University of Macau
Recent publications
A robotic polishing system includes a force-controlled end-effector (mini manipulator) and a position-controlled industrial robot (macro manipulator). This combination mode has a fast response and a large workspace. However, the force-controlled axis component of the macro motions and the geometric of the workpiece surfaces will affect the contact force response rate and tracking accuracy due to the coupling dynamics between the macro and mini, limiting system performance. A new dynamic decoupling method employing dual force sensors (DFSs) is proposed to address these problems. One of the force sensors installed between the endpoint of the macro and the fixed platform of the mini realizes the dynamic decoupling of the macro and mini. The other one is added at the endpoint of the mini to obtain the interaction force in contact with the environment and feed it back to the control loop. When the disturbances produced by the macro trajectories and the uncertainties coming from the workpiece are introduced into the system, the proposed method can improve force response rate and tracking accuracy without knowing the dynamic models and parameters of the macro and the geometric of the workpiece surface. Several experiments are carried out under various conditions. Experimental results indicate that the contact force response rate and tracking error of DFSs are better than those of the conventional force-controlled and impedance matching methods, proving the proposed method’s effectiveness. In addition, the last comparison experiment verifies that the DFSs method applies to different kinds of end-effectors with various dynamics.
With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes and considering the complicated microenvironment of diabetic wounds, the design and development of innovative multifunctional wound dressing materials are much wanted for the treatment of hard-to-heal wounds in diabetic patients. In the present study, anti-inflammatory ingredients loaded with nanofibrous wound dressing materials were manufactured by a promising blend-electrospinning strategy, and their capability for treating the diabetic wound was also systematically explored. A polymer blend consisting of Chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was electrospun into CS-PVA nanofibrous mats as control groups. In the meanwhile, a bioactive ingredient of Chinese medicine Pulsatilla, anemoside B4(ANE), with different contents were loaded into the electrospinning solution to construct CS-PVA-ANE nanofibrous mats. The developed CS-PVA-ANE wound dressing materials exhibited multifunctional properties including prominent water absorption, biomimetic elastic mechanical properties, and sustained ANE releasing behavior, as well as outstanding hemostatic properties. The in vitro studies showed that the CS-PVA-ANE nanofiber mats could significantly suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated differentiation of pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophage subsets, and notably reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well as obviously decrease inflammatory cytokine release. The in vivo animal studies showed that the CS-PVA-ANE nanofiber mats promoted the healing of diabetic wounds by significantly enhancing wound closure rates, accelerating excellent angiogenesis, promoting re-epithelization and collagen matrix deposition throughout all stages of wound healing. The present study demonstrated that CS-PVA-ANE nanofiber mats could effectively shorten the wound-healing time by inhibiting inflammatory activity, which makes them promising candidates for the treatment of hard-to-heal wounds caused by diabetes.
Despite a consensus that technologies facilitate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching, Chinese EFL teachers are not using technologies at the optimal level of expectation. To address the problem of ineffective technology use, this study purports to delineate the interactions among three teacher internal variables (i.e., Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), affective and evaluative attitudes towards technology) and two technology usage variables (i.e., technology use for face-to-face and online instruction). Data were collected from 261 EFL teachers at 17 universities in China via a self-reported questionnaire and analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that teachers’ TPACK, which related to their evaluative attitudes, positively influenced their actual technology use for both face-to-face and entire online instruction. Their evaluative attitudes also positively affected technology use for face-to-face instruction. In contrast, affective attitudes influenced neither type of technology use. The main theoretical values of this study were conceptualizing technology usage as a dichotomous variable to better fit the blended learning context and introducing a new dyadic perspective on attitudes towards technology. It also provided practical implications for computer-assist language learning policymakers and EFL faculty professional development in China.
The importance of hosts‘ information disclosure on influencing guest behavior and matching efficiency has been proven by many studies. Most peer-to-peer rental platforms allow hosts to disclose constraining descriptions (such as house rules) to regulate guest behavior. However, the effects of this specific type of information disclosure on subsequent guest behaviors and host performance remain unclear. Based on a unique longitudinal dataset collected from Airbnb, this study initially investigates how constraining descriptions influence the booking decisions and satisfaction of subsequent guests. Results show that constraining descriptions related to topics including civilization-related, living conditions, personal activities, and host management boost the review volume but decrease guest satisfaction and cause rating loss. Degree of competition, hosts’ prior reputation and price moderate the relationship between constraining descriptions and subsequent guest behaviors. As an early attempt to focus on the consequence of hosts’ constraining descriptions, this study contributes to tourism literature and property hosts in practice.
Background Qingwei San (QWS), one of classic Chinese Medicine prescripts, has been widely used to treat stomach heat syndrome which manifests oral ulcer (OU), periodontitis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding for seven hundred years. However, the therapeutic effects of QWS on diabetic OU subjected to stomach heat syndrome are still ambiguous. In the study, we investigated the pharmacological mechanisms. Methods The main components of QWS aqueous extract were analyzed by LC–MS, and potential pathways of QWS targeting OU were predicted by network pharmacology. The db/db mice were administered with the decoction of dried Zingiber officinale Rosc. rhizome combined with NaOH cauterization to establish the model of diabetic OU subjected to stomach heat syndrome. Subsequently, the model mice were treated with QWS, and OU wound healing status were recorded. The pathological changes of gastric tissue and oral mucosa were evaluated using hematoxylin–eosin staining, and the morphology of collagen fibers in oral mucosa was assessed by Masson staining. The levels of thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ), 6-Keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), β-endorphin (β-EP) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were determined by ELISA assay. The protein expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκΒα), p-IκΒα and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65 were measured by Western Blotting. Results A total of 183 compounds in QWS were identified by LC–MS, and identified 79 bioactive compounds corresponded to 269 targets and 59 pathways. QWS high-dose treatment significantly reduced the level of TXB 2 and the ratio of TXB 2 /6-keto-PGF1α. Meanwhile, it improved mucosal pathological morphology, and reduced the area of OU and local edema. Simultaneously, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2 and 5-HT, and the expressions of TLR4, TRAF6, MyD88, p-IκΒα and NF-κB p65 were decreased. Conclusion QWS treatment facilitates the healing of OU, ameliorates pathological morphologies of gastric and oral mucosa and decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in db/db mice subjected to stomach heat syndrome, whose mechanism may be associated with the inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects.
Background In China, health technology assessment (HTA) has recently been adopted in pricing negotiation for medicine listing in the National Reimbursement Drug List. At present, how HTA is applied to inform the decision-making process remains underreported. In order to explore how the adoption of HTA was translated into listing and price negotiation results in light of the confidential nature of the negotiating process, this study aimed to compare the negotiated price and the clinical benefit of selected targeted anticancer medicines (TAMs) involved in the 2019 negotiation. Main text Among 16 TAMs successfully negotiated, only four TAMs representing four indication groups had appropriate reference medicines for comparison and were, therefore, included in the analysis. The price and clinical benefit of the four TAMs were compared against one or two reference medicines with the same initial indications. The sales prices for nine TAMs before and after the negotiation were extracted from the centralized medication procurement system. Clinical benefits were evaluated based on evidence from published articles and clinical guidelines. The results suggested that, despite the application of HTA, both rational and irrational decisions had been made about the reimbursement of TAMs in the 2019 negotiation, warranting further investigation. Conclusion While the development and adoption of HTA has seen significant progress in China, actions are needed to ensure that the adoption of HTA is effectively applied in decisions on the reimbursement of medicines.
Background Red yeast rice (RYR), a nutraceutical with a profound cholesterol-lowering effect, was found to attenuate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice. Despite monacolin K in RYR being a specific inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMCGR), the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of RYR against NAFLD are not fully elucidated. Methods Using a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and a cellular model of HepG2 cells challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and palmitic acid (PA), the possible molecular mechanisms were exploited in the aspects of NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome and mTORC1-SREBPs signaling pathways by examining the relevant gene/protein expressions. Subsequently, the correlation between these two signals was also verified using cellular experiments. Results RYR ameliorated lipid accumulation and hepatic inflammation in vivo and in vitro. RYR improved lipid metabolism through modulating mTORC1-SREBPs and their target genes related to triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis. Furthermore, RYR suppressed hepatic inflammation by inhibiting the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling. Interestingly, the treatment with RYR or MCC950, a specific NLRP3 inhibitor, resulted in the reduced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells challenged by LPS plus PA, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of RYR on NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated hepatic inflammation may partially, in turn, contribute to the lipid-lowering effect of RYR. Conclusions The modulation of NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome and lipid synthesis may contribute to the ameliorative effects of RYR against HFD-induced NAFLD.
Quantum teleportation is the fundamental communication unit in quantum communication. Here, a three-level system is selected for storing and transmitting quantum information, due to its unique advantages, such as lower cost than a higher-level system and higher capacity and security than a two-level system. It is known that the key procedure for perfect teleportation is the distribution of entanglement through quantum channel. However, amounts of noise existing in the quantum channel may interfere the entangled state, causing the degradation of quantum entanglement. In the physical implementations of quantum communication schemes, noise acting on the carriers of successive transmissions often exhibits some correlations, which is the so called quantum memory channel. In this paper, a memory channel model during the entanglement distribution phase is constructed and the uniform expression of the evolution of a two-qutrit entangled state under different kinds of correlated noise is derived. Finally, Pauli noise and amplitude damping noise as the typical noise source are considered to analyze the influence of memory effects of noise on qutrit teleportation. It is expected to show that three-level teleportation under these two types of channels can generally enhance the robustness to noise if the Markovian correlations of quantum channel are taken into consideration.
Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have unique advantages in the prevention and treatment of diseases, which are widely recognized in the world. More and more CHMs are becoming increasingly popular in the international markets. However, the quality control of CHMs is a significant issue for their acceptance and recognition in the international market. This review mainly focuses on the quality requirements for CHMs to enter the European Union (EU) market. Both Chinese and European regulations and quality controls are compared. Firstly, the EU medicinal regulatory system and relevant regulations were reviewed. Secondly, the key factors of the quality control of CHMs, including Chinese herbal drugs, extracts and products were compared with those of European herbal medicines in the EU market. Subsequently, three main registration routes for herbal medicinal products including Chinese herbal medicinal products entering the EU were introduced. Furthermore, the legal status of traditional Chinese medicine granules in the EU was also discussed. Through the comparison of the key quality factors for CHMs in China and the EU, the similarities and differences in terms of quality requirements and regulations are addressed, which provides a reference for the development of CHMs into the EU market.
Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disease that shows a high incidence in older individuals, is becoming increasingly prevalent. Unfortunately, there is no clinical cure for PD, and novel anti-PD drugs are therefore urgently required. However, the selective permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) poses a huge challenge in the development of such drugs. Fortunately, through strategies based on the physiological characteristics of the BBB and other modifications, including enhancement of BBB permeability, nanotechnology can offer a solution to this problem and facilitate drug delivery across the BBB. Although nanomaterials are often used as carriers for PD treatment, their biological activity is ignored. Several studies in recent years have shown that nanomaterials can improve PD symptoms via their own nano-bio effects. In this review, we first summarize the physiological features of the BBB and then discuss the design of appropriate brain-targeted delivery nanoplatforms for PD treatment. Subsequently, we highlight the emerging strategies for crossing the BBB and the development of novel nanomaterials with anti-PD nano-biological effects. Finally, we discuss the current challenges in nanomaterial-based PD treatment and the future trends in this field. Our review emphasizes the clinical value of nanotechnology in PD treatment based on recent patents and could guide researchers working in this area in the future.
Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive subtype of breast cancer that develops resistance to chemotherapy frequently. Autophagy has been reported as a pro-survival response to chemotherapeutic drugs in TNBC, and suppression of autophagy can be a strategy to overcome drug resistance. Methods The efficacy of toosendanin (TSN) in blocking autophagy flux was measured by western blot analysis of autophagy markers, and the fluorescent imaging of RFP-GFP-LC3 probe. The co-localization of autophagosomes and lysosomes was analyzed by fluorescent imaging. Then, lysosome function was determined by measuring the lysosomal pH value and the activity of lysosomal hydrolytic proteases. For in vitro study, human triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cell lines were used for evaluating the anti-proliferative effect. For in vivo study, the RFP-GFP-LC3 MDA-MB-231 xenograft nude mice received intraperitoneal injection of irinotecan (10 mg/kg), TSN (0.5 mg/kg) or a combination, and the autophagy activity and cell apoptosis were determined in tumor tissue. The degree of pathological injury of tissue was evaluated by liver index. Results The natural autophagy inhibitor TSN, a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosenda Sieb. et Zucc, potently inhibited late-stage autophagy in TNBC cells. This effect was achieved via elevating lysosome pH rather than blocking the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. We further investigated the effects of TSN on the in vitro and in vivo TNBC models, in combination with chemotherapeutic drug irinotecan (or its active metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin), a topoisomerase I inhibitor showing therapeutic potential for TNBC. The data showed that TSN blocked 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38)/irinotecan-induced protective autophagy, and significantly induced apoptosis in TNBC cells and tumor xenograft models when compared to SN-38/irinotecan alone group. Graphical Abstract
Saponins are found in a variety of higher plants and display a wide range of pharmacological activities, including expectorant, anti-inflammatory, vasoprotective and antimicrobial properties. Pulsatilla chinensis ( P. chinensis, Bai Tou Weng, 白頭翁) has been used medically in China for thousands of years for the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria, and it is rich in triterpenoid saponins. In recent decades, anemoside B4 (Pulchinenoside C) is well studied since it has been used as a quality control marker for P. chinensis . At the same time, more and more other active compounds were found in the genus of Pulsatilla . In this review, we summarize the pharmacological activities of Pulsatilla saponins (PS) and discuss the cellular or molecular mechanisms that mediate their multiple activities, such as inducing cancer cell apoptosis, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, and protecting organs via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant measures. We aim to provide comprehensive analysis and summary of research progress and future prospects in this field to facilitate further study and drug discovery of PS.
An electret-based mechanical antenna (EBMA), which can transmit extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic signals, has the advantages of miniaturization and high transmitting efficiency, with great potential applications in air, underwater, and underground communications. To improve the charge density of the electret, which is a key factor in determining the radiation performance of an EBMA, this work proposes a fluorinated ethylene propylene/terpolymer of tetrafluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene and vinylidene fluoride (FEP/THV) unipolar electret exhibiting negative polarity, reaching a total charge density up to −0.46 mC/m ² for each layer of electret. Long transmission distances can be achieved in sea water, soil, and air using a 3-layer-FEP/THV-based EBMA with a compact volume of 5 × 10 ⁻⁴ m ³ . As an application demonstration, binary ASCII-coded ELF information of “BUAA” is successfully transmitted with a power consumption < 5 W.
Background Fresh or dried Persimmon leaves ( Diospyros kaki Thunb . ) exhibit preventive effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, their antidepressant effects and underlying mechanisms are unclear. Thus, we investigated mechanisms responsible for Persimmon leaf extract (PLE) activity on chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)-induced depressive-like behaviors in mice. Methods CSDS was used as a mouse model of depression. We performed the sucrose preference test (SPT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) to identify depressive-like behavior. Spine density and dendritic morphology were assessed using Golgi staining. Neurochemicals were quantified by microdialysis, doublecortin by immunofluorescence, and cAMP using an ELISA kit. Finally, the levels of cortical proteins of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), postsynaptic density synapsin-1 and protein 95 (PSD95) were quantified by western blot. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to detect fecal microbiota. Results Treatment of CSDS-subjected mice with PLE (30.0–60.0 mg/kg, i.g. ) enhanced sucrose preference, decreased immobility times in the TST and FST but did not affect locomotor activity. Furthermore, persistent social defeat stress decreased dendritic spine density and dendritic length in the brain, as well as decreased PSD95 and synapsin-1 expression. PLE, interestingly, inhibited dendritic spine loss and increased synaptic protein levels. PLE also increased brain levels of 5-HT, cAMP, phosphorylated (p)-CREB, BDNF, PSD95, and synapsin-1 in mice subjected to CSDS. Furthermore, PLE increased their doublecortin-positive cell count in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. CSDS mice represented a distinct fecal microbiota cluster which differed compared with normal C57BL/6J mice, and the phenotype was rescued by PLE. Conclusions PLE alleviated CSDS-induced depressive behaviors and spinal damage by suppressing serotonin reuptake and activating the cAMP/CREB/BDNF signaling pathway. Simultaneously, PLE influenced the composition of the fecal microbiota in CSDS-subjected mice.
Background Investigation on protective effects of Panax notoginseng against obesity and its related mechanisms is incomplete. Present study aimed to investigate the potential anti-obesity effect of the total saponins (PNS) and ethanolic extract of P. notoginseng (PNE). Methods Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice received 45% kcal fat diet for 12 weeks to induce obesity. Oral administration of PNS and PNE at 20 mg/kg/day was applied for the last 4 weeks in the obese mice. Lipid profile was determined by ELISA. Histological examination was performed in liver and fat tissues. Protein levels were measured by Western blot. Results PNS and PNE did not cause weight loss. PNE but not PNS decreased the mass of epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue, accompanied by a reduction in adipocyte hypertrophy. PNS and PNE improved lipid profile by reducing the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma or liver samples. PNS and PNE also relieved fatty liver in obese mice. PNS and PNE inhibited expression and phosphorylation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-responsive proteins in hypertrophic adipose tissue. Conclusions PNS and PNE can regulate ER stress-mediated apoptosis and inflammation to alleviate obesity.
Background Lianhua Qingwen Capsules (LHQW) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription commonly used to treat viral influenza in China. There has been sufficient evidence that LHQW could effectively treat COVID-19. Nevertheless, the potential anti-(mutant) SARS-CoV-2 and anti-inflammation compounds in LHQW are still vague. Methods The compounds of LHQW and targets were collected from TCMSP, TCMID, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry of CAS database, and relevant literature. Autodock Vina was used to carry out molecular docking. The pkCSM platform to predict the relevant parameters of compound absorption in vivo. The protein–protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by the STRING database. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was carried out by Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The anti-(mutant) SARS-CoV-2 and anti-inflammation networks were constructed on the Cytoscape platform. Results 280 compounds, 16 targets related to SARS-CoV-2, and 54 targets related to cytokine storm were obtained by screening. The key pathways Toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signal pathway, and Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and the core targets IL6 were obtained by PPI network and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The network analysis predicted and discussed the 16 main anti-SARS-CoV-2 active compounds and 12 main anti-inflammation active compounds. Ochnaflavone and Hypericin are potential anti-mutant virus compounds in LHQW. Conclusions In summary, this study explored the potential anti-(mutant) SARS-CoV-2 and anti-inflammation compounds of LHQW against COVID-19, which can provide new ideas and valuable references for discovering active compounds in the treatment of COVID-19.
Although multiple emissive phosphors are of great fundamental interest and practical importance, it is still challenging to achieve full-color tunable luminescence in a single-component material. Herein, we present an antimony-doped lead halide single crystal (C 10 NH 22 ) 2 PbBr 4 : Sb ³⁺ with widely tunable red/green/blue/white luminescence. Extrinsic Sb ³⁺ dopants provide host another active sites to capture photo-generated excitons, thus triggering blue/red dual emission. Moreover, a reversible thermal-induced phase transition transforms blue/red emission into green/red dual emission. Both two phases exhibit intriguing excitation-wavelength dependent emission, affording a whole color gamut covering the red-green-blue (RGB) color triangle on the CIE 1931 diagram. Experimental and theoretical calculation studies reveal two emitters work independently, which paves the way for the multimode optical control and promotes the development of multifunctional luminescent materials.
The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 carries multiple unusual mutations, particularly in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. Moreover, host-adapting mutations, such as residues 493, 498, and 501, were also observed in the Omicron RBD, which indicates that it is necessary to evaluate the interspecies transmission risk of the Omicron variant. Herein, we evaluated the interspecies recognition of the Omicron BA.1 and Delta RBDs by 27 ACE2 orthologs, including humans. We found that Omicron BA.1 expanded its receptor binding spectra to palm-civet, rodents, more bats (least horseshoe bat and greater horseshoe bat) and lesser hedgehog tenrec. Additionally, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Omicron BA.1 S protein complexed with mouse ACE2 (mACE2) and the crystal structure of Omicron RBD complexed with palm-civet ACE2 (cvACE2). Several key residues for the host range have been identified. These results suggest that surveillance should be enhanced on the Omicron variant for its broader-species receptor binding to prevent spillover and expansion of reservoir hosts for a prolonged pandemic.
The increase of penetration of renewable energies has posed inevitable challenges to the stability and safety of power system operations, especially in large-scale multi-machine power systems. Emergency control is thereby crucial to avoid catastrophic accidents, and identifying coherent generators is the basis of wide-area control of a multi-machine power system. However, existing approaches are rule-based or rely on shallow machine learning, lacking effectiveness and robustness due to their insufficient ability of pattern mining from system monitoring indicators. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a novel end-to-end generator coherency identification framework, leveraging an improved auto-encoder to comprehensively exploit information of phasor measurement units (PMUs) obtained from wide-area measuring systems (WAMS). The framework jointly trains the feature extraction module and the clustering module to fully explore the shared knowledge and obtain cluster-specific representations. In addition, a visualization component is equipped with the process-agnostic framework for interpretability. Simulated and practical case studies validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach as it outperforms both deep learning baselines and state-of-the-art methods on all datasets under various situations, including observation window size changes, noisy data, or data missing at random.
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4,555 members
Simon Fong
  • Department of Computer and Information Science
Zhaowei Kong
  • Faculty of Education
Gabriel Antunes De Araujo
  • Department of Portuguese
S.P. Li
  • Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences
Wang Shengpeng
  • Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences
Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau SAR, China, Macau, Macao
Head of institution
Yonghua Song