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    ABSTRACT: Mustard biodiesel was produced from waste mustard oil and physicochemical properties were investigated. MB showed superior calorific value (40.404 MJ/kg), oxidation stability (15.92 h), cloud point (5 °C) and pour point (-18 °C) than any other conventional biodiesels. During engine performance test MB10 and MB20 showed 8-13% higher BSFC and 5-6% lower BTE compared to B0. By contrast, MB blends produced 7-8% less BP and 6-8% less engine torque compared to B0. Engine emission and noise test showed 9-12% higher NO, 24-42% lower HC, 19-40% lower CO and 2-7% lower noise emission for MB blends compared to B0. Besides, comparable engine performance and emission characteristics were found for MB10 and MB20 compared to PB10 and PB20 respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Procedia Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the economic lot scheduling problem where multiple items produced on a single facility in a cyclical pattern have shelf life restrictions. A mixed integer non-linear programming model is developed which allows each product to be produced more than once per cycle and backordered. However, production of each item more than one time may result in an infeasible schedule due to the overlapping production times of various items. To eliminate the production time conflicts and to achieve a feasible schedule, the production start time of some or all the items must be adjusted by either advancing or delaying. The objective is to find the optimal production rate, production frequency, cycle time, as well as a feasible manufacturing schedule for the family of items, in addition to minimizing the long-run average cost. Metaheuristic methods such as the genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms are adopted for the optimization procedures. Each of such methods is applied to a set of problem instances taken from literature and the performances are compared against other existing models in the literature. The computational performance and statistical optimization results shows the superiority of the proposed metaheuristic methods with respect to lower total costs compared with other reported procedures in the literature.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Advances in Engineering Software
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    ABSTRACT: Driven by the necessity to improve the reliability of lead free electronic products and by the trend towards miniaturization, researchers are putting intense efforts to improve the properties of Sn based solders. The present work investigates the effects of Zn nanoparticle addition to Sn-3.5Ag (SA) alloy through paste mixing on the interfacial structure between solder and copper substrate during reflow. Results show that the addition of Zn nanoparticles does not alter the morphology of the interfacial intermetallic compounds although they substantially suppress their growth. Zn nanoparticles are seen to be most efficient compared with Co and Ni nanoparticles in suppressing the growth of Cu3Sn layers. It is suggested that Zn nanoparticles exert their influence through an in-situ dissolution and alloying effect.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Intermetallics
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