University of Missouri
  • Columbia, Missouri, United States
Recent publications
This research investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumers’ perspectives of beauty and individual cosmetic products. Since the first confirmed case of COVID-19 was announced on December 31st, 2019, the search volumes of Google News have been updated and information on confirmed cases of the disease has been collected. This study used Python 3.7, NodeXL 1.0.1, and Smart PLS 3.0 to analyze consumer awareness of cosmetic products during the pandemic. The results reveal that consumers’ perspectives of beauty are impacted by a pandemic. Global consumers perceive skincare as an important aspect during the pandemic, while the importance of makeup fell after the outbreak. The awareness of skincare and makeup products has changed. The spread of the pandemic (SOP) has a positive impact on skincare products, but a negative impact on makeup products, except for eye makeup products, which was positive. Finally, the SOP was not significant in terms of consumers’ interest in masks. Fifth, interest in masks showed a positive relationship with interest in skincare products, such as cleansing products, while a negative relationship was observed with interest in makeup products. Overall, this study concludes that pandemics certainly have an impact on global consumers’ perspectives. As a pandemic spread, interest in skincare products increases, while interest in makeup products decreases. This study has academic significance in that it investigates the effects of consumption of cosmetic products during the stay-at-home rules. It can be used as standard information for setting marketing strategies in pandemic-like situations in the future.
Background Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are liquid biopsies that represent micrometastatic disease and may offer unique insights into future recurrences in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Due to CTC rarity and limited stability, no stable CTC-derived xenograft (CDX) models have ever been generated from non-metastatic NSCLC patients directly. Alternative strategies are needed to molecularly characterize CTCs and means of potential future metastases in this potentially curable patient group. Methods Surgically resected NSCLC primary tumor tissues from non-metastatic patients were implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice to establish primary tumor patient-derived xenograft (ptPDX) models. CTCs were isolated as liquid biopsies from the blood of ptPDX mice and re-implanted subcutaneously into naïve immunodeficient mice to generate liquid biopsy CTC-derived xenograft (CDX) tumor models. Single cell RNA sequencing was performed and validated in an external dataset of non-xenografted human NSCLC primary tumor and metastases tissues. Drug response testing in CDX models was performed with standard of care chemotherapy (carboplatin/paclitaxel). Blockade of MYC, which has a known role in drug resistance, was performed with a MYC/MAX dimerization inhibitor (10058-F4). Results Out of ten ptPDX, two (20%) stable liquid biopsy CDX mouse models were generated. Single cell RNA sequencing analysis revealed an additional regenerative alveolar epithelial type II (AT2)-like cell population in CDX tumors that was also identified in non-xenografted NSCLC patients’ metastases tissues. Drug testing using these CDX models revealed different treatment responses to carboplatin/paclitaxel. MYC target genes and c-MYC protein were upregulated in the chemoresistant CDX model, while MYC/MAX dimerization blocking could overcome chemoresistance to carboplatin/paclitaxel. Conclusions To overcome the lack of liquid biopsy CDX models from non-metastatic NSCLC patients, CDX models can be generated with CTCs from ptPDX models that were originally established from patients’ primary tumors. Single cell analyses can identify distinct drug responses and cell heterogeneities in CDX tumors that can be validated in NSCLC metastases tissues. CDX models deserve further development and study to discover personalized strategies against micrometastases in non-metastatic NSCLC patients.
Background Evidence suggests an increasing demand for culturally and linguistically responsive disease prevention programs and health interventions. It is important to understand how individuals seek health information to address the potential needs of the health care system. Methods Latent classes of health information-seeking behaviors in a linguistically mixed region of Italy were explored through a population-based telephone survey of ten health information sources. Data were collected in August and September 2014 from 504 adults in South Tyrol, Italy (primary language German, 68%; Italian, 28%), and analyzed using latent class analysis and latent class multinomial logistic regression models. Results Three classes of health information-seeking behaviors emerged: “multidimensional” (23.3%), “interpersonal” (38.6%) and “technical/online” (38.1%). Compared to the “technical/online” class, “interpersonal” class members were older, had lower education than high school, and were less likely to be of Italian ethnicity. “Multidimensional” class members were more likely to be female, older, and of German ethnicity than those in the “technical/online” class. Conclusions Linguistic ethnicity explains membership in classes on health information-seeking behavior. Policymakers and healthcare providers should consider the health information-seeking behaviors of population subgroups to promote health and medical care in linguistic minority groups.
We examined how prior experience encountering targets affected attention allocation and event-based prospective memory. Participants performed four color match task blocks with a difficult, but specified prospective memory task (Experiment 1) or an easier, but unspecified prospective memory task (Experiment 2). Participants were instructed to search for targets on each block. Participants in the prior experience condition saw targets on each block, participants in the no prior experience condition only saw targets on the fourth block, and, in Experiment 2, participants in the mixed prior experience condition encountered some of the targets on the first three blocks, and saw all the targets on the fourth block. In Experiment 1, participants in the no prior experience condition were less accurate at recognizing targets and quicker to respond on ongoing task trials than participants in the prior experience condition. In Experiment 2, we replicated the effect of prior experience on target accuracy, but there was no effect on ongoing trial response time. The mixed experience condition did not vary from the other conditions on either dependent variable, but their target accuracy varied in accordance with their experience. These findings demonstrate that prospective memory performance is influenced by experience with related tasks, thus extending our understanding of the dynamic nature of search efforts across related prospective memory tasks. This research has implications for understanding prospective memory in applied settings where targets do not reliably occur such as baggage screenings and missing person searches.
Little attention is given to cooperatives’ role in producer risk management. We review literature and theory in development of a hypothesized positive relationship between producers’ risk aversion and usage of cooperatives. We test the hypothesis using a sample of crop and hog producers and find evidence that cooperative membership and the percentage of commodity sold through cooperatives are positively related to producers’ risk aversion. These relationships are relevant for decision makers who determine internal cooperative member policies, debt providers to cooperative members, and lenders to cooperatives, in addition to state and national farm policy regulators, legislators, staffers, and advisors.
Dark-light spectrum was used to express the depth of dark experience in dark tourism. Based on embodied cognition theory, this paper examined the visual expression of tourists' dark tourism experience. Five consecutive studies were conducted including analysis of tourists' photos in online reviews of 53 dark tourism destinations worldwide, charcoal pencil painting tasks of selected dark tourism sites in lab experiments, and field experiment. Results showed that tourists with darker experience tend to use deeper visual darkness to express their feelings, in the forms of painting and photographs, even when the cognitive process (i.e., expression in the form of words) is omitted. This psychological mechanism explains the scientific principle behind dark tourism spectrum. Our research suggests a new way of interpretation of tourist image data (e.g., photos) and sheds light for effective management of tourist experience.
Genetic modification of animals via selective breeding is the basis for modern agriculture. The current breeding paradigm however has limitations, chief among them is the requirement for the beneficial trait to exist within the population. Desirable alleles in geographically isolated breeds, or breeds selected for a different conformation and commercial application, and more importantly animals from different genera or species cannot be introgressed into the population via selective breeding. Additionally, linkage disequilibrium results in low heritability and necessitates breeding over successive generations to fix a beneficial trait within a population. Given the need to sustainably improve animal production to feed an anticipated 9 billion global population by 2030 against a backdrop of infectious diseases and a looming threat from climate change, there is a pressing need for responsive, precise, and agile breeding strategies. The availability of genome editing tools that allow for the introduction of precise genetic modification at a single nucleotide resolution, while also facilitating large transgene integration in the target population, offers a solution. Concordant with the developments in genomic sequencing approaches, progress among germline editing efforts is expected to reach feverish pace. The current manuscript reviews past and current developments in germline engineering in pigs, and the many advantages they confer for advancing animal agriculture.
Background Fire-dependent vegetation communities in the northeastern USA have undergone significant transitions since social and ecological disruptions associated with Euro-American colonization of North America. There is much interest, though little information available, about historical fire regimes of fire-adapted vegetation communities in the northeastern USA in pre-Columbian times (i.e., pre-1492 CE). We intensively investigated a red pine ( Pinus resinosa Ait.)—oak ( Quercus spp.) forested landscape in north-central Pennsylvania, USA, for exceptionally old red pine remnants (stumps, snags) where previous research had suggested the potential to develop fire-scar and tree-ring chronologies which extend to time periods prior to 1492. Results Tree-ring and fire-scar chronologies recovered from red pine trees extend back to 1370 and 1402, respectively. Red pine trees were broadly distributed across this landscape (34.4 km ² area) prior to 1492, and frequent fire (i.e., mean fire return intervals of 4.1 years at landscape scale, 9.7–11.7 years at smaller spatial scales (0.5–7.1 km ² )) was observed in the time period prior to sustained contact between Indigenous peoples and Euro-American colonizers circa 1609. Conclusions This study resulted in the longest fire-scar record in eastern North America and offers unique foundational ecological information regarding pre-Columbian fire regimes of northeastern USA fire-adapted forest communities. Fire scars provide physical evidence that fire was an important ecological component of this landscape before and after 1492 and that the current period of reduced fire activity is unprecedented in the 500 years prior to fire exclusion practices that were widely adopted circa 1915. Beyond fire scars, the spatial and temporal extent of the red pine tree-ring record provides evidence that red pine, a fire-dependent species, was historically a more important component of this landscape than it is today. The conservation of red pine vegetation communities will require incorporating recurring fire into management plans, for the successful regeneration and perpetuation of red pine, and to sustain associated flora and fauna of conservation concern.
Prompt analysis of fission products and rare earth elements (REE)s in post-detonation nuclear debris is critical for nuclear forensic analysis. In this work the compatibility of ammonium biflouoride fusion and microwave digestion in combination with high pressure ion chromatography (HPIC) separation was examined for the analysis of REEs. The refractory geological materials USGS G-2, QLO-1a, AGV-2 and BHVO-2 were used as surrogate post-detonation debris. The HPIC separation used a mixed bed ion exchange column with a gradient elution consisting of oxalic acid and diglycolic acid mobile phases. Quantitative recovery for seven REEs was achieved using the in-line HPIC-ICP-MS. An off-line HPIC method was also developed to separate U, Pu, and REE fission products. Collected fractions were analyzed by ICP-MS or gamma ray spectroscopy. The offline HPIC separation with detection of short-lived fission products with gamma ray spectroscopy had detection limits 5–20,000 times lower than quadrupole ICP-MS for stable REEs.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells activated with the glycolipid ligand α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) stimulate a wide variety of immune cells that enhance vaccine-mediated immune responses. Several studies have used this approach to adjuvant inactivated and subunit influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines, including to enhance cross-protective influenza immunity. However, less is known about whether α-GalCer can enhance live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines, which usually induce superior heterologous and heterosubtypic immunity compared to non-replicating influenza vaccines. The current study used the swine influenza challenge model to assess whether α-GalCer can enhance cross-protective immune responses elicited by a recombinant H3N2 LAIV vaccine (TX98ΔNS1) encoding a truncated NS1 protein. In one study, weaning pigs were administered the H3N2 TX98ΔNS1 LAIV vaccine with 0, 10, 50, and 100 μg/kg doses of α-GalCer, and subsequently challenged with a heterologous H3N2 virus. All treatment groups were protected from infection. However, the addition of α-GalCer appeared to suppress nasal shedding of the LAIV vaccine. In another experiment, pigs vaccinated with the H3N2 LAIV, with or without 50 μg/kg of α-GalCer, were challenged with the heterosubtypic pandemic H1N1 virus. Pigs vaccinated with the LAIV alone generated cross-reactive humoral and cellular responses which blocked virus replication in the airways, and significantly decreased virus shedding. On the other hand, combining the vaccine with α-GalCer reduced cross-protective cellular and antibody responses, and resulted in higher virus titers in respiratory tissues. These findings suggest that: (i) high doses of α-GalCer impair the replication and nasal shedding of the LAIV vaccine; and (ii) α-GalCer might interfere with heterosubtypic cross-protective immune responses. This research raise concerns that should be considered before trying to use NKT cell agonists as a possible adjuvant approach for LAIV vaccines. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s44149-022-00051-x.
This study examined how the reliability (i.e., transitivity) of an agent’s object choices affects 16-month-old infants’ (N = 48) imitation of her unconventional way of turning on a touch light box with her head when her hands were available. When the agent made transitive choices (i.e., she chose Object A over Object B, Object B over Object C, and then A over C), infants imitated her head touch actions. When the agent made intransitive choices (i.e., after choosing A over B and B over C, she chose C over A), infants were more likely to use only their hands to touch the light box. In addition, when it was presumably difficult for infants to judge the transitivity of the agent’s choices (i.e., she chose B over C, A over B, and then A over C), they used their hands more. These results demonstrate that infants’ understanding informs their decisions to selectively imitate others’ specific ways to act on novel artifacts, consistent with young children’s selective trust in information provided by other people based on their epistemic reliability.
Adsorption systems for desalination, drying, and cooling applications could be powered by renewable energy sources. Thus, it is a promising technology for solving energy and water problems. Designing an efficient adsorption system and evaluating its performance depend mainly on the adsorption isotherms and kinetics of nanoporous materials. The present work designs and manufactures a precise gravimetric sorption apparatus to measure the adsorption isotherms and kinetics of water vapor onto porous materials. It is equipped with a high-precision mass balance to record the change in mass of the tested sample. The main feature of the present apparatus is using an ultrasonic device to generate water vapor allowing easy control of the water vapor flow rate and operating pressure. This novel approach leads to a significant reduction in the apparatus capital cost. To confirm the accuracy and reliability of the proposed instrument, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of water vapor onto three different materials are measured using the proposed apparatus and compared to the corresponding data in literature. The maximum deviation is found to be less than 4%, indicating the high accuracy of the proposed instrument. During the repeatability tests, a maximum uncertainty of 1.1% is observed at a relative pressure of 0.8, which is within the accuracy of the electronic mass balance. Accordingly, it is confirmed that the developed apparatus could measure the adsorption isotherm and kinetics of water vapor onto nanoporous materials with high accuracy and reliability.
Distinct droplet distribution patterns of open-plate grid-wire-patterned EWOD devices under low (1 Hz, 5 Hz) and high (500 Hz, 1000 Hz) frequencies of AC-EWOD were discussed in this paper. Under low frequencies, droplets stayed inside the grid; under high frequencies, droplets adhered to the grid wires. Single droplet (1 μL) dynamics were studied with a discovery of contact-angle-fully-recover and contact-angle-partially-recover oscillation modes. These two modes induced distinct droplet coalescence mechanisms and distribution patterns. The natural response frequency was introduced to validate these two modes. Visualization experiments of droplet distribution were carried out on 0.5 mm, 1 mm, and 2 mm grid samples under 2 Hz, 50 Hz, 100 Hz, and 200 Hz. Condensate was collected to investigate the grid size (0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm) and frequency effect (1 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz) on condensation rate. Higher frequency demonstrated a larger condensation rate than the lower ones; the 1 mm grid samples showed more inspiring results compared with the 0.5 mm and 2 mm grid samples. EWOD provided an active and reversible way to interfere with droplet dynamics, and promote droplet growth and coalescence, which demonstrated great potential for future applications in droplet control and condensation enhancement.
Pulp breakdown (PB) is a characteristic of quality deterioration in fresh longan, which could be caused by the infection of Phomopsis longanae Chi (P. longanae), resulting in reduced storability. Growing evidence highlights the role of membrane lipids in the quality maintenance of fresh produces. This study investigated the involvement of membrane lipids and their metabolites, and the critical enzymes in the metabolism of membrane lipids in longan PB caused by P. longanae. Results indicated that P. longanae infection increased the pulp cell membrane permeability as PB developed. In comparison with the control fruit, P. longanae-infected longan had lower levels of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine and unsaturated fatty acids, and lower unsaturation of fatty acids, but higher contents of saturated fatty acids and phosphatidic acid, which was achieved by elevating the activities of phospholipase D, lipoxygenase and lipase. These results confirmed that P. longanae infection exacerbated PB and impaired the membrane integrity in fresh longan, which was attributed to membrane lipids degradation and peroxidation regulated by membrane lipid-modifying enzymes.
Biomass and its allocation are crucial to understand carbon cycling. Climate change and human disturbance potentially alter soil pH, but it remains unclear how biomass production and its partitioning respond to altered soil pH. Here, we investigated how changing soil pH (acidification and alkalization) affected above- and belowground biomass production and allocation (hereafter AB, BB and BB/AB, respectively) at nine sites representing desert, typical, and meadow grasslands with increasing precipitation across a 1500-km transect in Inner Mongolia, China. The results showed that soil acidification reduced AB in typical and meadow grasslands, whereas soil alkalization reduced AB in desert and typical grasslands. Changing soil pH did not affect BB in desert or typical grasslands, but reduced BB in meadow grasslands. Altered soil pH negatively impacted species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity, and dominant species biomass across all grasslands. BB/AB was increased by soil acidification and alkalization along the study transect. Soil C, N and C:N ratio were not affected by changing soil pH in three types of grasslands. Response ratios of AB, BB/AB and dominant species biomass were positively correlated with precipitation under altered soil pH, whereas response ratios of BB were negatively correlated with precipitation under soil alkalization. Variance partitioning analysis showed that the response of biomass and its allocation to altered soil pH were mainly explained by community composition but not soil fertility. Structural equation model analysis demonstrated that precipitation mediated the responses of biomass distribution to soil pH changes in semi-arid grasslands mainly via altering the response of dominant species. Our results indicate that dry grasslands with low productivity and precipitation generally allocate more C to belowground than wet grasslands regardless of pH change. These findings can improve our predictions of carbon dynamics in grassland ecosystems under climate change.
This study investigated the effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) on the inhibition of pulp breakdown of postharvest longan fruit. The harvested longan fruit were immersed in AEW (pH 2.5 and available chlorine concentration 80 mg L⁻¹) for 10 min, then air-dried and stored at 25 °C. It was revealed that the AEW treatment reduced the cell membrane permeability and breakdown incidence of pulp by modulating membrane lipid metabolism. Compared to the untreated fruit, AEW treatment significantly suppressed the activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), lipase, and phospholipase D (PLD), down-regulated the expression of DlPLD1, DlPLD2, Dllipase1, Dllipase2, DlLOX1 and DlLOX2, and reduced the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and the accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA). In addition, a lower saturated fatty acids (SFAs) proportion, but a higher unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) proportion, the index of unsaturated fatty (IUFA), and unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) were found in AEW-treated longan fruit. These findings indicated that AEW treatment inhibited the activities of membrane lipid metabolism-related enzymes (LOX, lipase, and PLD) and their expressions of associated genes, and altered the cell membrane lipid composition, which was conductive to maintaining the integrity of cell membrane, ultimately alleviating the progress of pulp breakdown in harvested longan fruit. Consequently, AEW treatment may be a reliable method to reduce the occurrence of pulp breakdown and improve the storability of harvested longan fruit.
OHS patients have higher morbidity and mortality rates. Exosomes are released into the bloodstream and play a role in tumor growth and metastasis. Twenty-four OHS patients (13 male and 11 female) were evaluated at diagnosis (Pre), and after CPAP treatment (T3, T12 and T24 months). Plasma exosomes were applied into naïve NCI-H23 lung cancer cells. Exosomes from OHS patients enhance PMI of human lung cancer cells, and these effects are at least partially reversible with adherent CPAP treatment. Our findings suggest that OHS-induced changes in exosome cargo promote cancer aggressiveness in NCI-H23 lung adenocarcinoma and exhibit OHS treatment-related reversibility.
Relatively little is known about the relations between psychopathic traits and interpersonally-directed versus organizationally-directed workplace behaviors despite the implications of these traits for maladaptive (e.g., bullying, harassing, white-collar crime, slacking) and adaptive (e.g., improving the workplace, supporting others) workplace behaviors. In a sample of employed US-based community members (N = 352), we investigated the relations between the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) and an expanded version of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (E-LSRP), on the one hand, and interpersonal and organizational counterproductive behaviors and citizenship behaviors directed towards co-workers and the organization, on the other. As predicted, we found stronger positive associations between impulsive-antisocial traits (Disinhibition, Antisocial) and both interpersonal and organizational workplace deviance; however, these traits did not relate significantly to citizenship behaviors. We further found that interpersonal traits (Boldness, Egocentric) may play an adaptive role in the workplace, as demonstrated by increased citizenship behaviors. Affective traits (Callous, Meanness) were related to lesser engagement in citizenship behaviors and higher engagement in some interpersonally-directed counterproductive behaviors. In several analyses, statistical interactions among triarchic psychopathy traits, but not E-LSRP traits, predicted adaptive and maladaptive workplace behaviors. Our results suggest that employees’ psychopathic traits bear differential implications for both adaptive and maladaptive workplace behavior, and that these traits may operate in concert to increase the likelihood of such behavior.
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10,071 members
Brian Bostick
  • Department of Internal Medicine
Vaibhav Mishra
  • School of Medicine
Ajit Zambre
  • Department of Radiology
Mayank Mittal
  • Department of Internal Medicine
Andrew Melnyk
  • Department of Philosophy
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