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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Gut
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    ABSTRACT: The use of patient reported outcome measures to support routine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) care is not widespread and suggests that existing questionnaires lack relevance to day-to-day decisions or are too cumbersome to administer. We developed a simple, generic tool for capturing disease control from the patient's perspective to address these barriers. Development based on literature review, patient focus groups/interviews and a steering group, defining a limited set of generic questions. The 'IBD-Control' questionnaire comprises 13 items plus a visual analogue scale (VAS) (0-100). Prospective validation involved baseline completion of IBD-Control, quality of life (QoL) questionnaire (UK-IBD-Q), EuroQol (EQ-5D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score; and clinician assessment (blinded to questionnaire; recording Harvey-Bradshaw Index or Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index; Global Clinician Rating; treatment outcome). 299 patients returned baseline surveys (Crohn's disease, n=160; ulcerative colitis, n=139) and 138 attended for repeat visits. Completion time (mean; SD): 1 min 15 s; 25 s; Internal consistency: Cronbach's α for all 13 items (0.85); for subgroup of eight questions ('IBD-Control-8'; 0.86). Strong correlation between IBD-Control-8 and IBD-Control-VAS (r=0.81). Test-retest reliability (2 week repeat): intra-class correlation=0.97 for IBD-Control-8 and 0.96 for IBD-Control-VAS. Construct validity: Moderate-to-strong correlations between IBD-Control-8 and IBD-Control-VAS versus activity indices, UK-IBD-Q and EQ-5D (utility) with r values 0.52-0.86. Discriminant validity (mean instrument scores for remission, mild, moderate or severe): p<0.001 (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Sensitivity to change: Effect sizes: 0.76-1.44. The IBD-Control is a rapid, reliable, valid and sensitive instrument for measuring overall disease control from the patient's perspective. Unlike existing patient reported outcome measures, its simplicity, ease-of-use and generic applicability make it a candidate for supporting routine care.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Gut
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    ABSTRACT: Nutrient delivery to the gut activates neuroendocrine mechanisms that control digestion and energy intake and utilisation. These include the release from enteroendocrine cells of mediators including 5HT, CCK, GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin that act on vagal afferent neurons regulating food intake and autonomic reflexes controlling motility, secretion, inflammatory responses and mucosal defence. The mediators may act locally on vagal afferent fibres running close to their cell of origin, or distally after delivery in the circulation. Recent work indicates that the signalling mechanisms are strongly influenced by nutrient status. Thus, both food withdrawal and diet-induced obesity alter the sensitivity of vagal afferent neurons to stimulation as well as their patterns of expression of receptors and neuropeptide transmitters. Normally, leptin potentiates vagal afferent stimulation by CCK but this is lost in obesity. Recent studies suggest changes in the gut microbiota in obesity lead to increased LPS which suppresses leptin effects on vagal afferent neurons. There are obvious limitations to direct studies of vagal afferent signalling in man but recent work indicates fMRI brain imaging of CNS responses to CCK and ghrelin is feasible, informative and provides opportunities for future progress in human studies of gut-brain signalling.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Current Opinion in Pharmacology
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