The current research evaluated the role of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption in environmental sustainability following the N-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve framework controlling financial development, population density, and composite trade share. Unlike previous studies, this research used six indices to depict environmental deterioration and environmental quality. More precisely, pressures on nature, ecological footprints, environmental vulnerability, and adjusted net saving are employed to represent environmental deterioration, while environmental performances and environmental sustainability are adopted to proxy environmental quality. The Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations were used on panel data from 1994 to 2019 in the selected Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. The findings revealed the N-shaped linkage between per capita income and environmental deterioration indicators, such as ecological footprints, adjusted net saving, pressures on nature, and environmental vulnerability. Regarding the linkage between environmental quality indicators, including environmental performances and environmental sustainability, and per capita income, an inverted N-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve is verified. Considering all six environmental indicators, non-renewable energy tends to deteriorate the environment, while the use of renewable energy promotes environmental quality. Moreover, population density, financial development, and composite trade share raise environmental deterioration. The results are vital for achieving a green economy with better environmental quality.
Background The development of digital technologies and the evolution of open innovation approaches have enabled the creation of diverse virtual organizations and enterprises coordinating their activities primarily online. The open innovation platform titled “International Natural Product Sciences Taskforce” (INPST) was established in 2018, to bring together in collaborative environment individuals and organizations interested in natural product scientific research, and to empower their interactions by using digital communication tools. Methods In this work, we present a general overview of INPST activities and showcase the specific use of Twitter as a powerful networking tool that was used to host a one-week “2021 INPST Twitter Networking Event” (spanning from 31st May 2021 to 6th June 2021) based on the application of the Twitter hashtag #INPST. Results and Conclusion The use of this hashtag during the networking event period was analyzed with Symplur Signals (https://www.symplur.com/), revealing a total of 6,036 tweets, shared by 686 users, which generated a total of 65,004,773 impressions (views of the respective tweets). This networking event's achieved high visibility and participation rate showcases a convincing example of how this social media platform can be used as a highly effective tool to host virtual Twitter-based international biomedical research events.
The increasing human activities amidst competition for resources across the globe has made environmental challenges an ongoing classic problem, thus prompting policymakers to continually seek effective solution while ensuring sustainable development. With the wide coverage of the relevance of the double dividend hypothesis in explaining the co-benefit of environmental tax, there is a dearth of evidence in the literature to suggest that environmental tax offers green dividends for both the environment and agricultural practice in the European countries. As such, this study employed the more recent Method of Moments Quantile Regression (MMQR) alongside other approaches for Europe’s largest agrarian economies (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain) over the annual period 1995–2020. The investigation affirms the validity of the co-benefit of environmental tax as far as environmental sustainability and value-added to agriculture are concerned in this panel of ‘Big Four’ economies, thus motivating the countries to relentlessly pursue the carbon-neutral 2050 target. Moreover, the study aligns with the expectation that renewable energy utilization and population density are desirable factors for achieving a carbon-neutral target. Lastly, the findings suggest that environmental quality is attainable in the panel, especially as increasing income surpasses a certain threshold, thus validating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Above all, the findings provide timely policy insight that accommodates both the environmental sustainability and food security framework of the European Union. The policy options relevant in light of the study’s conclusions include that the decision makers in the selected agrarian economies should ramp up energy transition opportunities through a resilient environmental tax system that incentives availability of credit and investment financing in the agriculture sector.
Regional economies seek to promote growth through industrialisation and literature suggests that developing the financial system, integrating the financial system within a sound institutional framework can promote industrial output. This study fills the gap by examining the impact of financial development and regional financial integration on ECOWAS’ industrial sector. This study assesses whether regional financial integration and financial development have a stronger effect on the growth of the industrial sector of ECOWAS member countries that have high level of institutional quality than it does in countries with lower level. Major findings from the study reveals that deepening regional financial integration can only enhance the industrial output of ECOWAS member countries that has sound institutional quality framework; this is important and is a strong enhancing factor for member countries experiencing low industrial sector output. Credit to the private sector alone both for countries with low industrial output and countries with high industrial output does not improve the level of industrial performance. However, for countries that have low industrial output with a stronger institutional quality framework, increases in credit to the private sector will increase the level of industrial output compared to countries with a higher level of industrial output. Increasing the level of money in circulation alone does not improve industrial sector performance; the quantum channeled as credit to the private sector does. An improved institutional framework must be set in place together with an enhanced flow of credit to the private sector in ECOWAS.
There is higher energy in the protein content than in other weaning foods; sorghum and millets are utilized as weaning food in Ethiopia, India, Tanzania, Uganda, and several other African countries. Traditional beverages and giant beers made from sorghum seeds have more nutrients than beers made using malt. The chemical composition and mycoflora of dried sorghum bicolor seeds were studied for five-month of storage, and the mycoflora were isolated using different methods. The proximate and mineral analyses were also carried out to show the effect of the hold on the chemical composition of the seeds. During this five-month storage, the fungi isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus Niger, Botrydioplodia sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The fungi count of the Sorghum bicolor seeds increased as the month of storage increased. The chemical composition of the Sorghum bicolor seeds decreased as the month of storage increased. Generally, the chemical composition of the freshly prepared seeds were more than those of the stored ones. Ash (2.63 g/100 g sample), fat (3.26 g/100 g sample), Fiber (2.96 g/100 g sample), and the carbohydrate (64.16 g/100 g sample) of the freshly prepared sun-dried Sorghum bicolor seeds were higher than the Ash (2.54 g/100 g sample), fat (2.83 g/100 g sample), and carbohydrate (63.36 g/100 g sample) after 20 weeks of storage. There is a general decrease in the mineral content of the Sorghum bicolor seeds as the month of storage increased.
The geological condition of the site in Lagos was investigated using integrated methods. This was necessary following evidence of structural defects prevalent in the area. Against this backdrop, measurements were carried out using in-situ geotechnical and geophysical techniques. The techniques were the Standard Penetration Test, Cone Penetration Test, Electrical Resistivity and seismic refraction surface waves. The various data were collected along eight (8) traverses established strategically in the study area in order to obtain the most desirable results. The results obtained generally show that a low resistive and highly compressive soft soils of organic peats/clays are prevalent in the study area. These geomaterials are characterised with low SPT-N values, low penetrative resistance, low bearing capacities and low electrical resistivity values. The shear (weak) zones have also been identified particularly in the inverted resistivity models. These geomaterials are unfriendly, inimical and severe enough to cause instability in ground conditions. The peat/clay and the weak zones could possibly be responsible for the various degrees of structural defects observed in the study area and should be avoided as foundation placements.
Global climate changes cause extreme temperatures and a significant reduction in crop production, leading to food insecurity worldwide. Temperature extremes (including both heat and cold stresses) is one of the most limiting factors in plant growth and development and severely affect plant physiology, biochemical, and molecular processes. Biostimulants like melatonin (MET) have a multifunctional role that acts as a “defense molecule” to safeguard plants against the noxious effects of temperature stress. MET treatment improves plant growth and temperature tolerance by improving several defense mechanisms. Current research also suggests that MET interacts with other molecules, like phytohormones and gaseous molecules, which greatly supports plant adaptation to temperature stress. Genetic engineering via overexpression or CRISPR/Cas system of MET biosynthetic genes uplifts the MET levels in transgenic plants and enhances temperature stress tolerance. This review highlights the critical role of MET in plant production and tolerance against temperature stress. We have documented how MET interacts with other molecules to alleviate temperature stress. MET-mediated molecular breeding would be great potential in helping the adverse effects of temperature stress by creating transgenic plants.
Partially absorbable suture is useful for orthopedic repair as it possesses the capacity to promote a balance between strength, degradation rate and minimal inflammation. Still, the availability of partially absorbable suture is scarce. So far, no study has examined the mechanical strength and anti-microbial properties of partially absorbable monofilament suture made of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/polylactide (PLA)/chitosan (CHS); hence, the reason for this study with a view to improve knot strength, antimicrobial property and degradation rate. In this study, monofilament suture was extruded using different weight fractions of LDPE, PLA and CHS. In vitro degradation studies were carried out using phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Mechanical and morphological changes were also examined. A standard Fourier transform infrared spectral of 3433, 2909–2840, 1738, 1452, 1174, 1062, 706 cm−1 were assigned to OH group, C–H stretch, C=O vibration of ester, CH3 bending, alkyl ester and CH2 stretch, respectively. Tensile strength of knotted neat LDPE (4.84 MPa) exhibited 48.7% improvement in LDPE/PLA/CHS (60/39.5/0.5). This suggests that a good knot can be achieved to 40% weight fraction of PLA. The monofilament suture also demonstrated better antimicrobial property as the monofilament, LDPE/PLA/CHS (60/39.5/0.5) and LDPE/PLA/CHS (50/49.5/0.5) covered 12.7 mm zone of inhibition which is greater than the standard 1 mm. The suture’s morphological phases show dark fibre-like rough surfaces with microstructural irregularities as PLA and CHS were added to the matrix, which is required for enhanced degradation. Thus, the partially absorbable suture produced in this study could serve as a suture for tendon repair.
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is the most severe form of childhood nephrotic syndrome with an increased risk of progression to chronic kidney disease stage 5. Research endeavors to date have identified more than 80 genes that are associated with SRNS. Most of these genes regulate the structure and function of the podocyte, the visceral epithelial cells of the glomerulus. Although individuals of African ancestry have the highest prevalence of SRNS, especially those from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with rates as high as 30-40% of all cases of nephrotic syndrome, studies focusing on the characterization and understanding of the genetic basis of SRNS in the region are negligible compared with Europe and North America. Therefore, it remains unclear if some of the variants in SRNS genes that are deemed pathogenic for SRNS are truly disease causing, and if the leading causes of monogenic nephrotic syndrome in other populations are the same for children in SSA with SRNS. Other implications of this lack of genetic data for SRNS in the region include the exclusion of children from the region from clinical trials aimed at identifying potential novel therapeutic agents for this severe form of nephrotic syndrome. This review underlines a need for concerted efforts to advance the genetic basis of SRNS in children in SSA. Such endeavors will complement global efforts at understanding the genetic basis of nephrotic syndrome.
The performance of four Near-Real-Time Satellite-Based Rainfall Estimates (NRT_SREs) was evaluated across the Volta basin from January 2019 to December 2020: Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP_NRT), Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement-Early run (IMERG-E), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN)-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), and PERSIANN–Dynamic Infrared Rain Rate (PDIR_NOW). They were also compared to their post-real-time counterparts: PERSIANN, IMERG-Final run (IMERG-F), IMERG-Late run (IMERG-L) and GSMaP_MVK. Quantitative and categorical metrics were used in conducting hourly and daily evaluations at individual stations across the basin, as well as at zonal and seasonal scales. The results revealed that all the NRT_SREs had weak correlations (third quartile: 0.3625) at the hourly timescale. IMERG-F had the best correlation (R) of all the SREs, but it also had the worst Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and False Alarm Ratio (FAR), being outperformed by IMERG-E and IMERG-L. IMERG-E also outperformed the NRT_SREs in most cases. However, in the arid Sudano-Sahelian zone, PDIR_NOW had the highest probability of detecting rainfall of all SREs (at the daily timescale) and all NRT_SREs (at both timescales). This was most likely because of PDIR_NOW’s increased maximum temperature threshold. Seasonal analysis revealed that the RMSE of the NRT_SREs was significantly lower during the dry season than during the wet season, and vice versa for FAR. The findings of this study are expected to provide not only valuable feedback to algorithm developers in order to improve NRT_SREs, but also guidance to data users worldwide.
Objective Acute febrile infections compatible with malaria are the most prevalent presentation at sub-Saharan African health clinics, accounting for 30–50% of outpatient visits. Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can mimic acute malaria symptoms. As a result, screening people with malaria symptoms for HIV infection is critical. The goal of our study was to find out how common HIV infection was among feverish patients. Results Out of the 310 individuals screened, 9 (3.0%) had HIV-1 infection, with 5 (55.5%) being females and 4 (44.4%) being males. This study found no evidence of HIV-2 infection or HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infection. HIV infection was found in 1–3% of patients with probable malaria at different sites in Lagos, Nigeria.
Background Pulse exposures are the consequences of the intermittent release of pollutants in the environment. Brief exposure of aquatic organisms to high concentrations of pesticides simultaneously occurs, particularly in small watercourses during high flows. The effects of pulse exposure often include effects occurring during and after the exposure. Despite this, routine toxicity tests procedures often ignore brief exposure scenarios and the role of time in toxicity. We conducted a pulse toxicity test by briefly exposing African catfish and Nile tilapia fingerlings to pesticide mixtures of atrazine, mancozeb, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin. The study aimed to estimate pesticide mixture interaction in pulse-exposed fish and elucidate the influence of species differences on the response of fish to the pesticide mixture. Results Despite the similarity in fingerlings weight, African catfish had a significantly higher survival probability than Nile tilapia after exposure to atrazine-mancozeb mixture. However, the survival probability of African catfish and Nile tilapia fingerlings were similar after exposure to atrazine-chlorpyrifos, atrazine-lambda cyhalothrin, mancozeb-chlorpyrifos, mancozeb-lambda cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos-lambda cyhalothrin, and quaternary mixture ( p > 0.05). The survival probability of exposed fingerlings was significantly lower for continuous than pulse exposure to the mixtures ( p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the survival probability of 60 min of pulse exposure to 13.49 mg/L mancozeb-lambda cyhalothrin was similar to continuous exposure for 96 h. Atrazine-mancozeb, atrazine-chlorpyrifos, atrazine-lambda cyhalothrin, mancozeb-chlorpyrifos, mancozeb-lambda cyhalothrin, and the quaternary pesticide mixture were antagonists in African catfish but not in Nile tilapia. At the same time, chlorpyrifos-lambda-cyhalothrin was antagonistic in Nile tilapia but not African catfish. Conclusions Pesticide mixture interaction was antagonist but specie-dependent. Innate intrinsic and extrinsic deterministic factors and, to a limited extent, stochastic processes may have influenced the survival probability of African catfish, and Nile tilapia pulsed exposed to complex pesticide mixtures. Pulse toxicity assessment using survival analysis is relevant in ecotoxicology as it enables the study of factors that can influence pulse toxicity.
Background Antibiotic resistance is on the rise, and new antibiotic research has slowed in recent years, necessitating the discovery of possibly novel microbial resources capable of producing bioactive compounds. Microbial infections are gaining resistance to existing antibiotics, emphasizing the need for novel medicinal molecules to be discovered as soon as possible. Because the possibilities of isolating undiscovered actinomycetes strains have decreased, the quest for novel products has shifted to rare actinomycetes genera from regular environments or the identification of new species identified in unusual habitats. Main body of the abstract The non-streptomyces actinobacteria are known as rare actinomycetes that are extremely difficult to cultivate. Rare actinomycetes are known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites with varying medicinal value. In this review, we reported the diversity of rare actinomycetes in several habitat including soil, plants, aquatic environment, caves, insects and extreme environments. We also reported some isolation methods to easily recover rare Actinobacteria from various sources guided with some procedures to identify the rare Actinobacteria isolates. Finally, we reported the biosynthetic potential of rare actinomycetes and its role in the production of unique secondary metabolites that could be used in medicine, agriculture, and industry. These microbial resources will be of interest to humanity, as antibiotics, insecticides, anticancer, antioxidants, to mention but a few. Short conclusion Rare actinomycetes are increasingly being investigated for new medicinal compounds that could help to address existing human health challenges such as newly emerging infectious illnesses, antibiotic resistance, and metabolic disorders. The bioactive secondary metabolites from uncommon actinomycetes are the subject of this review, which focuses on their diversity in different habitats, isolation, identification and biosynthetic potentials.
Background Colour vision deficiency (CVD), also referred to as colour blindness, is the failure or decreased ability to distinguish between certain colours under normal lighting conditions. It is an X-linked genetic disorder with varying degrees of prevalence in different populations. There is presently no report on the prevalence of CVD among students of the selected tertiary institution. Hence, the present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetics of CVD among students from designated tertiary institutions in Lagos state. A cross-sectional survey was employed in recruiting 1191 study subjects from three tertiary institutions in Lagos, Nigeria. Results The overall occurrence of CVD among the study participants was 2.85%. There were 24 (4.29%) males and 10 (1.58%) females affected. Among the colour vision deficient individuals, 18 (1.51%) and 16 (1.34%) were deuteranomalous and protanomalous, respectively. Also, the prevalence of CVD varies across ethnic groups of the studied subjects with the highest occurrences (3.57%) observed in the Yoruba ethnic subpopulation and the least (1.45%) among the Hausas. Conclusions More males than females were found to be colour vision deficient, and there were more deutans than protans. Early screening for CVD should be encouraged among school children to guide the choice of future profession and help mitigate work hazards resulting from being colour deficient.
There is general consensuses among scholars on the importance of international trade and foreign direct investment as a main macroeconomic variables that drive economic growth of developing countries. However, the global economic crisis plays dominant role in determining the movement of these macroeconomic variables that can change the nomenclature of economic activities in relation with trade and FDI inflow. For this purpose, this study investigates the relationship between trade openness, FDI inflow and economic growth of Nigeria by accounting for the effects of global economic crisis of 2007–2008 and commodity crisis of 2016 using Bayer and Hanck (in J Time Ser Anal 34(1):83–95, 2013) approach to cointegration and augmented autoregressive distributed lag (AARDL) method on time series data from 1982 to 2018. The results provide evidence that (1) global economic crisis significantly dampens economic growth. (2) The negative interaction of total trade, FDI and global financial economic crisis is substantive enough to dampen the trade-growth and FDI-growth led relationship. (3) The negative interaction of FDI-inflow with global economic crisis is more pronounced and substantive in the long run than the short run. This study recommends for policy option positioned towards escalating specific fiscal measure that should provide a sound legislative rules and reductions in taxes for international investors; stimulus measures targeting measures to control public spending, which had previously fuelled economic expansion.
Background The use of nitrile compounds is usually high, particularly in chemical industries, which calls for serious concern because of their relevance to the environment. The essential role of nitrilases in the bioremediation of harmful nitriles from environmental wastes cannot be overemphasized. The study aimed to unveil the biodegradative potentials of bacterial strains associated with the degradation of nitrile pollutants. Methods Bacterial strains capable of utilizing glutaronitrile as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen were isolated from solid waste leachates by a selective enrichment culture technique. The test organisms were grown in mineral salts medium (MSM), and the metabolic products were determined using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The nitrilase gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by using appropriate primers. Results The growth studies showed that the test organisms grew on the two nitriles. The doubling times of 12.16 d and 9.46 d (specific growth rate, µ=0.082 d ⁻¹ , 0.106 d ⁻¹ ) were obtained for each pure culture of Bacillus sp. srain WOD8 and Corynebacterium sp. srain WOIS2 on glutaronitrile (as single substrate), respectively. While the same strains had doubling times of 11.11 d and 10.00 d (µ=0.090 d ⁻¹ , 0.100 d ⁻¹ ) on benzonitrile (as single substrate). However, the mixed culture (comprising the two strains) had doubling times of 7.40 d and 7.75 d (µ=0.135 d ⁻¹ , 0.129 d ⁻¹ ) on glutaronitrile (as single and mixed substrates), respectively. While doubling times of 8.09 d and 8.71 d (µ=0.124 d ⁻¹ , 0.115 d ⁻¹ ) were obtained for the same mixed culture on benzonitrile (as single and mixed substrates). Based on gas chromatographic analysis, the residual glutaronitrile concentrations at day 16 for strains WOD8 and WOIS2 were 35.77 g L ⁻¹ (72.2%) and 9.30 g L ⁻¹ (92.5%), respectively, whereas the residual benzonitrile concentrations for the same strains were 27.39 g L ⁻¹ (78.8%) and 13.79 g L ⁻¹ (89.2%), respectively. For the mixed culture, residual glutaronitrile and benzonitrile concentrations at day 16 were 13.40 g L ⁻¹ (88.5%) and 10.42 g L ⁻¹ (91.5%), respectively, whereas for the mixed substrates (glutaronitrile and benzonitrile), 7.21 g L ⁻¹ (91.7%) and 4.80 g L ⁻¹ (94.2%) of residual glutaronitrile and benzonitrile concentrations were obtained by the same consortium. The gene for nitrilase involved in nitrile degradation was detected in the genome of the bacterial strains. The amplified nitrilase gene gave PCR products of sizes 1400 bp and 1000 bp, as expected for strains WOD8 and WOIS2, respectively. 4-Cyanobutyric acid (4CBA), glutaric acid (GA), and benzoic acid (BA) were obtained as metabolites following nitrile degradation in vitro. Conclusion These results revealed that strains WOD8, WOIS2 and the mixed culture (consisting of the two strains) have proven to have the capacity to metabolize nitriles (glutaronitrile and benzonitrile) as the carbon and nitrogen sources. However, the mixed culture had higher nitrile degradation rate as compared to each pure culture of the two test organisms. These results also provide insight into the evolutionary genetic origin of a nitrilase gene that encodes an enzyme that catalyzes nitrile degradation in these strains. Hence, the bacterial strains that harbor this kind of gene may be used as promising biological agents for the remediation of sites polluted with nitriles, thereby opening new perspectives for encouraging data for a bioremediation bioprocess.
Background Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Docetaxel, first marketed as ‘Taxotere’, has been approved for use as a chemotherapeutic for management of gastric, breast, neck, head, non-small cell lung cancer and prostate cancer. Main body Taxotere, is a docetaxel formulation solubilized in tween 80 and 13% ethanol solution. It is effective as a chemotherapeutic agent but has numerous toxic effects due to the ethanol and polysorbate. Aside from this, challenges with administration during mixing of the docetaxel with the diluent exist. Poor mixing results in gel formation while addition of the drug mix to an infusion may result in micelle formation. These challenges have necessitated remodeling of the currently available docetaxel formulation, but none has made it to clinical setting as an alternative. Efforts have also been made to develop oral docetaxel formulation to ease administration of the drug. Attempts have also been made to develop other dosage forms, notably transdermal formulations and implants to target cancer cells while avoiding systemic side effects. Formulation methods such as nanoformulation, drug coupling with other active moieties, 3D fabrication as well as electrospinning have been employed. Conclusions Development of novel formulations of docetaxel for different chemotherapeutic needs appears promising with some formulations currently in clinical trials. Exploring other drug formulation techniques such as the use of 2D LDH may produce novel anticancer formulations in the future.
Background Hydroxyapatite is an important biomedical material used in drug delivery owing to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this study, hydroxyapatite isolated from bovine and caprine bones was capped and used as a drug carrier to encapsulate mupirocin as an active pharmaceutical product in hydrogel formulations which were utilized in wound healing application using animal model (Wistar Rats). Results Characterization of the mupirocin-encapsulated hydroxyapatite using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometer revealed the active presence of mupirocin after encapsulation. The in-vitro drug release study revealed that the capped hydroxyapatite obtained from caprine bone loaded with mupirocin gave drug release rate of 84.67% of the drug within 75 min while conventional mupirocin ointment had the lowest at 27.04% within the same time. The capped hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone loaded with mupirocin had the highest encapsulation efficiency of 73.67%. However, the animals treated with formulation prepared from capped hydroxyapatite obtained from caprine bone loaded with mupirocin had the highest wound closure area of 377.8 mm ² , while conventional mupirocin ointment had 231.5 mm ² in 16 days of treatment. All the formulations with mupirocin except the ointment showed excellent resistance against Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus of about 40 mm of inhibition zone. Conclusions The mupirocin encapsulated in hydroxyapatite extracted from bovine and caprine bones has been demonstrated to be more superior to the conventional ointment in the management of chronic wound conditions.
Objectives The duration of administration (e.g., subchronic or chronic) of haloperidol may influence its adverse effects. We studied the effects of duration of administration of haloperidol on body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS). In addition, we examined whether orally administered cannabidiol (CBD) had any putative mitigating influence on haloperidol-induced body weight changes and FBS elevation. Methods Haloperidol (5 mg/kg/day) was administered for 21 days (subchronic administration), via the intraperitoneal (IP) route, or monthly (50 mg/kg monthly) for 3 months (chronic administration), via the intramuscular (IM) route, either alone or before CBD (5 mg/kg/day). Oral CBD (5 mg/kg/day) alone and distilled water alone were administered for 21 days. Weight and FBS were measured before administration of pharmacological agents (distilled water in the control group) and post-administration. Results Group differences in average weight across time were significant. Pairwise comparisons showed that mean weight of the subchronic (IP) haloperidol alone group (Group A) and the chronic (IM) haloperidol before CBD group (Group F) increased significantly over time. Post medications, there was a significant increase in mean FBS in the subchronic (IP) haloperidol group compared to the subchronic (IP) haloperidol before CBD group. There was also a significant reduction in mean FBS from the baseline for the control group only. Conclusion We demonstrated that the duration of administration of haloperidol influenced weight and FBS in rats, suggesting that metabolic side effects, may be influenced by duration of administration. CBD ameliorated the increase in weight and FBS observed in the subchronic (IP) haloperidol groups.
Background Although the major goal of rehabilitation is to return a stroke survivor (SSv) to as close to their pre-stroke functioning, limitation in ambulatory recovery and walking proficiency is the major impediment. Despite the importance of walking to the outcomes in stroke, factors predicting its recovery remain unclear. This study therefore was aimed at exploring the predictors of ambulatory recovery and walking proficiency in community-dwelling SSv. Methods This study involved 164 (83females) SSv from four tertiary health institutions in Nigeria. Ambulatory level and status was assessed using Functional Ambulatory Classification, motor function using the Fugl-Myer Assessment scale (lower limb), and ambulatory/waking endurance using the 6-min walk test. Ambulatory capability was assessed using the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, ambulatory self-confidence using the Ambulatory Self-Confidence Questionnaire, and functional ambulatory profile using the Modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile. Mobility was assessed using the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index, functional mobility using Time Up and Go, balance using the Berg Balance Scale, and cognitive function using the modified Mini-Mental State Examination. Spatial indexes were assessed using the Footprint method and temporal variables using a stopwatch and gait speed on a 10-m walkway. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis at p ≤ 0.05. Results Participants (mean age = 54.3±11.36 years) have had stroke for 12.9 ± 17.39 months and spent 9.82 ± 13.19 months in hospital admissions. More (65.2%) had ischemic stroke with 54.3% of them having left hemispheric stroke. The predictors of ambulatory onset in SSv were stroke duration and length of stay in hospital admission contributing 40.3% ( β = 0.403) and 17.6% ( β = 0.176) respectively to the variance. Mobility ( β = 0.249, p < 0.001), gait speed ( β = 0.185, p = 0.012), paretic double-limb support time ( β = 0.155, p = 0.03), balance ( β = 0.334, p < 0.001), and cognition ( β = 0.155, p = 0.01) were predictors of ambulatory self-confidence contributing 59.5% to the variance. Balance ( β = 0.363, p < 0.001) and mobility ( β = 0.155, p = 0.015) were predictors of ambulatory capability contributing 52.9% to the variance. Balance ( β = −0.489, p < 0.001), paretic double-limb support time ( β = 0.223, p = 0.003), gait speed ( β = −0.181, p = 0.022), and paretic swing phase duration ( β = 0.177, p = 0.01) were predictors of functional ambulatory profile ( p < 0.05) contributing 52.9% to the variance. Gait speed ( β = −0.648, p < 0.001) and step length ( β = −0.157, p = 0.003) were predictors of walking endurance contributing 76.5% to the variance. Conclusion Ambulatory recovery and walking proficiency depend on the interplay among duration of stroke and length of hospitalization on the one hand and balance performance, cognitive function, and the spatiotemporal integrity of the affected limb on the other hand.
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