifies the range of water and sanitation challenges faced by residents in these communities. We argue that future investment in water and sanitation should prioritize these communities and that interventions need to be culturally context sensitive. As such, approaches to address these problems must not only be technical but also social and give attention to the unique geographic and political setting of local infrastructures.
Objective: To examine the associations of dimensions of masculinity-respect/toughness and anti-femininity/hypersexuality-with sexual risk behaviors and protective behavioral intentions and the effects of awareness of anti-Blackness. Participants: 127 Black heterosexual men were recruited from four Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one Minority Serving Institution in the South. Methods: Students completed an online survey as part of a pilot study to assess the sexual health needs of Black college students. Results: Our results indicated that respect/toughness and anti-femininity/hypersexuality were significant correlates of protective behavioral intentions. After accounting for awareness of anti-Blackness and age, anti-femininity/hypersexuality was a significant correlate of sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions: Our study highlights the complex multi-dimensional construct of masculinity and how forms of anti-Blackness continue to influence HIV vulnerability. Therefore, there is a need to include structural factors within research to better understand behaviors among Black college men and incorporate dimensions of masculinity that promote healthy sexual behaviors in interventions and programming.
The school counseling profession has an ethical responsibility to provide and advocate for individual students’ career planning and development, while expanding school counselors’ own multicultural and social justice advocacy to become effective culturally competent professionals. Additional literature is needed to identify how school counselors can adapt their career counseling approaches to fit the unique challenges and barriers of historically marginalized students both during and after the global COVID-19 pandemic. We describe how school counselors can use intersectionality theory as a framework for career development with marginalized populations in response to COVID-19 and its impact on the economic decline.
This paper investigates the possibility of using a dry fluid cooler with advanced control strategies in a vertical closed-loop GSHP system to reduce the borehole size with the intention of increasing the cost-effectiveness of the system without compromising system efficiency. The developed system is expected to be a game changer in the residential sector of the USA involving the use of high-efficiency heat pump systems as a substitute for conventional systems for space cooling and heating in hot/warm climates. The simulation results show that (1) the use of a dry fluid cooler with advanced control strategies in a GSHP system contributes to increasing or maintaining the GSHP system’s efficiency in the long run by balancing the heating and cooling through charging thermal energy to the ground in hot climates; (2) the concept of integrating a dry fluid cooler into a GSHP system with advanced control strategies is proven to be effective for the studied house located in hot climates, such as Miami. In comparison to a conventional GSHP system, the initial system costs can be reduced by up to around 14% by shortening the borehole length without compromising system efficiency because of the use of a dry fluid cooler.
Standard Reference Materials® (SRMs®) are high-technology infrastructural elements developed and distributed by the U.S. national metrology institute, the National Institute of Standards and Technology. SRMs are used throughout the economy to enhance production efficiency by reducing information asymmetries and thereby reducing transaction costs between affected parties. To date, the domestic market demand for SRMs in the United States has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to estimate a market demand model for SRMs; the empirical results show that market demand is cyclical, that is it increases with positive changes in multifactor productivity.
Numerous advancements have been made regarding how aspects of job roles and organizational environments affect work attitudes. However, less attention has been devoted to factors that might buffer attitudes against the adverse effects of job and organizational stressors. Grounded in the Buffering Hypothesis, we tested focus-matched hypotheses that considered the moderating roles of two workplace social resources—leader–member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS)—in the relations between job and organizational stressors and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Using multi-wave data from a sample of financial services employees (n = 1921), we found that independently, LMX did not buffer against the negative effects of job stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) on employee attitudes, nor did POS buffer against the effects of organizational stressors (i.e., low communication and ethical climates). Rather, only in conjunction did high LMX and POS jointly reduce the negative effects of job stressors on organizational commitment. When examining the three-way interactions among job stressors, LMX, and POS, POS was significantly more influential in buffering organizational commitment than was LMX, although there were interesting nuances to these effects. In particular, role ambiguity affected commitment most negatively when either LMX or POS (but not both) was lacking, whereas role conflict did not appreciably impair commitment when POS was high, even if LMX was low. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our result patterns.
Plain English Summary Declining experienced STEM employees at the EPA during President Donald Trump’s Administration is associated with declining innovative environmental scientific publications. A public sector entrepreneur is an individual who champions an innovative public policy. In this paper we propose that President Trump’s Administration’s policies toward the EPA during his administration were innovative, although different from that of previous administrations. These policies sought to reorient the EPA toward industrial and industry-friendly interests which was contrary to the agency’s health and environmental missions. One response to the administration’s new policies was that experienced STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) employees left the EPA. A social consequence of the departure of experienced STEM employees is that the number of environmentally related scientific publications—one indicator of an agency’s innovative activity—from EPA scientists declined. An implication from our empirical findings is that not all public sector entrepreneurial actions are socially desirable; some have potentially detrimental short-run and possible long-run effects on society as a whole.
Military sexual assault (MSA) is a prevalent issue among military personnel that can have direct implications on postmilitary mental health. Gulf War era U.S. veterans represent the first cohort in which women veterans were integrated into most aspects of military service except for combat. The present study sought to build on prior studies by identifying characteristics associated with the occurrence of MSA, clinical correlates with MSA, and how these differ between men and women. This study analyzed cross-sectional survey data from a national sample of treatment-seeking Gulf War era veterans. Participants (N = 1,153) reported demographic information, clinical outcomes, military background, and history of MSA. MSA was more common among female veterans (n = 100, 41.3%) than male veterans (n = 32, 3.6%). The odds of experiencing MSA were approximately 19 times higher for female veterans relative to their male peers, OR = 18.92, p < .001. Moreover, as expected, MSA was robustly associated with probable current posttraumatic stress disorder, probable current depression, and past-year suicidal ideation in female veterans, whereas combat exposure was robustly associated with these sequelae in male veterans. The present findings confirm that a large proportion of female veterans from the Gulf War era experienced MSA and highlight the deleterious correlates of MSA on veterans’ mental health. Sex differences of correlates of MSA and subsequent clinical associations are highlighted.
The combined use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcement in reinforced concrete (RC) structures is deemed plausible to achieve sustainable construction. This paper aims to examine the effect of such a combination (RCA + GFRP reinforcement) on the shear behavior of RC beams. Six medium-scale RC beams (150 × 260 × 2200 mm) critical in shear were tested under three-point loading until failure. The test variables were the aggregate type (natural/recycled) and the shear reinforcement (steel/GFRP/none). The failure modes, cracking patterns, load-carrying capacities, deformational and strain characteristics were analyzed and compared among the tested specimens. It was found that using 100% RCA in the concrete mix reduced the shear strength of RC beams (by 12% on average). Minor effects were observed on the shear strength of the beam specimens (∼2%) with altering the transverse reinforcement (GFRP versus steel). Theoretical load-carrying capacities of the tested beams were obtained as per contemporary design guides and compared with the experimental results.
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