University of Lapland
  • Rovaniemi, Finland
Recent publications
Risk-taking in birds is often measured as the flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which individuals take flight when approached by a potential predator (typically a human). The ecological factors that affect avian FID have received great attention over the past decades and meta-analyses and comparative analyses have shown that FID is correlated with body mass, flock size, starting distance of the approaching human, density of potential predators, as well as varying along rural to urban gradients. However, surprisingly, only few studies (mainly on reptiles and mammals) have explored effects of different types of refugia and their availability on animal escape decisions. We used Bayesian regression models (controlling for the phylogenetic relatedness of bird species) to explore changes in escape behaviour recorded in European cities in relationship to the birds' distance to the nearest refuge and distance fled to the refuge. In our analyses, we also included information on the type of refuge, built-up and vegetation cover, starting distance, flock size, urbanization level, and type of urban habitat. We found that birds preferred tree refuges over artificial and bush refuges. Birds escaped earlier if the distance to the nearest refuge of any type was longer and if birds fled longer distances to the refuge. FID was shorter when birds used bushes as refugia or landed on the ground after flushing compared to using artificial refugia. Similarly, the distance fled to a refuge was shortest when using bushes, and increased when escaping to artificial substrates and trees. Birds were more timid in suburban than core areas of cities, cemeteries than parks, and in areas with higher bush cover but lower cover of built-up areas and trees. Our findings provide novel information regarding the importance of refuge proximity and type as factors affecting the escape behaviour of urban birds.
Species richness is a widely used proxy for patterns of biodiversity variation in metacommunities. However, deeper analyses require additional metrics, such as the occupancy-frequency distributions (SOFD) of different local communities. The SOFD patterns indicate the number of shared species between study sites; therefore, they can provide new insights into the current debate on how to create more biodiversity-friendly cities. Breeding birds were counted from 593 point-count stations located in five 500 m × 500 m squares in land-sharing (LSH; low-density built areas interspersed with green spaces) and five similar nearby squares in land-sparing (LSP; densely built-up with set-aside, large-sized, continuous green spaces) landscapes in nine cities across Europe. High beta-diversity (with over 42% of the 103 species detected being restricted to a single city and only 7% found in all studied cities) showed the uniqueness of cities at the continental scale. Urban bird metacommunities followed the unimodal-satellite SOFD pattern at the European continental scale but a bimodal symmetric or asymmetric distribution at the city-level scale, suggesting that many common species occur in cities on a smaller scale. The LSP urban areas followed a unimodal satellite SOFD pattern with numerous rare species. In contrast, the LSH areas fit several types of bimodal SOFD patterns equally well, where communities share several common species. The findings also highlight the need to use multi-scale approaches to analyze the effects of LSH-LSP urban designs on urban bird diversity.
Northern Finland, like the rest of the Arctic, has experienced increases in mean annual temperature, the number of winter rains, the number of thaw–freeze days, the number of extremely warm weather events, and a shortened snow season. These changes have produced numerous problems for reindeer herders whose livelihoods rely on a healthy ecosystem with predictable weather patterns. We performed a scoping literature review to assess how climate change induced extreme weather has negatively impacted reindeer herding as well as the health and wellbeing of reindeer herders. Late snow cover negatively impacts reindeer herding through a more widely dispersed herd that increases the work to gather reindeer, leads to reduced calf weight, and results in less meat for sale. This increased labor, especially in extreme cold conditions, can also negatively impact reindeer herder health. Icing due to thaw–freeze and rain‐on‐snow events makes it impossible for reindeer to dig through the snow to access lichens, increasing the need for reindeer herders to keep the herd in winter enclosures and provide supplemental feed. Climate change induced weather events such as late snow cover and icing increase reindeer herder efforts and expenses, put their livelihood at risk, and put their health at risk.
The food system has direct impacts on our health both at individual and planetary levels; however, there is a need to make it more sustainable. Many communities in the Nordic-Arctic region are faced with challenges that arise from the need to protect natural resources due to increased activities that are fostered by tourism in the region. In this paper, we explore the interrelated factors that can sustainably support the food system in the region. A better understanding of these associated challenges in a complex food system from production to consumption is required. In order to ensure sustainability in the future, it will be necessary to explore the impacts of food tourism while responding to megatrends in the society. It is important that the natural resources in the communities of this region are better preserved for the next generation. Traditional knowledge and digital solutions can be harnessed to support food security and sovereignty that can empower local communities of the Nordic-Arctic region without compromising their heritage and sustainability.
Land-use conflicts can be costly and time-consuming and cause social burden to all parties. In this study, we developed an approach for mapping synergy and conflict potential between land uses and tested it on nature protection, nature-based tourism, forestry and mining. First, we calculated the ecological and socio-cultural values for the study area, and further the economic values related to forestry and mining. Second, we conducted an integrated spatial assessment of these values and used it jointly with a variant of a value compatibility analysis to locate areas with possible synergistic and conflicting land uses. This study was carried out in Finnish Lapland where land use conflicts have occurred due to the need to develop forestry and mining in areas that are also important for nature-based tourism. The method operated well as it identified sites with ongoing land-use disputes. Synergy potential between biodiversity and socio-cultural values was identified in protected areas and other sites of natural beauty, and conflict potential concerning forestry near tourist resorts and concerning mining at proposed mining project sites. The developed framework can assist in locating sites that may need proactive measurements to avoid conflicts, and sites that would benefit from multi-purpose management thereby supporting sustainable and adaptive land-use planning.
Wild and semi‐domesticated reindeer are one of the key species in Arctic and subarctic areas, and their population dynamics are closely tied to winter conditions. Difficult snow conditions have been found to decrease the calving success and survivability of reindeer, but the economic effects of variation in winter conditions on reindeer husbandry have not been studied. In this study, we combine state‐of‐the‐art economic‐ecological modeling with the analysis of annual reindeer management reports from Finland. These contain local knowledge of herding communities. We quantify the occurrence probabilities of different types of winters from the annual management reports and analyze the effects of this variation in winter conditions on reindeer husbandry by using an age‐ and sex‐structured bioeconomic reindeer‐lichen model. Our results show that difficult winters decrease the net revenues of reindeer husbandry. However, they also protect lichen pastures from grazing, thus increasing net revenues in the future. Nonetheless, according to our solutions, the variability of winter conditions overall decreases the net income of herders compared to constant winter conditions. Low lichen biomass appears to make reindeer management more sensitive to the effects of difficult winter conditions. We also found that it is economically sensible to use supplementary feeding during difficult winters, but the net revenues still decrease compared to average winters because of the high feeding costs. Overall, our analysis suggests that the increasing variability of winter conditions due to climate change will decrease the net revenues in reindeer husbandry. This decrease will still occur even if the most extreme effects of climate change are not realized. This study shows that combining a state‐of‐the‐art bioeconomic model and practitioner knowledge can bring compatible insights, ideas, results, and a bottom‐up perspective to the discussion.
Corvids (crows, magpies, jays) live in a close association with humans, and therefore knowledge about their population status and changes will be an essential part of monitoring the quality of urban environments. Wintering bird populations can track habitat and climate changes more rapidly than breeding populations. We conducted a long-term (1991–2020) winter census of corvid species in 31 human settlements along a 920 km latitudinal gradient in Finland. We observed a total of five corvid species: the Eurasian Magpie (occurring in 114 surveys out of 122; total abundance 990 ind.), the Hooded Crow (in 96 surveys; 666 ind.), the Eurasian Jackdaw (in 51 surveys; 808 ind.), the Eurasian Jay (in 5 surveys; 6 ind.) and the Rook (in 1 survey; 1 ind.). Only the numbers of the Eurasian Jackdaw differed between the study winters, being greater at the end of the study period (2019/2020) than during the earlier winters (1991/1992 and 1999/2000). The average growth rate (λ) of the Eurasian Jackdaw increased during the study period, whereas no changes were observed in the cases of the Hooded Crow or the Eurasian Magpie. The growth rate of the Eurasian Jackdaw was greater than that observed in the Finnish bird-monitoring work, probably because our data came only from the core area of each human settlement. Even though the number of buildings and their cover increased in the study plots, and the winter temperature differed between winters, the average growth rate (λ) of corvid species did not significantly correlate with these variables. These results suggest that urban settlements are stable wintering environments for the generalist corvids. The between-species interactions were all positive, but non-significant. Despite the total number of winter-feeding sites being greater during the winter of 1991/92 than during the winter of 2019/2020, the changes in the numbers of feeding stations did not correlate with the growth rates of any corvid species. We assume that the Eurasian Jackdaw has benefitted from the decreased persecution, and probably also from large-scale climate warming that our study design was unable to take in to account. Our results indicated that wintering corvid populations succeed well in the human settlements in Finland. We recommend conducting long-term corvid research, also during breeding season, to understand more detailed causes of the population changes of corvids along an urban gradient. Without year-round long-term monitoring data, the conservation and management recommendations related to the corvid species in urban habitats may be misleading.
Surface albedo feedback (SAF) is one of the main causes of amplified warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Several recent studies have used the latest reanalysis datasets to evaluate the SAF induced warming, but without fully considering the fidelity of the surface albedo change and surface downward solar radiation in the reanalysis datasets, which directly affect the amplitude of SAF induced warming. This study finds that the state‐of‐the‐art reanalysis datasets (ERA‐Interim, ERA5, MERRA, MERRA‐2, JRA‐55 and CRA) and climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) exhibit varying biases compared with observations in both surface albedo change and surface downward solar radiation over the TP. The state‐of‐the‐art reanalysis datasets present no obvious advantages over the lower resolution but less constrained CMIP6 multi‐model ensemble in representing SAF related processes over the TP. The surface albedo change drives most of the spread in SAF induced warming. The reanalysis datasets and CMIP6 climate models reveal a significant linear relationship between surface albedo change and its contribution to surface temperature change over the TP. Using the observation constrained linear relationship and satellite surface albedo products, the spread of warming contribution due to SAF in reanalysis datasets and climate models is greatly reduced, the estimated TP warming due to SAF is in the range of 0.26–0.50 K in winter and 0.27–0.77 K in spring over recent decades.
The EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive (MSPD) requires the member states (MS) to pursue Blue Growth while ensuring good environmental status (GES) of sea areas. An ecosystem-based approach (EBA) should be used for the integration of the aims. However, the MSPD does not specify how the MS should arrange their MSP governance, which has led to a variety of governance arrangements and solutions in addressing the aims. We analysed the implementation of the MSPD in Finland, to identify conditions that may enable or constrain the integration of Blue Growth and GES in the framework of EBA. MSP in Finland is an expert-driven regionalized approach with a legally non-binding status. The results suggest that this MSP framework supports the implementation of EBA in MSP. Yet, unpredictability induced by the non-binding status of MSP, ambiguity of the aims of MSP and of the concept of EBA, and the need to pursue economic viability in the coastal municipalities may threaten the consistency of MSP in both spatial and temporal terms. Developing MSP towards a future-oriented adaptive and collaborative approach striving for social learning could improve the legitimacy of MSP and its capacity to combine Blue Growth and GES. The analysis indicates, that in the delivery of successful MSP adhering to the principles of EBA should permeate all levels of governance. The study turns attention to the legal status of MSP as a binding or non-binding planning instrument and the role the legal status plays in facilitating or constraining predictability and adaptability required in MSP.
Autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical and multisensory phenomenon in which specific audiovisual stimuli elicit a pleasurable, head-oriented tingling sensation and feelings of relaxation. The purpose of this research was to analyze the ASMR experiences of university students in the light of well-being theory. Two-phased, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Finnish university students who identified themselves as ASMR experiencers. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coding was guided by the domains of well-being in the PERMA model: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. The objective was to explore the effect of students' ASMR experiences on their well-being. The findings show that ASMR videos enhanced the well-being of the participants through a mindfulness-like experience. The potential of ASMR videos to promote psychosocial wellbeing is intriguing, and this research provides a new understanding about ASMR experiences and their meaning.
Previous research suggested a strong connection between students’ experiences of traditional learning environments and study-related burnout (Brown et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2017; Meriläinen, 2014; Kuittinen & Meriläinen, 2014). However, digital learning environments and how they can pedagogically support students’ well-being remain, in many respects, an unexplored area (Ruokamo et al., 2016; Lewin & Lundie, 2016). Moreover, pedagogical assessment, including how it can support students’ academic well-being, often lags behind the latest technological developments (Spector, 2014; Popenici & Kerr, 2017; Bates et al., 2020; Holmes et al., 2019; Luckin et al., 2016). This research systematically reviews the literature relevant to study-related burnout and academic well-being in digital learning environments. It is done by surveying articles published between 2012 and 2021. First, the findings suggest that there is a body of studies focusing on certain dimensions of study-related burnout. Second, students’ well-being in digital learning environments is less studied and relies mostly on emotional achievement theory and research on academic emotions. Finally, supporting students’ academic well-being through digital assessment is mostly enabled through formative assessment, but it is moving toward artificial intelligence and game-based assessment. Thus, more research is needed on the subject.
This study develops Finnish teacher education by exploring the perspectives of teacher student’s on older people’s media education and equipping teacher students to better support older people’s media literacies. Student teams designed media-literacy interventions in the context of a course, “Older People, Media Education, and Facilitation of Learning,” offered in separated teacher pedagogical studies at one Finnish University during the academic year 2019‒2020. Research participants included 22 teacher students and 15 stakeholders (older people and professionals working with older people). The research data consists of students’ designs and presentations on how media education should be implemented for older people as well as feedback from stakeholders. The research data was collected during the course and evaluation workshop organized at the end of the course as part of an ongoing project. Results indicate that creative and need-based pedagogies were emphasized and course development should be continued in light of the results.
Information disorder is a growing phenomenon, and fact-checking has long been recognized as an effective practice to evaluate media. Still, knowledge about fact-checking is not coherent in higher education institutions, not even in the field of media education. The paper is based on two case studies exploring the teaching of fact-checking in higher education as a European survey and evaluation of a workshop online in the critical-pragmatic framework with mixed methods. Findings highlight a need for developing fact-checking teaching in higher education as digital media literacy. Digital media literacy shows out as linkages to algorithm-based communication and, hands-on educational practices developing mindsets of master students instead of more traditional teaching as the mainstream in the survey. Even media studies mostly seem to have teaching on fact checking, there is a lack of learning materials, game-based educational approach, and integration fact-checking-related subjects (e.g., propaganda, disinformation) in educational sciences together with broadening the field of media education in higher education in Europe and beyond.
Research studies are an important part of educational sciences curricula in Finland. However, these studies are challenging to conduct, given the teacher-led activities, lack of social presence, engagement, collaborative working with and time management of students, and large-entity writing process management comprising this environment. Here, our aim was to develop a program of master’s thesis seminar higher education pedagogy that employed a flipped classroom (FC) approach. While the FC approach has been investigated in several contexts of higher education, it has only been minimally explored in the master’s thesis seminar. Participating students’ views and mixed-methods were used. Based on the quantitative results, students considered guidance and satisfaction high, and difficulty low. Moreover, the FC approach was seen as well-suited to, and preferred by, the students, while not being significantly straining. Based on the qualitative and mixed-methods results, FC was seen as functional, goal-oriented, and flexible, and team spirit and supervisor’s presence were considered to be positive. However, negative experiences were also identified, such as the amount of peer feedback possibilities and time usage. The results, discussion, limitations, and implications are presented in terms of research-based development work on FC approach-grounded master’s thesis seminars in higher education.
This chapter uses the case of the Arctic and China’s engagement in the Arctic to contribute to a better understanding of the potential and limitations of the power transition, not only in the Arctic, but also more generally. First, it outlines the key characteristics of Arctic politics and governance, with special attention to the Arctic Council. It then reviews the ways in which China’s growing role in the Arctic stands to shape the regional settings orchestrated by the eight Arctic states. It concludes that due to climate change, globalisation and power transition, the Arctic has become deeply intertwined with global governance processes, and it will be increasingly difficult for the Arctic Council to maintain its position as a principal secondary institution in the Arctic.
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1,379 members
Päivi Rasi-Heikkinen
  • Faculty of Education, Media Education Hub
Aila Järvikoski
  • Faculty of Social Sciences
Päivi Soppela
  • Arctic Centre
Minna T Turunen
  • Arctic Centre
Marjo Suhonen
  • Faculty of Social Sciences
Rovaniemi, Finland