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    ABSTRACT: The gelada baboon is a graminivorous primate whose ecology is unusually sensitive to ambient temperature. A systems model of the socio-ecology of the gelada is used to predict the impact of global warming on the species’ altitudinal distribution. The species’ lower altitudinal limit will rise by ≈ 500 m for every 2 °C increase in global mean temperature. A 7 °C rise in temperature would be sufficient to result in the species being confined to a small number of isolated mountain peaks, where its chances of survival will be greatly reduced. Changes in local climate are also likely to have significant effects on agricultural practice on the Ethiopian highlands, and this in turn is likely to have repercussions for the distribution patterns of the gelada by further constraining the habitat available to them.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 1998 · Global Change Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Social group size has been shown to correlate with neocortex size in primates. Here we use comparative analyses to show that social group size is independently correlated with the size of non-V1 neocortical areas, but not with other more proximate components of the visual system or with brain systems associated with emotional cueing (e.g. the amygdala). We argue that visual brain components serve as a social information 'input device' for socio-visual stimuli such as facial expressions, bodily gestures and visual status markers, while the non-visual neocortex serves as a 'processing device' whereby these social cues are encoded, interpreted and associated with stored information. However, the second appears to have greater overall importance because the size of the V1 visual area appears to reach an asymptotic size beyond which visual acuity and pattern recognition may not improve significantly. This is especially true of the great ape clade (including humans), that is known to use more sophisticated social cognitive strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 1997 · Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leaks from the perfused rat kidney under the artificial conditions of a Ca(2+)-paradox protocol, namely Ca(2+)-repletion following a 20 minute period of Ca(2+)-depletion. LDH leakage was markedly suppressed by perfusion at 25 degrees C or with 0.1 mM dibucaine or 2 mM lidocaine. Lidocaine inhibited leakage only during Ca(2+)-depletion. Lowering the perfusion rate significantly reduced LDH escape. No LDH loss occurred if the osmotic pressure of the perfusion fluid was raised by 420 mOsm during either Ca(2+)-depletion or Ca(2+)-repletion. Amiloride (2 mM) significantly reduced LDH leakage to 43%. Reduction of the pH of the perfusion fluid to 6.8 significantly inhibited LDH loss, and at pH 6.4 this leakage was almost completely suppressed. LDH loss was equally suppressed at pH 6.4 only during Ca(2+)-depletion, whereas pH 6.4 was markedly less effective when perfused only during Ca(2+)-repletion. Ouabain (5 x 10(-6) M) had only a limited effect in exacerbating LDH leakage. Raising [K+]o significantly protected against LDH leakage, which fell to 36% at 16 mM [K+]. These features correspond with the Ca(2+)-paradox of the perfused rat heart an it is suggested that: (i) a Ca(2+)-paradox can be produced in the rat kidney; (ii) a similar mechanism governs the release of cytosolic proteins in these two preparations; and (iii) the damage mechanism of the plasmalemma is a transmembrane oxidoreductase-diaphorase molecular complex which generates H+ when activated by Ca(2+)-depletion.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · Kidney International
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