Large racial inequalities exist in the onset, course, and outcomes of illness in the United States and certain other race-conscious countries. Despite our extensive knowledge of the magnitude, trends, and determinants of these social inequalities in health, there is still much that we need to learn about the forces that drive them. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge of racial/ethnic inequities in health with a focus on the United States and the potential contribution of psychosocial stressors to account for them. It describes key patterns in the distribution of disease by race/ethnicity. It also considers evidence of relationships between psychosocial stress and health. It will explore how stress is experienced in the body and how psychosocial stressors are characterized. Then, it will examine the evidence relating psychosocial stressors with health and discuss some of the biological mechanisms by which these relationships occur. It will also highlight evidence indicating that differential exposure to chronic and acute psychosocial stressors may be an important part of social experience that matters for health and can importantly contribute to health disparities. The research suggests the importance of taking a comprehensive view of stressors to capture the full effect of stress on human physiology, health, and health disparities. Finally, the chapter considers some research and clinical implications of the association between psychosocial stressors and health.
The novel COVID-19 virus has resulted in an immense burden in healthcare throughout the world. In addition to respiratory complications, COVID-19 has been associated with hypercoagulability and ischemic changes. We report a case of a patient with COVID-19 who presented with a rapidly progressing necrotizing fasciitis treated in our institution.
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and a leading cause of irreversible blindness. The disease has conventionally been characterized by an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP); however, recent research has built the consensus that glaucoma is not only dependent on IOP but rather represents a multifactorial optic neuropathy. Although many risk factors have been identified ranging from demographics to co-morbidities to ocular structural predispositions, IOP is currently the only modifiable risk factor, most often treated by topical IOP-lowering medications. However, topical hypotensive regimens are prone to non-adherence and are largely inefficient, leading to disease progression in spite of treatment. As a result, several companies are developing sustained release (SR) drug delivery systems as alternatives to topical delivery to potentially overcome these barriers. Currently, Bimatoprost SR (DurystaTM) from Allergan plc is the only FDA-approved SR therapy for POAG. Other SR therapies under investigation include: bimatoprost ocular ring (Allergan) (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01915940), iDose® (Glaukos Corporation) (NCT03519386), ENV515 (Envisia Therapeutics) (NCT02371746), OTX-TP (Ocular Therapeutix) (NCT02914509), OTX-TIC (Ocular Therapeutix) (NCT04060144), and latanoprost free acid SR (PolyActiva) (NCT04060758). Additionally, a wide variety of technologies for SR therapeutics are under investigation including ocular surface drug delivery systems such as contact lenses and nanotechnology. While challenges remain for SR drug delivery technology in POAG management, this technology may shift treatment paradigms and dramatically improve outcomes. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Background Disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are fundamental to understanding the impact on, and expectations of, patients with genetic disorders, and can facilitate constructive and educated conversations about treatments and outcomes. However, generic PROMs may fail to capture disease-specific concerns. Here we report the development and validation of a Gaucher disease (GD)-specific PROM for patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1) a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, bruising, bone disease, and fatigue. Results and discussion The questionnaire was initially developed with input from 85 patients or parents of patients with GD1 or GD3 in Israel. Owing to few participating patients with GD3, content validity was assessed for patients with GD1 only. Content validity of the revised questionnaire was assessed in 33 patients in the US, France, and Israel according to US Food and Drug Administration standards, with input from a panel of six GD experts and one patient advocate representative. Concept elicitation interviews explored patient experience of symptoms and treatments, and a cognitive debriefing exercise explored patients’ understanding and relevance of instructions, items, response scales, and recall period. Two versions of the questionnaire were subsequently developed: a 24-item version for routine monitoring in clinical practice (rmGD1-PROM), and a 17-item version for use in clinical trials (ctGD1-PROM). Psychometric validation of the ctGD1-PROM was assessed in 46 adult patients with GD1 and re-administered two weeks later to examine test–retest reliability. Findings from the psychometric validation study revealed excellent internal consistency and strong evidence of convergent validity of the ctGD1-PROM based on correlations with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Most items were found to show moderate, good, or excellent test–retest reliability. Conclusions Development of the ctGD1-PROM represents an important step forward for researchers measuring the impact of GD and its respective treatment.
Background Limited real-world data from routine clinical care are available on the safety and effectiveness of treatment with taliglucerase alfa in patients with Gaucher disease (GD). Methods Taliglucerase Alfa Surveillance (TALIAS), a multinational prospective Drug Registry of patients with GD, was established to evaluate the long-term safety (primary objective) and effectiveness (secondary objective) of taliglucerase alfa. We present an interim analysis of the data from the Drug Registry collected over the 5-year period from September 2013 to January 2019. Results A total of 106 patients with GD (15.1% children aged < 18 years; 53.8% females) treated with taliglucerase alfa have been enrolled in the Drug Registry, as of January 7, 2019. The median duration of follow-up was 795 days with quartiles (Q1, Q3) of 567 and 994 days. Fifty-three patients (50.0%) were from Israel, 28 (26.4%) were from the United States, and 25 (23.6%) were from Albania. At the time of enrollment, most patients (87.7%) had received prior enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Thirty-nine of the 106 patients had treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Twelve of the 106 patients experienced serious AEs; two patients experienced four treatment-related serious AEs. Four patients died, although none of the deaths was considered to be related to taliglucerase alfa treatment by the treating physicians. Nine patients discontinued from the study, including the four who died. At baseline, patients with prior ERT had a higher mean hemoglobin concentration and platelet counts than treatment-naïve patients, likely reflecting the therapeutic effects of prior treatments. During follow-up, the hemoglobin concentration and platelet counts increased in the treatment-naïve patients and remained relatively constant or increased slightly in patients with prior ERT. Spleen and liver volumes decreased in treatment-naïve patients. Conclusions The interim data showed no new or emergent safety signals. The overall interim data are consistent with the clinical program experience and known safety and effectiveness profile of taliglucerase alfa.
Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare and chronic benign inflammatory disease of the breast. Difficulties exist in the management of GLM for many front-line surgeons and medical specialists who care for patients with inflammatory disorders of the breast. This consensus is summarized to establish evidence-based recommendations for the management of GLM. Literature was reviewed using PubMed from January 1, 1971 to July 31, 2020. Sixty-six international experienced multidisciplinary experts from 11 countries or regions were invited to review the evidence. Levels of evidence were determined using the American College of Physicians grading system, and recommendations were discussed until consensus. Experts discussed and concluded 30 recommendations on historical definitions, etiology and predisposing factors, diagnosis criteria, treatment, clinical stages, relapse and recurrence of GLM. GLM was recommended as a widely accepted definition. In addition, this consensus introduced a new clinical stages and management algorithm for GLM to provide individual treatment strategies. In conclusion, diagnosis of GLM depends on a combination of history, clinical manifestations, imaging examinations, laboratory examinations and pathology. The approach to treatment of GLM should be applied according to the different clinical stage of GLM. This evidence-based consensus would be valuable to assist front-line surgeons and medical specialists in the optimal management of GLM.
Background Management of large renal tumors in a horseshoe kidney has received little attention due to the highly infrequent occurrence. Surgical management for tumors in horseshoe kidney is challenging due to complex aberrant vascular anatomy, relative fixity of the renal moieties and other associated conditions such as ectopia and malrotation. An added component of a renal vein thrombus in this scenario often adds to the surgical conundrum. Inadequate peri-operative management may cause devastating complications and increased morbidity and mortality. Careful pre-operative planning and meticulous intra-operative dissection limits blood loss and thereby complications. Case presentation We present the peri-operative management of a large renal tumor with a renal vein thrombus in a horseshoe kidney moiety as a case report with literature review focusing on the intra-operative surgical approach that may be adopted for these tumors. A 12 cm × 10 cm left renal moiety mass with renal vein thrombus with no distant metastasis was diagnosed. After confirmation of thrombus extent with CT as well as MRI Abdomen, the patient underwent left moiety radical nephrectomy with renal vein thrombectomy. Careful intra-operative dissection and division of the vascular supply of the left renal moiety was performed. Vessel stapler was used for division of isthmus that resulted in minimal blood loss, complete oncologic clearance and minimal post operative morbidity. Conclusions Large renal tumor with renal vein thrombus in horseshoe kidneys is an uncommon condition. Pre operative cross-sectional imaging and intra-operative use of vessel sealants like Ligasure, harmonic scalpel and vessel staplers contribute to minimizing blood loss and thereby result in excellent patient outcomes. We report a case of a large left renal moiety tumor with renal vein thrombus successfully managed with open radical left moiety nephrectomy and isthmectomy with tumor thrombectomy.
Introduction With increasing rates of obesity worldwide, a correlation between high body mass index (BMI) and postoperative morbidity after thyroid surgery remains unclear. Postoperative transient hypocalcemia is common after total thyroidectomy due to interruption of parathyroid function. This study examines the relationship between BMI and hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy. Materials and methods A retrospective review of prospectively collected data for 1135 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for cancer, multinodular goiter (MNG), or Graves’ disease between June 2009 and November 2020 at a single institution was performed. BMI groups followed the World Health Organization classification. Hypocalcemia was defined as serum calcium ≤8 mg/dL. Calcium levels measured on postoperative day 0 and the following morning were compared between the BMI groups. Results Of 1135 total thyroidectomy patients, 85% were women. The mean age and standard deviation of patients was 49 (± 13) y, with most of Hispanic origin (64%). Overall, 41.5% of patients had cancer, 45% nontoxic MNG, 5.8% toxic MNG, and 12% Graves' disease. Stratified by BMI, 27% of patients were normal, 34% overweight, and 39% obese. Overall, overweight and obese patients experienced less transient hypocalcemia at both time points compared to normal patients postoperatively (P = 0.01 and P = 0.009). Furthermore, overweight and obese patients with Graves’ disease experienced less transient hypocalcemia at both time points (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05). There was no statistical difference in other groups. Conclusions A protective role of higher BMI or “obesity paradox” for postoperative hypocalcemia may exist in those obese patients after total thyroidectomy.
Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia represents one of the main obstacles to clinical and functional recovery. This expert group paper brings together experts in schizophrenia treatment to discuss scientific progress in the domain of cognitive impairment to address cognitive impairments and their consequences in the most effective way. We report on the onset and course of cognitive deficits, linking them to the alterations in brain function and structure in schizophrenia and discussing their role in predicting the transition to psychosis in people at risk. We then address the assessment tools with reference to functioning and social cognition, examining the role of subjective measures and addressing new methods for measuring functional outcomes including technology based approaches. Finally, we briefly review treatment options for cognitive deficits, focusing on cognitive remediation programs, highlighting their effects on brain activity and conclude with the potential benefit of individualized integrated interventions combing cognitive remediation with other approaches.
Background Emotion recognition deficits are linked with social dysfunction in psychosis, as is inaccurate self-assessment of emotion recognition abilities. However, little is known about the link between ER and real-time social appraisals and behavior. Methods In 136 people with psychotic disorders or affective disorder with psychosis we administered a novel ecological momentary cognitive test of emotion recognition which both assesses emotion recognition ability and self-assessed performance in conjunction with ecological momentary assessment of social appraisals, motivation, and time spent alone. Hybrid mixed effects models evaluated emotion recognition's associations with social experiences. Results Better recognition ability was associated with greater pleasure and more positive appraisals of others during interactions, whereas accuracy of self-assessment of emotion recognition ability was associated with more positive appraisals of interactions and social motivation. Overestimation of emotion recognition was linked with concurrent higher social motivation yet greater desire to avoid others. Time alone was unrelated to emotion recognition ability or self-assessment of ability. Discussion Mobile emotion recognition performance was associated with appraisals of recent interactions but not behavior. Self-assessment of social cognitive performance was associated with more positive appraisals and social motivation, and may be a novel target for interventions aimed at social dysfunction.
There is considerable variability in neurocognitive functioning within schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and neurocognitive performance ranges from severe global impairment to normative performance. Few investigations of neurocognitive clusters have considered the degree to which deterioration relative to premorbid neurocognitive abilities is related to key illness characteristics. Moreover, while neurocognition and community functioning are strongly related, understanding of the sources of variability in the association between these two domains is also limited; it is unknown what proportion of participants would over-perform or under-perform the level of functioning expected based on current neurocognitive performance vs. lifelong attainment. This study examined data from 954 outpatients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders across three previous studies. Neurocognition, community functioning, and symptoms were assessed. Neurocognitive subgroups were created based on current neurocognition, estimated premorbid IQ, and degree of deterioration from premorbid using z-score cut-offs; functional subgroups were created with cluster analysis based on the Specific Level of Functioning Scale and current neurocognition. The sample was neurocognitively heterogeneous; 65% displayed current neurocognitive impairment and 84% experienced some level of deterioration. Thirty percent of our sample was relatively higher functioning despite significant neurocognitive impairment. Individuals with better community functioning, regardless of neurocognitive performance, had lower symptom severity compared to those with worse functioning. These results highlight the variability in neurocognition and its role in functioning. Understanding individual differences in neurocognitive and functional profiles and the interaction between prior and current cognitive functioning can guide individualized treatment and selection of participants for clinical treatment studies.
Introduction Asian American women have lower breast cancer incidence and mortality than their non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. We sought to determine whether differences in screening practices could explain, in part, the variation in breast cancer detection rate. Methods The 2015 National Health Interview Survey, an annual survey that is representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized American population, was used to determine whether mammography usage was different between Asian and NHW women. Women ≥40 y of age who identified as either Asian or NHW were included. Results A total of 7990 women ≥40 y of age (6.12% Asian, 93.88% NHW), representing 53,275,420 women in the population, were included in our cohort of interest; 71.49% of Asian and 74.46% of NHW women reported having had a mammogram within the past 2 y (P = 0.324). Controlling for education, insurance, family income, marital status, and whether they were born in the United States, Asians were less likely to have had a mammogram within the past 2 y than their NHW counterparts (odds ratio = 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.99, P = 0.047). Of patients who had an abnormal mammogram, there was no difference in the biopsy rate (20.35% versus 25.97%, P = 0.4935) nor in the rate of cancer diagnosis among those who had a biopsy (7.70% versus 12.86%, P = 0.211) between Asian and NHW women, respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the lower breast cancer incidence among the Asian population may, in part, be explained by a lower screening mammography rate in this population.
Introduction Surgical excision of substernal thyroid goiters (STG) can be challenging while minimizing postoperative morbidity. Postoperative complication rates associated with transcervical and transthoracic approaches (i.e., partial or total sternotomy) for STG compared to multinodular goiters (MNG) limited to the neck (i.e., non-substernal) remains unclear. This study examines postoperative morbidity related to surgical approaches in the removal of STG and MNG. Methods A retrospective review of prospectively collected data of 988 patients with STG and non-substernal MNG from a single institution between 2010 and 2021 was performed. Patients were stratified by STG and conventional non-substernal MNG limited to the neck excised by transcervical and transthoracic approach. Postoperative complications including neck hematoma requiring return to the operating room, permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypocalcemia, and transient or temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypocalcemia were identified. Demographics including age, sex, and race, among others, were analyzed. Results Of the 988 cases, there were 887 (90%) MNG and 101 (10%) STG. Of the STG cohort, 11 (11%) required a partial sternotomy and 4 (4%) required a total sternotomy. Permanent complication rates for non-substernal MNG and STG patients were 1.5% and 0.9%, respectively. Only transient or temporary hypocalcemia rates were statistically different between the STG and MNG cohorts (9.9% versus 3.8%, P < 0.001). Conclusions Regardless of transcervical or transthoracic approach, postoperative complications associated with the surgical removal of STG are low in the hands of experienced, high-volume thyroid surgeons.
Purpose African-American women with breast cancer face significant disparities, including high levels of pain. Depressive symptoms and self-efficacy for pain management impact how women with breast cancer manage pain, yet little is known about how these variables relate to pain specifically for African-American women with breast cancer. Methods Baseline linear regression analyses were conducted using a sample of women (n = 98) with stage I–III breast cancer identifying as Black or African-American who were part of a larger intervention trial. Linear regressions explored the effect of depressive symptoms on pain (i.e., severity and interference), and the effect of self-efficacy for pain management on pain. Covariates were age (M = 57.22, SD = 10.76), cancer stage (50% = stage 1), and education level (36% = some college). Results Participants reported moderate levels of pain severity and interference. Higher depressive symptoms were related to both higher pain severity and interference; (B = 0.06, p < 0.01, 95% CI [0.02,0.09]) and (B = 0.13, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.09, 0.17]) respectively. Likewise, lower self-efficacy for pain management was also related to both higher pain severity and interference; (B = − 0.04, p < 0.001, 95% CI [− 0.05, − 0.02]) and (B = − 0.06, p < 0.001, 95% CI [− 0.08, − 0.04]) respectively. Women reporting less than a high school diploma endorsed significantly higher pain severity and interference than women reporting some college. Age and cancer stage were not significantly related to pain. Conclusion Pain for African-American women with breast cancer may be influenced by depressive symptoms and self-efficacy for pain management, in addition to other important variables. Attending to better assessment and treatment of depressive symptoms and self-efficacy for pain management may improve outcomes.
Objective To examine potential genetic relationships between migraine and the two distinct phenotypes posterior circulation ischemic stroke (PCiS) and anterior circulation ischemic stroke (ACiS), we generated migraine polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and compared these between PCiS and ACiS, and separately vs. non-stroke control subjects. Methods Acute ischemic stroke cases were classified as PCiS or ACiS based on lesion location on diffusion-weighted MRI. Exclusion criteria were lesions in both vascular territories or uncertain territory; supratentorial PCiS with ipsilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery; and cases with atrial fibrillation. We generated migraine PRS for three migraine phenotypes (any migraine; migraine without aura; migraine with aura) using publicly available GWAS data and compared mean PRSs separately for PCiS and ACiS vs. non-stroke control subjects, and between each stroke phenotype. Results Our primary analyses included 464 PCiS and 1079 ACiS patients with genetic European ancestry. Compared to non-stroke control subjects (n=15396), PRSs of any migraine were associated with increased risk of PCiS (p=0.01–0.03) and decreased risk of ACiS (p=0.010–0.039). Migraine without aura PRSs were significantly associated with PCiS (p=0.008–0.028), but not with ACiS. When comparing PCiS vs. ACiS directly, migraine PRSs were higher in PCiS vs. ACiS for any migraine (p=0.001–0.010) and migraine without aura (p=0.032–0.048). Migraine with aura PRS did not show a differential association in our analyses. Conclusions Our results suggest a stronger genetic overlap between unspecified migraine and migraine without aura with PCiS compared to ACiS. Possible shared mechanisms include dysregulation of cerebral vessel endothelial function.
Objectives The internal carotid artery (ICA) angle of origin may contribute to atherogenesis by altered hemodynamics. We aim to determine the contribution of vascular risk factors and arterial wall changes to ICA angle variations. Methods We analyzed 1,065 stroke-free participants from the population-based Northern Manhattan Study who underwent B-mode ultrasound (mean age 68.7±8.9 years; 59% women). ICA angle was estimated at the intersection between the common carotid artery and the ICA center line projections. Narrower external angles translating into greater carotid bifurcation bending were considered unfavorable. Linear regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between ICA angle and demographics, vascular risk factors, and arterial wall changes including carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque presence. Results ICA angles were narrower on the left compared to the right side (153±15.4 degrees versus 161.4±12.7 degrees, p<0.01). Mean cIMT was 0.9±0.1 mm and 54.3% had at least one plaque. ICA angle was not associated with cIMT or plaque presence. Unfavorable left and right ICA angles were associated with advanced age (per 10-year increase β=-1.6; p=0.01, and -1.3; p=0.03, respectively) and being Black participant (β=-4.6; p<0.01 and -2.9; p=0.04, respectively), while unfavorable left ICA angle was associated with being female (β=-2.8; p=0.03) and increased diastolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg increase β=-2.1; p<0.01). Overall, studied factors explained less than 10% of the variance in ICA angle (left R²=0.07; right R²=0.05). Conclusion Only a small portion of ICA angle variation were explained by demographics, vascular risk factors and arterial wall changes. Whether ICA angle is determined by other environmental or genetic factors, and is an independent risk factor for atherogenesis, requires further investigation.
Several studies have previously documented the development of complications stemming from injection with one of the various COVID-19 vaccines. No study, however, has discussed the spontaneous development of a soft tissue mass shortly after a COVID-19 vaccine injection. We report on 66-year-old female with concerns of a growing shoulder mass, 2 weeks after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine booster. Initial work-up with X-ray and MRI was concerning for a soft tissue neoplasm, specifically a soft tissue sarcoma. Subsequent ultrasound guided biopsy demonstrated a benign granulomatous lesion. No further management was required as the lesion spontaneously resolved during a 3-month follow-up period.
Background While minimally invasive liver resection (MILR) vs. open approach (OLR) has been shown to be safe, the perioperative and oncologic safety for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) specifically, necessitating often complex hepatectomy and extended lymphadenectomy, remains ill-defined.Methods The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with ICC undergoing liver resection from 2010 to 2016. After 1:1 Propensity Score Matching (PSM), Kruskal–Wallis and χ2 tests were applied to compare short-term outcomes. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses and Cox multivariable regression were performed.Results988 patients met inclusion criteria: 140 (14.2%) MILR and 848 (85.8%) OLR resulting in 115 patients MILR and OLR after 1:1 PSM with c-index of 0.733. MILR had lower unplanned 30-day readmission [OR 0.075, P = 0.014] and positive margin rates [OR 0.361, P = 0.011] and shorter hospital length of stay (LOS) [OR 0.941, P = 0.026], but worse lymph node yield [1.52 vs 2.07, P = 0.001]. No difference was found for 30/90-day mortality. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that MILR was associated with poorer overall survival compared to OLR [HR 2.454, P = 0.001]. Subgroup analysis revealed that survival differences from approach were dependent on major hepatectomy, tumor size > 4 cm, or negative margins.ConclusionMILR vs. OLR is associated with worse lymphadenectomy and survival in patients with ICC greater than 4 cm requiring major hepatectomy. Hence, MILR major hepatectomy for ICC should only be approached selectively and if surgeons are able to perform an appropriate lymphadenectomy.
Purpose Measuring perinatal depression in women with HIV poses a challenge to accurate assessment. South Africa has particularly high rates of perinatal depression, with antenatal depression rates ranging from 21 to 47% and postnatal depression rates ranging from 17 to 50%. With the goal of providing an examination of the psychometric properties of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a population at greater risk for depression, the current manuscript examined the factor structures and reliability of the English and Zulu versions of the EPDS among pre- and postnatal women with HIV in South Africa. Methods This study included n = 1179 women who completed the EPDS in Zulu (n = 709) and English (n = 470) antenatally, and n = 866 women were analyzed at 12-months after birth (n = 494 in Zulu and n = 372 in English). Results Using factor analytic and item response theory approaches, the English and Zulu versions of the EPDS were compared. Although a few items performed poorly, particularly item 4, the construct validity of the English and Zulu versions of the pre- and postnatally administered EPDS was supported; the reliability of the scale was also supported, with adequate reliability in Zulu and English ante-natally (α = .78), and postnatally (α = .82 and α = .77 respectively). Discussion This study contributes to improved measurement of depressive symptoms among vulnerable women in a resource constrained setting. The early and accurate detection of depressive symptoms ante- and postnatally among perinatal women living with HIV can facilitate increased treatment which may in turn help prevent the negative maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with depression.
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