# University of Lahore

• Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Recent publications
This article investigates the propagation of a deadly human disease, namely, leprosy. To this end, an integer-order system of differential equations is considered. At the outset, the mathematical model is transformed into a fractional-order model by introducing the Caputo differential operator of arbitrary order. A result is established which ensures the positivity of the fractional-order epidemic model. Equilibrium states for the model are derived in order to investigate the stability of the continuous model at these particular points. The basic reproduction number, R0 , is obtained for the leprosy model using the next-generation matrix approach. The classical Jacobian theory and the Routh–Hurwitz criteria are applied to ensure that the fractional leprosy system is locally asymptotically stable at both steady states when R0 < 1. On the other hand, a comparison theorem and the Lypunov function technique are used to prove that the fractional-order system is globally asymptotically stable when R0 > 1. To find the approximate solutions for the continuous epidemic model, a non-standard numerical scheme is constructed. The main features of the non-standard scheme (such as positivity and boundedness of the numerical method) are also confirmed by applying some benchmark results. Simulations and a feasible test example are presented to discern the properties of the numerical method proposed. Our computational results confirm both the analytical and numerical properties of the finite-difference scheme.
Background and objective: In this work, a mathematical model based on differential equations is proposed to describe the propagation of polio in a human population. The motivating system is a compartmental nonlinear model which is based on the use of ordinary differential equations and four compartments, namely, susceptible, exposed, infected and vaccinated individuals. Methods: In this manuscript, the mathematical model is extended in order to account for spatial diffusion in one dimension. Nonnegative initial conditions are used, and we impose homogeneous Neumann conditions at the boundary. We determine analytically the disease-free and the endemic equilibria of the system along with the basic reproductive number. Results: We establish thoroughly the nonnegativity and the boundedness of the solutions of this problem, and the stability analysis of the equilibrium solutions is carried out rigorously. In order to confirm the validity of these results, we propose an implicit and linear finite-difference method to approximate the solutions of the continuous model. Conclusions: The numerical model is stable in the sense of von Neumann, it yields consistent approximations to the exact solutions of the differential problem, and that it is capable of preserving unconditionally the positivity of the approximations. For illustration purposes, we provide some computer simulations that confirm some theoretical results derived in the present manuscript.
In this study, an integer-order rabies model is converted into the fractional-order epidemic model. To this end, the Caputo fractional-order derivatives are plugged in place of the classical derivatives. The positivity and boundedness of the fractional-order mathematical model is investigated by applying Laplace transformation and its inversion. To study the qualitative behavior of the non-integer rabies model, two steady states and the basic reproductive number of the underlying model are worked out. The local and global stability is investigated at both the steady states of the fractional-order epidemic model. After analytic treatment, a structure-preserving numerical template is constructed to numerically solve the fractional-order epidemic model. Moreover, the positivity and boundedness of the numerical scheme are examined. Lastly, numerical experiment and simulations are accomplished to substantiate the significant traits of the projected numerical design. Consequences of the study are highlighted in the closing section.
Fusarium oxysporum is an entomopathogenic fungus, and it has anti-biological activity against arthropods. Ticks are blood sucking arthropods which are responsible for transmitting different diseases in humans and animals. The use of chemical insecticides against ticks is not eco-friendly option and results in the development of acaricide resistance. Previously, we had cultured a local isolate of Fusarium oxysporum from soil samples which were identified through microscopy and confirmed through molecular technique. In our previous experiments, we have prepared Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) at pH 7 and they had been characterized through X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-visible and zeta-potential. In our current study, the AgNP were prepared at different pH conditions and characterized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The protein molecules of F. oxysporum were charged with Ag ions. F. oxysporum NP were observed to enhance anti-biological activity by killing Rhipicephalus microplus and they caused 100% mortality at pH 4 and pH 5 in 24 h in anti-tick biological assay. Our study is the first report to do biological assay against Rhipicehalus ticks by using Fusarium AgNP at acidic pH. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi can be the best alternative of the chemical method to control the tick population.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a cuisine spice of the Apiaceae genus extensively cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. Due to its commercial significance and considerable pharmaceutical industry uses, Fennel is regarded as one of the world's most important medicinal plants while being one of the oldest spice plants. The aim of the study is to discuss pharmacological qualities including antibacterial, antidiabetic, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anticancer, and other activities. Flavonoids, glycosides, and other phytoconstituents found in fennel are utilized as remedies for many illnesses. Fennel contains phenolic chemicals that are beneficial to human health. From this plant, bioactive substances like trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, and quercetin have been identified. Several of these chemicals have been linked to potential human body systems. Fennel may be utilized in the creation of many drugs since it has a variety of pharmacological qualities and their bioactive components are crucial to maintaining human health.
Geraniol (GER) is a plant-derived acyclic isoprenoid monoterpene that has displayed anti-inflammatory effects in numerous in vivo and in vitro models. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the antiarthritic potential of GER in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory arthritis (IA) model in rats. IA was induced by intraplantar injection of CFA (0.1 mL), and a week after CFA administration, rats were treated with various doses of methotrexate (MTX; 1 mg/kg) or GER (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Treatments were given on every alternate day, and animals were sacrificed on the 35th day. Paw volume, histopathological, hematological, radiographic, and qPCR analyses were performed to analyze the severity of the disease. GER significantly reduced paw edema after 35 days of treatment, and these results were comparable to the MTX-treated group. GER-treated animals displayed a perfect joint structure with minimal inflammation and no signs of cartilage or bone damage. Moreover, GER restored red blood cell and hemoglobin levels, normalized erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet, and c-reactive protein values, and also attenuated the levels of rheumatoid factor. RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated that GER decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta. GER also down-regulated the transcript levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, prostaglandin D2 synthase, and interstitial collagenase (MMP-1). Molecular docking of GER with COX-2, TNF-α, and MMP-1 also revealed that the antiarthritic effects of GER could be due to its direct interactions with these mediators. Based on our findings, it is conceivable that the antiarthritic effects of GER could be attributed to downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and protease like MMP-1.
Learning another language which is crucial for academic and professional purposes has been an important focus of research. While learning second language, certain forces related to the language affect this process. One of those forces is the interest of this study. Thus, current study investigates how the mother tongue affects students writing abilities, who are taking English as a compulsory subject in middle school whose native languages are Urdu and Punjabi. Without language, education process in classroom would not be possible. Students experience difficulties in native language when speaking and writing English due to interference. Current research focuses on influence of mother tongue on Pakistani pupils' development of writing skills while studying English as compulsory subject in the classroom. A random sample of 50 pupils in grades 6, 7, & 8 aged amid 11-14 years was chosen from 3 schools, all speaking Urdu & Punjabi as their mother tongues. The Contrastive Analysis Model developed by Robert Lado (1957), proposed by Ellis (1985) was used to analyse data. Results reveal that errors in word order, grammar, & spelling were caused by L1's interference in pupils' writing in target language. Findings suggest that teachers should do the need analysis of the students at beginning of sessions with help of relevant and appropriate tools.
Wheat is among the top food crops and its production needs to be increased to tackle food security. In the developing world subsistence farmers are often unaware of resistant wheat varieties and cannot afford expensive fungicides. This study was designed to evaluate anti-fungal potential of biofabricated Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) to control leaf rust of wheat. Wheat variety Morocco was used because of its susceptibility to all known strains of Puccini triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust. The green technology based ZnO NPs were prepared. Six treatments varying from 25 to 150 ppm of ZnO NPs concentrations were used. Treatments T4 to T7 provided a high level of protection against leaf rust. This technology will be useful for subsistence/organic farmers and will help them to avoid environmental pollution. The large-scale production of ZnO NPs is feasible and can lead to commercialization for broad-acre farmers.
This study was conducted to determine how green human resource management (GHRM) and employees’ green behavior (EGB) affect the sustainability of an organization (SO) and the sustainability of the environment (SE) in the context of a public sector sui gas providing company in Pakistan. The mediating role of employees’ green behavior is also tested in this research. The quantitative design was used, and the sample size was 1533, which was used for data analysis through partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The study has determined that GHRM has a significant impact on EGB, SO, and SE. Furthermore, the study determined that the mediating impact of employees’ green behavior is significant on sustainability of an organization and sustainability of the environment. The novelty of this research is based on its framework, as sustainable and environmentally friendly practices are under exploration in developing countries. The practical implications of this research can be used to achieve sustainability at the public sector organization Sui Northern Gas Pipeline Limited (SNGPL) in Pakistan by motivating the employees to adopt green practices. However, the theoretical implications of this study are important to extend knowledge regarding the EGB and their work for SO and SE. In the meantime, this research has some future directions by considering the limitations of this research to motivate the scholars for further work on EGB for SE and SO.
Genes are an important factor for the initiation of any disease. Many genes are associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) other than environmental factors. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the association of genes PADI4 (peptidylarginine deiminases 14) (rs2240340, rs1748033) and Human leukocyte antigen class II histocompatibility, D-related beta chain (HLA-DRB1) (rs2395175) polymorphisms in RA patients from Punjab, Pakistan. Blood samples of RA patients were collected from different hospitals of Sargodha. DNA was extracted, followed by PCR. Polymorphic analysis was performed in 300 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 300 healthy controls on PADI4 (rs2240340, rs1748033) and HLA-DRB1 (rs2395175). In PADI4 gene, both homozygous mutant genotype (TT) and heterozygous (CT) of SNP rs2240340 showed significant association by increasing the risk of RA up to two fold (OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.57–4.15; p = 0.0002). In case of rs1748033 polymorphism, homozygous mutant genotype (TT) showed significant association with RA by increasing the risk of disease up to three fold (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.97–6.07; p = 0.0001), while heterozygous genotype (CT) of the same SNP showed significant association with RA by playing a protective role (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.36–0.91; p = 0.0197). In HLA-DRB1 gene, homozygous mutant genotype (GG) of SNP rs2395175 showed no significant association with RA, while heterozygous genotype (AG) of the same SNP showed significant association with RA by playing a protective role (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.27–0.71; p = 0.0009). Highly significance association of genes PADI4 (rs2240340, rs1748033) and HLA-DRB1 (rs2395175) polymorphisms with RA was observed in Pakistani population.
The first-principles calculations have been employed to explore structural, electronic, magnetooptical and thermodynamic properties of Half-Heusler compounds XNiSb (X = Er, Ho, Yb). The FP-LAPW technique is executed using the WIEN2K package to simulate stable electronic, structural, magnetooptical and thermodynamics properties of studied half-Heusler compounds. The electronic properties (DOS and energy band structures) have been elucidated, considering the strong correlation between the d/f-states of Ni/X-atoms. It is evident from the presented GGA and GGA + U results that XNiSb (X = Er, Ho, Yb) show metallic nature; however, mBJ + U results show that these compounds are intermetallic. The ε2(ω)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\varepsilon }_{2}(\omega )$$\end{document} spectra reveal that XNiSb (X = Er, Ho, Yb) absorb a significant number of incident photons over a broad spectrum (∼1.0 to ∼6.0 eV). These compounds are weak reflectors of incident photons and reflect ∼40% of incident photons on the entire energy range. ErNiSb/HoNiSb show significant values of magnetic moments due to the splitting of [4f12]\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${4f}^{12}]$$\end{document}/[4f11]\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${4f}^{11}]$$\end{document} localized orbitals and are promising candidates for prospective spintronic applications. The elucidated thermodynamic characteristics reveal that these compounds are thermally stable.
Objective: The goal of the present study is to examine pretreatment with Schiff bases and derivatives of pregabalin along with their metal (Zn and Cu) complexes on the severity of epilepsy, latency time, duration of convulsions, seizure score and survival rate in mice. Methods: To achieve the goal, a molecular docking study of analogues was carried out on a specific molecular target, such as the alpha-2δ receptor (PDB ID: 6ND9); which revealed the significant binding affinity of the analogs to their respective target. Based on the docking information, all pregabalin derivatives were synthesized and in-vivo antiepileptic effect was confirmed by applying the PTZ model that prioritized the most crucial significant points responsible for biological activity. Results: The test compounds markedly increased the latency of the first seizure and reduced the frequency of seizures throughout the body and frequent spinning and jumps. Additionally, treatment with pregabalin derivatives in mice that received PTZ significantly reduced the duration of seizures and seizure score. However, it increased the survival rate of the mice. Discussion: Since the newly synthesized compounds were more active as compared to the parent drug in some respects; therefore, the expansion of the project can be planned to explore clinical side of the drugs in the future. KEY POINTS • Docking studies of Schiff bases and derivatives of Pregabalin along with their Zn and Cu metal complexes • Pretreatment with Schiff bases and derivatives of pregabalin along with their metal (Znand Cu) • PTZ Model of epilepsy • Observation of different parameters including; the severity of epilepsy, latency time,dura-tion of convulsions, seizure score and survival rate in mice • Newly synthesized compounds were more active as compared to the parent drug ARTICLE HISTORY
Background Chemical mutagenesis has been successfully used for increasing genetic diversity in crop plants. More than 800 novel mutant types of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) have been developed through the successful application of numerous mutagenic agents. Among a wide variety of chemical mutagens, ethyl-methane-sulfonate (EMS) is the alkylating agent that is most commonly employed in crop plants because it frequently induces nucleotide substitutions as detected in numerous genomes. Methods In this study, seeds of the widely consumed Basmati rice variety (Super Basmati, Oryza sativa L.) were treated with EMS at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.0%, and 1.25% to broaden its narrow genetic base. Results Sensitivity to a chemical mutagen such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) was determined in the M1 generation. Results in M1 generation revealed that as the levels of applied EMS increased, there was a significant reduction in the germination percent, root length, shoot length, plant height, productive tillers, panicle length, sterile spikelet, total spikelet, and fertility percent as compared to the control under field conditions. All the aforementioned parameters decreased but there was an increase in EMS mutagens in an approximately linear fashion. Furthermore, there was no germination at 1.25% of EMS treatment for seed germination. A 50% germination was recorded between 0.50% and 0.75% EMS treatments. After germination, the subsequent parameters, viz. root length and shoot length had LD 50 between 05.0% and 0.75% EMS dose levels. Significant variation was noticed in the photosynthetic and water related attributes of fragrant rice. The linear increase in the enzymatic attributes was noticed by the EMS mediated treatments. After the establishment of the plants in the M1 generation in the field, it was observed that LD 50 for fertility percentage was at EMS 1.0% level, for the rice variety. Conclusion Hence, it is concluded that for creating genetic variability in the rice variety (Super Basmati), EMS doses from 0.5% to 0.75% are the most efficient, and effective.
This study aimed to explore the reinforcement effect of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in self‐healing natural rubber based on metal thiolate ion networks. The amount of HNTs was varied at five levels (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 phr) in order to assess the optimum amount of filler for self‐healing efficiency and mechanical recovery performance. Fourier‐transform infrared (FTIR) provides evidence for the reversible ionic bonding, facilitated by Zn ²⁺ and S ⁻ bonding from the metal thiolate vulcanization with rubber molecular chains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the NR/HNTs composites with lower filler loading exhibited better recovery, as there were no observable gaps between the cut surfaces of the samples. The results also revealed that addition of HNTs resulted in a significant improvement in the mechanical performance, particularly the tensile strength, which increased by approximately 20%–75%. Furthermore, the extent of healing after the broken pieces were brought in contact with each other varied from 87% to 98%, depending on HNT concentration. Highlights Fabrication of self‐healing elastomers based on natural rubber. Self‐healing NR presented enhanced mechanical performance with addition of HNTs. HNTs lumen endows the composites with excellent self‐healing efficiency. Developed NR/HNTs composite exhibited room temperature self‐healing properties. Reversible ionic bonding expedited by Zn ²⁺ contributes in excellent self‐healing.
Zn and Co incorporated with Fe2O4 show different magnetic behaviors, the former can be adjusted between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic while the later one displays ferromagnetic ordering. This work presents a mixed system of Co–Zn with Fe2O4 for its potential applications in optical communication, data storage, and magneto-optical devices. ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00) nanostructures were prepared through Sol–Gel method followed by annealing at 800 °C. XRD results showed the cubic nature of all samples with grain sizes of 14–21 nm having high values of specific surface area (71–81 m² g⁻¹). A linear increase in lattice constant from 8.3934 to 8.4322 Å is reported with the increase in Zn⁺² concentration from 0 to 1, i.e., following Vegard’s law. Magnetic properties for x = 0.5 sample studied up to 5 K, and an improvement has been reported, e.g., Ms from 40 to 88 emu.g⁻¹, Hc up to 2236 Oe, nB from 1.72 to 3.75 μB,Hex up to 32.44 Oe, and αY-K ranged from 50° to 16°. Switching is reported in direct B.G for x = 0.25, x = 0.50, and in indirect B.G for x = 0.75. Prepared nanostructures have long ranged nonlinear refractive index (0.48–5.34) and metallization criterion from 0.37 to 0.45. Increased Zn⁺² content in CoFe2O4 resulted a decrease in Urbach energy from 318 to 141 meV. High values of lattice dielectric constant, direct B.G and large values of activation energies, optical and electrical conductivities suggested that prepared samples (especially with x = 0.50) have potential for use in efficient electronic devices such as sensors, photoconductors, solar cells and high-capacity energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. Dielectric and optoelectronic properties for ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 surpassed all the previous work.
The terms susceptibility, exposure, infectiousness, and recovered all have some inherent ambiguity because different population members have different susceptibility levels, exposure levels, infectiousness levels, and recovery patterns. This uncertainty becomes more pronounced when examining population subgroups characterized by distinct behaviors, cultural norms, and varying degrees of resilience across different age brackets, thereby introducing the possibility of fluctuations. There is a need for more accurate models that take into account the various levels of susceptibility, exposure, infectiousness, and recovery of the individuals. A fuzzy SEIR model of the dynamics of the measles disease is discussed in this article. The rates of disease transmission and recovery are treated as fuzzy sets. Three distinct numerical approaches, the forward Euler, fourth-order Runge-Kutta, and nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) are employed for the resolution of this fuzzy SEIR model. Next, the outcomes of the three methods are examined. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the NSFD method adeptly portrays convergent solutions across various time step sizes. Conversely, the conventional Euler and RK-4 methods only exhibit positivity and convergence solutions when handling smaller step sizes. Even when considering larger step sizes, the NSFD method maintains its consistency, showcasing its efficacy. This demonstrates the NSFD technique’s superior reliability when compared to the other two methods, while maintaining all essential aspects of a continuous dynamical system. Additionally, the results from numerical and simulation studies offer solid proof that the suggested NSFD technique is a reliable and effective tool for controlling these kinds of dynamical systems.The convergence and consistency analysis of the NSFD method are also studied.
A new species of powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe ahmadii and a new record, Erysiphe populicola , on Salicaceae are described from Pakistan. In addition to light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy is also done to clearly demonstrate the surface characters of chasmothecia. E. ahmadii sp. nov. is characterized by large conidia ((−26)29–35(−37) × (−16)17–21(−23) μm), long chasmothecial appendages (198–286 μm) and small conidiophores. The novelty is confirmed by analyzing the genetic variation of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1‐5.8S‐ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA gene, a universal fungal marker. E. populicola is characterized for the first time using molecular phylogenetic markers. Detailed descriptions along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs are provided in this paper. Research Highlights Powdery mildews are obligate biotrophic pathogens of plants. Erysiphe ahmadii , a new powdery mildew fungus on willow trees, is described. First reference sequence of Erysiphe populicola is also generated. Both taxa are discussed in detail using macro‐ and micro‐morphological and DNA barcoding techniques.
In this research, a fixed concentration (3 wt%) of Ag/PAA and PAA/Ag doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were synthesized using the co-precipitation technique. A variety of characterization techniques were employed to synthesize samples to investigate their optical, morphological, structural, and compositional analyses, antimicrobial efficacy, and dye degradation potential with molecular docking analysis. GQDs have high solubility, narrow band gaps, and are suitable for electron acceptors and donors but show less adsorption and catalytic behavior. Incorporating polyacrylic acid (PAA) into GQDs increases the catalytic and antibacterial activities due to the carboxylic group (-COOH). Furthermore, introducing silver (Ag) increased the degradation of dye and microbes as it had a high surface-to-volume ratio. In addition, molecular docking studies were used to decipher the mechanism underlying the bactericidal action of silver and polyacrylic acid-doped graphene quantum dots and revealed inhibition of b-lactamase and DNA gyrase.
Leadership is about having the capacity to make a vision a reality. In the context of transformational leadership, this study examines creative behavior as a key factor in Pakistan’s IT sector. Examining the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative behavior is the main goal of this study. While transformational leadership affects people because it inspires them, fosters morale, and boosts productivity. A moderated mediation model based on social cognitive theory was provided in this study. In contrast, the functions of mediation and moderation were played by knowledge sharing, organizational identification, and learning goal orientation. In this cross-sectional study, we implemented the convenience sample method and gathered 391 valid responses from the IT sector. Using the use of AMOS 26 and SPSS 23, the authors measured the latent variables and discussed their connection using a descriptive and correlational approach. The findings showed that transformational leadership has a favorable and substantial impact on innovative behavior. As a result, the mediation of knowledge exchange unites innovative behavior with transformational leadership. When two moderators’ organizational identification and learning goal orientation are effective, knowledge sharing mediates transformational leadership and innovative behavior. By highlighting the mediating function of knowledge sharing in promoting particular traits of innovative behavior, this research has broadened the scope of social cognition theory.
To investigate the toxic effects of lead (Pb) on key metabolic activities essential for proper germination and seedling growth of maize seeds, experiments were carried out with different levels of Pb (0 to 120 mg of Pb L−1 as PbCl2) applied through growth medium to two maize hybrids H-3310S and H-6724. The research findings indicated that growth and metabolic activities were adversely affected by increased Pb contamination in growth medium; however, a slow increase in these parameters was recorded with increasing time from 0 to 120 h. Protease activity decreased with an increase in the level of Pb contamination but increased with time; consequently, a reduction in seed proteins and an increase in total free amino acids were observed with time. Similarly, α-amylase activity decreased with an increase in Pb concentration in growth medium while it increased with increasing time from 0 to 120 h; consequently, reducing and non-reducing sugars increased with time but decreased with exposure to lead. The roots of both maize hybrids had higher Pb contents than those of the shoot, which decreased the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. All these nutrients are essential for optimal plant growth; therefore, the reduction in growth and biomass of maize seedlings could be due to Pb toxicity that altered metabolic processes, as sugar and amino acids are necessary for the synthesis of metabolic compounds, rapid cell division, and proper functioning of enzymes in the growing embryo, but all were dramatically reduced due to suppression of protease and α-amylase by toxicity of Pb. In general, hybrid H-3310S performed better in Pb-contaminated growth medium than H-6724.
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