University of Mississippi
  • University, MS, United States
Recent publications
Background Long-term treatment adherence is a worldwide concern, with nonadherence resulting from a complex interplay of behaviors and health beliefs. Determining an individual’s risk of nonadherence and identifying the drivers of that risk are crucial for the development of successful interventions for improving adherence. Here, we describe the development of a new tool assessing a comprehensive set of characteristics predictive of patients’ treatment adherence based on the Social, Psychological, Usage and Rational (SPUR) adherence framework. Concepts from existing self-reporting tools of adherence-related behaviors were identified following a targeted MEDLINE literature review and a subset of these concepts were then selected for inclusion in the new tool. SPUR tool items, simultaneously generated in US English and in French, were tested iteratively through two rounds of cognitive interviews with US and French patients taking long-term treatments for chronic diseases. The pilot SPUR tool, resulting from the qualitative analysis of patients’ responses, was then adapted to other cultural settings (China and the UK) and subjected to further rounds of cognitive testing. Results The literature review identified 27 relevant instruments, from which 49 concepts were included in the SPUR tool (Social: 6, Psychological: 13, Usage: 11, Rational: 19). Feedback from US and French patients suffering from diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or breast cancer (n = 14 for the first round; n = 16 for the second round) indicated that the SPUR tool was well accepted and consistently understood. Minor modifications were implemented, resulting in the retention of 45 items (Social: 5, Psychological: 14, Usage: 10, Rational: 16). Results from the cognitive interviews conducted in China (15 patients per round suffering from diabetes, breast cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the UK (15 patients suffering from diabetes) confirmed the validity of the tool content, with no notable differences being identified across countries or chronic conditions. Conclusion Our qualitative analyses indicated that the pilot SPUR tool is a promising model that may help clinicians and health systems to predict patient treatment behavior. Further steps using quantitative methods are needed to confirm its predictive validity and other psychometric properties.
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundamental physics where LISA observations of gravitational waves can be expected to provide key input. We provide the briefest of reviews to then delineate avenues for future research directions and to discuss connections between this working group, other working groups and the consortium work package teams. These connections must be developed for LISA to live up to its science potential in these areas.
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities that associate with invading pines (Pinus spp.) are expected to be poor in species diversity. However, long-term successional trajectories and the persistence of dispersal limitations of EM fungi in the exotic range are not well understood. We sampled the roots and surrounding soil of Pinus elliottii and P. taeda trees invading mountain grasslands of Argentina. We also sampled the EM fungal spore bank in grassland soil near (∼150 m) and far (∼850 m) from the original pine plantations. We found 86 different co-invasive EM fungal OTUs. Differential dispersal capacities among EM fungi were detected in the spore bank of grassland soil, but not under mature pines. After thirty years of invasion, the age, but not the degree of spatial isolation of pine individuals affected the EM fungal composition. We showed how EM fungal succession occurs during pine invasions, which may have clear consequences for ecosystem functioning of co-invaded sites.
This study was conducted to investigate the impact of intermittent feeding on performance, clogging, and gaseous emission on macrophyte assisted vermifiltration (MAVF) based treatment system. Synthetic slaughterhouse wastewater was applied to two different integrated vertical flow based MAVFs. Triplicates were used throughout the study. Eisenia fetida earthworms were added to MAVFs, and Carex muskingmenis plants were planted. Wastewater was applied to the reactors on 1) intermittent (8 h/day) (IMAVF) and 2) continuous (24 h/day) (CMAVF) basis. The average chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous removals achieved by the IMAVF were 80.2 ± 1.6%, 53.9 ± 1.3% and 66.5 ± 1% respectively, and 68.3 ± 1.3%, 61.2 ± 1.4%, and 60.5 ± 1.4% by the CMAVF, respectively. The diffusion of air to the bedding of IMAVFs during no-flow conditions facilitated higher organics oxidation, adsorption of phosphorous, nitrification, and ammonification. At the end of the study, hydraulic conductivity of IMAVF and CMAVF were found to be 0.036 cm/s and 0.037 cm/s, respectively. CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from IMAVF were 245.5 ± 38.0 mg C/m ² , 5.0 ± 4.6 mg C/m ² and 2513.5 ± 2629.9 μg N/m ² respectively, while CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from CMAVF were 123.3 ± 14.5 mg C/m ² , 74.8±45.2 mg C/m ² and 328.4 ± 93.4 μg N/m ² , respectively. Intermittent application of influent could be considered for improving the performance and lifespan of MAVFs, causing lower environmental footprints.
Purpose To examine the relationship between social participation and subjective well-being (SWB) among older adults using pain medications and evaluate the impact of sex on this relationship. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the 2019 National Health and Aging Trends Study data, a nationally-representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older. Individuals were included if they reported taking pain medications for five days or more per week over the last month. Social participation was operationalized using the sum score of four items: visiting family and friends, going out for enjoyment, attending religious services, and participation in other organized activities. SWB was operationalized as a latent variable using four items reflecting positive and negative emotions, and three items reflecting self-evaluation. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship between key study constructs, as well as the moderating effect of sex on the relationship between social participation and SWB. Results A total of 964 (weighted N = 7,660,599) participants were included in the study. Most participants were female (61.3%), White (81.0%), community-dwelling (94.9%) older adults. Confirmatory factor analysis showed appropriate fit for SWB. Social participation had a statistically significant association with SWB (unstandardized regression coefficient = 0.133; 95% CI 0.071, 0.196; p < 0.001) after adjusting for covariates. However, this relationship was not moderated by sex (p = 0.836). Conclusion Social participation is positively and significantly associated with SWB among older adults using pain medications. Interventions aimed at improving SWB should consider incorporating a social activities component.
The h-extra edge-connectivity is an important parameter for the reliability evaluation and fault tolerance analysis of the easily scalable interconnection networks of parallel and distributed systems. The h-extra edge-connectivity of the topological structure of an interconnection network G, denoted by λh(G), is the minimum cardinality of a set of link malfunctions whose deletion disconnects G and each remaining component has at least h processors. In this paper, for the integer n≥3, we find that the h-extra edge-connectivity of n-dimensional pentanary cube (obtained by the n-th Cartesian product of K5), denoted by λh(K5n), presents a concentration behavior on the value 4×5n-1 (resp. 6×5n-1) for some exponentially large enough h: ⌈2×5n-13⌉≤h≤5n-1 (resp. ⌈4×5n-13⌉≤h≤2×5n-1). That is, for about 40.00 percent of 1≤h≤⌊5n/2⌋, the exact values of the h-extra edge-connectivity of n-dimensional pentanary cube are either 4×5n-1 or 6×5n-1.
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of the most effective antinociceptive agents used in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy. THC is highly lipophilic and susceptible to thermal and oxidative degradation. Identifying appropriate solvents in which THC is stable as well as adequately solubilized is crucial in developing topical dosage forms. Lipid solvent systems are of utmost utility and relevance for formulating highly lipophilic drugs. Hence, the objective of this project was to screen the solubility of THC in lipidic excipients, monitor THC content in the selected vehicles during stability, and study the influence of these excipients on permeation of THC across skin. The solubility of THC in liquid lipid excipients was in the range of 421 to 500 mg/g. The solubility of THC in solid lipid excipients was in the range of 250 to 750 mg/g. THC in its neat form was poorly stable, but when dissolved in lipid-based excipients, its stability improved significantly. THC in lipid excipients was more stable at 4 ± 3°C compared to samples stored at 25 ± 2°C. The antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbyl palmitate) used in the excipients further improved the stability of THC. The results demonstrated that the liquid and solid lipid excipients used in the study could solubilize THC freely and mitigate the degradation of THC significantly. The binary combination of lipid excipients enhanced THC skin permeation and retention, demonstrating the potential for topical formulation development of THC.
Introduction: Centrophenoxine (meclofenoxate) is prescribed in China and elsewhere to treat a variety of conditions including alcoholism and dementia, but the US Food and Drug Administration has not approved the drug for any indication. We designed our study to determine the presence and quantity of centrophenoxine in dietary supplements sold over-the-counter in the US. Methods: Supplements were included in our study if the label included (a) the term "dietary supplement" and (b) "centrophenoxine" as a declared ingredient. Supplements were purchased online, and powder from each dietary supplement product was reconstituted in methanol and analyzed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Seven products were analyzed. Centrophenoxine was present in all products in dosages ranging from 79 to 251 mg per serving. Consumers following the maximum recommended daily intake on the label would be exposed to 237 to 752 mg of centrophenoxine per day. Only 1 of 7 products (14%) listed a quantity of centrophenoxine on the label within ±10% of the actual amount. Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware and advise patients that cognitive enhancement supplements may contain unapproved and prohibited drugs.
Addressing the damaging effects of implicit stereotypes—spontaneous, awareness‐independent associations between social groups and particular traits—remains a social imperative. These biases have been linked to negative outcomes in settings ranging from the workplace to medical care facilities. However, many techniques found to reduce implicit biases have been shown to yield short‐lived effects. In the present experiment, we assessed the longevity of reduced implicit racial stereotyping resulting from an intensive training technique that focuses on weakening the fundamental attributional processes underlying implicit stereotyping. Specifically, we aimed to strengthen the likelihood of White participants to consider situational attributions for behaviors performed by Black men that might otherwise have been judged to reflect negative African American stereotypes. White participants were randomly assigned to complete either Situational Attribution Training (SAT), a technique comprised of intensive training (480 trials) to “consider the situation” when making judgments about stereotype‐consistent behaviors performed by Black men, or a control task. Implicit stereotyping was assessed 24h later via the Person Categorization Task and found to be reduced for SAT, versus control, participants even after this delay. Implications for future antibias research and practice are considered.
Mental health disorders such as anxiety and/or depression are the most common mental health disorders seen among reproductive aged women and can increase during pregnancy. Many sociodemographic risk factors have been associated with anxiety and/or depression in pregnancy, which can lead to adverse maternal and infant outcomes including the risk of a hypertensive pregnancy. The current study prospectively examined self-reported anxiety, depression and stress in pregnant women without a history of fetal loss or mood disorders beginning at 20–26 weeks. At each study visit, circulating immune factors associated with perinatal mood disorders were measured in blood samples that were collected. A total of 65 women were eligible for data analysis, 26 of which had hypertensive pregnancies. There was not a significant difference in self-reported depression, anxiety or stress between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and normotensive women. Black women were more likely to have a hypertensive pregnancy and develop a perinatal mood disorder compared to non-black women. Both the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were increased in patients with perinatal mood disorders. However, additional research is needed in a larger sample to truly understand the relationship between these factors along with the underlying etiologies and the associated outcomes.
Objectives Drawing on Agnew’s (2006) general strain theory, this study tested the direct effects of police procedural injustice on participants’ emotionality and behavioral coping intentions. The mediating effects of emotionality were also assessed. Methods Data come from factorial vignettes depicting citizen-initiated encounters that were administered to a university-based sample in 2018 (N = 525). The procedural injustice stimuli reflected police behavior that violated the principles of procedural justice. Four emotional responses—angry, disgusted, happy, and appreciative—were assessed, and behavioral coping intentions were operationalized using two measures: immediate compliance with police directives and willingness to call the police in the future. Results Procedural injustice was directly associated with participants’ emotionality and their behavioral coping intentions. The relationships between procedural injustice and behavioral coping intentions were partially mediated by emotionality. Conclusions These findings underscore the negative consequences of procedural injustice during citizen-initiated police encounters.
Importance: Cold, flu, and immunity dietary supplement product sales have skyrocketed since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Supporting or boosting the immune system has become an important reason for using dietary supplements, and many consumers are purchasing products through online platforms. Objectives: To examine whether select dietary supplement products advertised as supporting or boosting the immune system are accurately labeled according to the Supplement Facts label of listed ingredients and to qualitatively describe the product labels' characteristics in terms of claims made. Design, setting, and participants: In this case series, 30 featured immune health dietary supplements were selected and purchased from Amazon.com in May 2021. Product analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The list of ingredients detected through analysis for each product was compared with the ingredients on the product's Supplement Facts label to determine whether the product's label was accurate. Claims made on product labels were also evaluated by using the Operation Supplement Safety Scorecard's set of questions to describe the labels' characteristics. Results: A total of 30 select dietary supplement products were evaluated. Thirteen of the 30 products had accurate labels based on the product analysis. Of the 17 products with inaccurate labels, 13 had ingredients listed on the labels that were not detected through analysis, such that their labels were misbranded. Nine products had substances detected that were not claimed on the product labels, some of which may be considered adulterated. Five were misbranded and contained additional components not claimed on the label. No product had third-party certification seals present on the packaging. Ten of the 13 products with accurate labels received a score of 4 or more when applying the Operation Supplement Safety Scorecard, meaning the product was "likely okay/less risky." Conclusions and relevance: In this case series study, most of the products tested had inaccurate labels and claims that were inconsistent with requirements the US Food and Drug Administration has put forward for dietary supplements. Quality control measures seem to be insufficient for most of these select products, and claims made on labels may be misleading consumers who purchase products.
Adults with diabetes frequently experience diabetes related distress, which is associated with negative health outcomes. Family members are commonly involved in patients’ diabetes self-management. However, family involvement can have helpful and/or harmful effects on patients’ diabetes outcomes. Use of interpersonal strategies to regulate negative emotions may play a role in patients’ interactions with family members and experience of diabetes distress. This study examined the influences of interpersonal emotion regulation and family and friend involvement on diabetes distress among 373 adults with type 2 diabetes. Two separate three-step sequential linear regression models were used to test the main and interactive effects of harmful and helpful family involvement and interpersonal emotion regulation on diabetes distress. Greater use of interpersonal strategies to regulate negative emotions (p = .006) and greater harmful family involvement (p < .001) were significantly associated with greater diabetes distress. Interpersonal emotion regulation moderated the relationship of helpful (p = .007), but not harmful (p = .171) family involvement on diabetes distress. Specifically, greater helpful family involvement was associated with lower diabetes distress among adults with low (p = .017) but not high (p = .419) use of interpersonal strategies to regulate negative emotions. Helpful family involvement appears to be associated with lower diabetes distress, but only among patients with low levels of interpersonal emotion regulation.
In the era of positivism and anticlericalism of France’s Belle Époque, scientist Alexis Carrel stood in stark contrast as one preoccupied with his faith and its relation to scientific scrutiny. Despite his early adult agnosticism, he sought proof of the divine and chose verification of the miraculous cures reported from the shrine at Lourdes, France. It so happened that on his first visit there, he encountered a truly remarkable “cure” of a young woman in the terminal stages of tubercular peritonitis. On a return visit, for the second time, he witnessed the restoration of sight to a blind child. Throughout the rest of his life, Carrel was struck by the proximity of the supernatural to corporeal interactions. He ultimately found a place for his faith as a parallel pathway and not in juxtaposition to the scientific. This paper chronicles Carrel’s evolution of belief and reconciliation of faith and science.
The multiverse hypothesis is one of the leading proposed explanations of cosmic fine‐tuning for life. One common objection to the multiverse hypothesis is that, even if it were true, it would not explain why this universe, our universe, is fine‐tuned for life. To think it would so explain is allegedly to commit “the inverse gambler's fallacy.” This paper presents what the inverse gambler's fallacy is supposed to be, then surveys the discussion of it in the philosophical literature of the last 35 years.
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Sasan Nouranian
  • Department of Chemical Engineering
Wei-Yin Chen
  • Department of Chemical Engineering
Sebastian John Adams
  • National Center for Natural Products Research
Cesar Rego
  • School of Business Administration
Neha Varshney
  • Department of Pathology
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