# University of Mumbai

• Mumbai, India
Recent publications
Progression in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has changed individuals in innumerable ways. Utilization of innovation can upgrade work environment proficiency, usefulness, and adaptability. However, innovative tools can adversely affect an individual's physiological, Psychological, as well as organizational satisfaction and have likewise prompted higher technostress among technology users. The study aims at examining the association of techno-stressors with the Psychological well-being of postgraduate learners. Using a quantitative research approach, data were collected through an adapted survey questionnaire tool, from 564 postgraduate learners enrolled in MS (Computer Science, Mathematics) and M.Phil. (Education) programs at a private sector University. To analyze the data, a correlation test was run using SPSS 27.0 version. Moreover, the findings revealed that there is a weak association between techno-stressors and the Psychological well-being of learners. Among the five intertwined techno-stressors, techno-insecurity has a moderate effect on the Psychological well-being of learners. Whereas, both male and female respondents were aware of the characteristics of technology and errands. Finally, in instructive settings, the most apparent well-being research initiatives have been taken by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED). However, even in these programs the examination has been done in tertiary settings and is restricted to 15years learners. This study contributes to bridging this gap. Alongside this, the current assemblage of writing adds to the field of literature in the context of Sindh, Pakistan.
• Monalisha Jena
• Divya Telange
• [...]
• Ramaa C. S.
N-nitrosamines are potential human carcinogens that can be ingested from a range of known sources, including food, drinking water, tobacco smoke and cosmetic goods. Remarkably, their prevalence in medicinal products went undetected until mid-2018. These contaminants were first detected in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of valsartan and other sartan medicines were eventually implicated. The regulatory response to the nitrosamines issue included a recommendation to all marketing authorization holders (MAHs) for human medicinal products containing chemically synthesized active pharmaceutical ingredients to evaluate the potential hazards of nitrosamines in their products and implement appropriate risk mitigation checks and balances. The objective of this review is to investigate various realms associated with investigating how these genotoxic and carcinogenic impurities may be formed during the manufacture or preservation/storage of a wide range of drugs, including sartans (losartan, valsartan), anti-diabetics (metformin, pioglitazone) and a few antacids (ranitidine) and a thorough literature review on case-studies, drug-excipient interactions, metabolic activation and other prospects.
One of the most significant sectors, such as the reliability, consumer and capital goods industries, aerospace and defense industries, is now growing rapidly. In latest period's modern practices have been used to increase the profitability of maintenance assumptions based on real configuration of models. This article discussed about the reliability modelling and examination of industrial systems. The main aim of this thesis is to develop reliability models for industrial systems like Fly Ash Bricks Plant, Rubber Plant, Rice Mill, etc. In the old days, or even now, most of the brick-making industries use manpower to make bricks. It is easy and advisable to use manpower if this is a very small number of bricks, but when it is huge, only machines can operate quicker and easier than humans. Persistent job fatigue of workers leads to fatigue. Considering the above problems, we have introduced a novel idea of automatic brick making machine. In modern periods, scientists and researchers around the world have been trying to find ways to better utilize industrial waste, such as fly ash, red mud for production. Only a tiny amount of this Fly Ash (FA) is worn and the remaining large amount is poured. In order to match the supply, the line must shift from the usual and conservative style of bricks and construction resources of the previous century to a brand new and automated system. We precede an automatic Fly Ash Brick Making Machine (FABMM) that provides low effluence, immature compact and recyclable bricks to prevent these impacts. The second objective of this work is to find out the MTSF and the availability and other measures of the computer models to perform computer model Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and compare the mathematical results.
The sole purpose of this review paper is to reveal the land use and land cover (LULC) changes in the study region (Northern India) from 2017 to 2021. The researchers discovered that no systematic review of the LULC dynamics of the study region had been conducted so far. This study used a novel systematic review procedure (i.e., the ICA framework) to conduct the review process. The data for this study were retrieved from the Web of Science of Clarivate Analytics, using keywords related to LULC. A thorough review of 29 full-text articles was done to examine the primary land use classes (LUC), techniques used, factors responsible, and dynamics of the major land classes. Most articles included agriculture, built-up, water bodies, and plantations as the main LULC categories. Most of them used on-screen digitisation and supervised algorithms to classify LULC classes and incorporated accuracy assessment to validate their results. It was also found that almost all the papers cited climate change, increasing population, urbanisation, and economic considerations as the main drivers responsible for the changes that occurred in different LULCs. The findings of the various studies revealed that horticulture and built-up areas have increased while agricultural, forest cover and open spaces have decreased to a greater extent. Environmental negatives of LULC dynamics of the region suggested that LULC change is not favourable everywhere. Thus, to control the haphazard LULC change, the government must come up with a substantial land conversion policy in the region with ground-level implantation that will restrict the people from blind land conversion.
Cement Concrete Paving Blocks (CCPB) are one of the most extensively used construction materials in the world. Since these are easier to construct, sturdy, long-lasting, low-cost, weatherproof, and flammable. They're ideal for constructing roads, pavements, and parking lots, in fact. Concrete pavement blocks have the benefit of being easily rebuilt using a variety of building techniques, allowing them to be reused or reconfigured in various ways as needed. Instead of being used once and discarded, they may be used in different shapes or for different purposes. This experimental study is conducted to determine the result of incorporating Saw Dust Ash (SDA) in the production at interlocking pavers blocks as a substitute for cement. The various strength properties of paver blocks were conducted for the evaluation of significant strength of concrete paver blocks. The use of SDA as a cement substitute in paver block manufacture is investigated in this study. The use of saw dust as a partial replacement for sawdust is explored in this research to address environmental concerns on fine aggregate in paver block with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% respectively. Based on the experimental results, it has been concluded that, 10% replacement of cement with saw dust ash give enough strength properties to the paver block.
Soybean (Glycine max) is an economically important crop, ranking first among the edible oilseed crops in the world due to its oil content and nutritional value. Besides, it is used as a dietary supplement and a source of pharmaceuticals. The recent rapid climate changes and increasing global population have led to increasing demand for vegetable oil. In the recent past, advances in the field of plant biotechnology have revolutionized agricultural practices at a global level to enhance the yield of crops. This technology not only makes an impact on the agricultural market but also opens up new corridors for agriculture-related industrial applications of this important crop. Therefore, in the last two decades, soybean has gained attention for genetic improvement with remarkable developments in the manipulations of genes for the induction of desired characteristics. In this review, we introduced the transgenic approach as a promising tool for the improvement of soybean oilseed quality and productivity. Then, the enhancement of nutritional and pharmaceutical value together with biotic and abiotic stress-resistant ability was summarized and compared. The methods and strategies for achieving soybean crops with improved abiotic stress tolerance, productivity, and pharmaceutics are categorized to help with future research.
The present study portrays a rapid and eco-friendly method using ripe Sonneratia alba (S. alba) fruit extract (SF) as a bioreductant, stabilizer, and capping agent to synthesize gold nanoparticles (SF-AuNPs) with a size of 30 ± 0.2 nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the biophysical interactions between SF-AuNPs and trypsin protein under various experimental parameters. Resonance light scattering analysis confirms the ground state interaction of SF-AuNPs-trypsin complex. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that SF-AuNPs- trypsin complex is mainly enthalpy and entropy-driven, the calculated free energy (ΔG° ranged from − 35.45 to − 23.87 kJ/mol⁻¹). The adsorption of trypsin on SF-AuNPs was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The circular dichroism (CD) data were performed to investigate the conformational alterations at the secondary structural level of SF-AuNPs-trypsin complex (α-helix 8.71, and β-sheet 38.47%). SF-AuNPs biological insights were investigated using several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays in vitro. Anticancer studies with SF-AuNPs on the lung cancer cell line (A549) were more effective than S. alba aqueous extract, the percent inhibition of AuNPs concentrations (6.25 nM) 4·33 ± 1.49% to (400 nM) 59·38 ± 0.92%. The present experimental data may provide new insights into the safe and practical applications of SF-AuNPs in biomedical areas.
Small towns are becoming hotspots of pollution due to industrial, urbanisation, and domestic activities. Air pollution affects human health and it is also responsible for physiological changes in plants. Green belt development programmes are cost-effective for the minimisation of air pollution. In the present study, to calculate air pollution tolerance index (APTI) and anticipated performance index (API), samples of 25 plant species were collected from each area i.e. the industrial (I), urban (U), and rural (R) areas and analysed for different parameters. Amongst all three areas, APTI of Artocarpus heterophyllus (46.74), Calotropis gigantea (43.63), and Bauhinia racemose (42.11) have shown the highest values and these plants can act as an inhibitor of air pollution. Also, the APTI of Ocimum tenuiflorum has found to be the lowest (12.05, 11.32, 12.86) as compared to other plant species amongst the three areas. Statistical analysis reveals that values of R² are consistent in case of total chlorophyll (TC) and ascorbic acid (AA). API index showed the efficiency of Calotropis gigantea (excellent), Artocarpus heterophyllus (very good), and Mangifera indica (very good) for the green belt development around the selected areas. It is recommended to plant above-mentioned plant species along the roadside by considering their air pollution tolerance ability and medicinal as well as economic importance. Furthermore, it is suggested to plant species of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) and Mangifera indica (Alphonso mango) which will generate income source for the local government bodies (Ratnagiri Municipal Council), as the fruits and wood of these plants can be exported and sold.
Nanomaterials are emerging as an innovative and efficient instrument for the transport and cellular translocation of therapeutic compounds, namely, biopharmaceuticals. The use of nanoparticles as drug carriers in the healthcare industry, for instance, in several applications, with drug delivery being among the most significant. These nanomaterials are adaptable and have qualities that are good for delivering compounds that are biologically active. The creation of different nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has led to the development of a variety of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems to reduce toxicity, reduce the dosing system, and increase the viability of the drug. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the recent advances in nanotechnology in Antifungal treatment and to overcome the problems associated with antifungal agents.
In this paper, a surface plasmon resonance-based photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor has been simulated. It has a hexagonal core surrounded by a rectangular cladding of different size air holes. To enhance the sensing performance of the proposed sensor, an adhesive layer of TiO2 has been deposited between the interface of the plasmonic metal layer of gold (Au) and dielectric material fused silica. With the most promising method to detect sensitivity which is the wavelength (λ) interrogation method with amplitude sensitivity method, we have found a wavelength sensitivity of 40,000 nm/RIU, an average wavelength of sensitivity of 14,285 nm/RIU, and an amplitude sensitivity of 328 RIU⁻¹ for the range of refractive index 1.32–1.39. The resolution of our proposed sensor is 10⁻⁶ RIU. Fabrication of this sensor can easily be done with numerous available technologies such as the stack and draw method, sol–gel method, and others. This proposed external mechanism-based PCF sensor will lead us to a new era of future for sensing in the dairy industry field for detecting milk of animals, a biomedical field such as blood testing, cancer cell detection, the biochemical field such as detecting antigens, and antibodies, protein, enzymes, and alcohol sensing based on their refractive index RI.
The significance of a study of political incumbency and the factors influencing it stems from the fact that it directly affects the behaviour of the incumbent political party and its accountability to the electorate. We use data on Parliamentary Elections in India from 1980 to 2014 to tease out evidence of incumbency advantage. We employ Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) to estimate the incumbency effect. Our results indicate the absence of any incumbency effect when considering all elections in India together. This finding is at odds with the research reported so far. To explain our contrary result, we drilled down deeper to obtain a more granular view of the incumbency effect in India. We do this across various regions of India. The results show that north Indian states generally show strong evidence of incumbency disadvantage while south Indian states show strong evidence of incumbency advantage. We also show that incumbency advantage has increased over time
Objectives: We evaluated the role of 12-hydroxystearic acid (12HSA) in upregulating skin antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in in vitro and ex vivo assays, and 12HSA provides long-lasting germ protection in vivo through a handwash formulation. Methods: In vitro assays were performed by treating skin cells, maintained in cell-culture media, with 12HSA. After treatment, AMP gene-expression was measured in cells by RT-qPCR, and secreted AMPs in spent cell culture media were analyzed by ELISA. Skin explants were treated with 12HSA, and 3D-living skin equivalent (LSE) models were treated with 12HSA-containing handwash formulations. AMP levels were measured by immunohistochemical staining or RT-qPCR after treatment. In clinical studies, volunteer forearms were washed multiple times with 12HSA-containing handwash in an ethics-approved study in which participants provided informed consent. The washed forearms were challenged with E. coli at different time points after washing. The 12HSA deposition from the formulation was measured using tape strips. Results: Skin cells treated with 12HSA showed increased expression of several AMP genes in vitro, and higher psoriasin AMP secretion was measured in cell-culture media. An enhanced level of LL37 AMP was obtained from the skin epidermis of 12HSA-treated explant skin. AMP genes were also upregulated in the 3D-LSE model treated with a 12HSA-containing handwash formulation. A measurable level of 12HSA was deposited from handwash formulation in the in vivo clinical sample. E. coli recovery from challenged skin was significantly lower at 6 and 10 hours after washing compared to unwashed skin. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that 12HSA boosts skin-AMPs and that a handwash containing 12HSA provides long-lasting germ protection under in vivo test conditions by potentially enhancing skin’s natural immunity. With an emerging understanding of skin’s innate immunity and AMPs, designing cleansing products that strengthen these natural defenses will offer novel approaches to extend hygiene benefits beyond immediate in-wash protection.
According to 2019 reports, WHO estimated that around 214 million women of reproductive age in developing regions have an unmet need for contraception either due to limited needs or availability. With the aid of Aritifical Intelligence we can find other alternatives and also possbile approaches for Contraception The aim of this review article is to emphasize the need for combination of testosterone and nestorone in male contraceptives. The use of contraception is a widely acknowledged method of population control. Women have always been the main target of hormonal contraceptive treatments. The use of hormonal and non-hormonal techniques for male contraception is a desirable choice. Testosterone-based hormonal contraception has had positive outcomes. Reversible techniques of male contraception without hormones, such as reversible sperm suppression with guidance, are extremely promising. This manuscript tries to encompass various methods of contraception like hormonal and non-hormonal which would serve in efficient contraception.
Maintaining an astronaut's health during space travel is crucial. Multiple studies have observed various changes in the gut microbiome and physiological health. Astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS) had changes in the microbial communities in their gut, nose, and skin. Additionally, immune system cell alterations have been observed in astronauts with changes in neutrophils, monocytes, and T-cells. Probiotics help tackle these health issues caused during spaceflight by inhibiting pathogen adherence, enhancing epithelial barrier function by reducing permeability, and producing an anti-inflammatory effect. When exposed to microgravity, probiotics demonstrated a shorter lag phase, faster growth, improved acid tolerance, and bile resistance. A freeze-dried Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota capsule was tested for its stability on ISS for a month and has been shown to enhance innate immunity and balance intestinal microbiota. The usage of freeze-dried spores of B. subtilis proves to be advantageous to long-term spaceflight because it qualifies for all the aspects tested for commercial probiotics under simulated conditions. These results demonstrate a need to further study the effect of probiotics in simulated microgravity and spaceflight conditions and to apply them to overcome the effects caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis and issues that might occur during spaceflight.
In the field of nanoscience and nanobiotechnology, the use of plant extracts in synthesising metal sulphide nanoparticles has lately come to light as an intriguing issue with several benefits over traditional physicochemical methods. Herein, bio-mediated novel β-In2S3 quantum dots were fabricated using Camellia sinensis var. assamica (tea) leaf extract as a stabilising and capping agent through a facile solvothermal technique to evaluate the photocatalytic and antioxidant characteristics. The prepared green β-In2S3 quantum dots (g-β-In2S3), having a bandgap of 2.0 eV, were employed for the degradation of three major categories of dyes Xanthane (Rhodamine B), Triphenylmethane (Malachite Green), and Azo (Biebrich Scarlet). It also showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to standard ascorbic acid and pure chemically synthesised β-In2S3. The g-β-In2S3 quantum dots were characterised for their crystal structure, morphology, surface functional groups, charge recombination delay, and chemical composition using XRD, PL, FTIR, UV-DRS, SEM, TEM, and XPS analyses. The fabricated material showed high crystallinity of 77.17%, a particle size of 6.97 nm, and spherical morphology. The greenly synthesised β-In2S3 displayed enhanced photocatalytic performance, indicating that bio-synthesis can be a superb method to create flexible and environmentally friendly goods. About 75.28 ± 1.69%, 72.31 ± 1.43%, and 62.21 ± 1.14% for Rhodamine B, Malachite Green, and Biebrich Scarlet could be degraded within 60 min of visible light irradiation via β-In2S3/H2O2 system. The kinetics and the mechanism of the degradation of dyes by g-β-In2S3 are also discussed. This work highlighted the potential of g-β-In2S3 quantum dots for enhanced visible light, advanced oxidation process-assisted degradation of dyes, and outstanding antioxidant properties.
The Alfvén wave (AW) is the most common fluctuation present within the solar wind emitted from the Sun. Whether or not AWs can originate after the collision of an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) and a High-Speed Stream (HSS) remains an open question. To find an answer to this question, we have investigated an ICME-HSS interaction event observed on 21st\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$21^{st}$\end{document} October 1999 at 1 AU by the WIND spacecraft. We have used the Walén test to identify AWs and estimated the Elsässer variables to find its characteristics. We explicitly find dominant sunward AWs within the ICME, whereas the trailing HSS has strong anti-sunward AWs. We suggest that the ICME-HSS interaction deforms the Magnetic Cloud (MC) of the ICME, resulting in the generation of AWs inside the MC. Additionally, the existence of reconnection within the ICME’s early stage could also contribute to the origin of AWs within it.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has authorized many narcotic (i.e., opioid) painkillers for the treatment of mild to moderately severe acute or chronic pain in humans. In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the number of individuals who fake symptoms in order to get prescriptions for these opiates for recreational use. The purpose of this study is to develop a multi-branched system that would aid physicians in identifying and eliminating such deceptive patients. The first branch attempts to determine whether patients are faking their symptoms, while the second branch utilizes the EHR to predict how much of the prescription opioid the patient requires. This will eventually prevent patients from becoming dependent on these medications and preserve these pharmaceuticals for their intended use.
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• Department of Physics
• Department of Life Sciences
• Department of Chemistry
• Department of Bio-Physics
• Department of Physics
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