# University of Jyväskylä

• Jyväskylä, Finland
Recent publications
This study investigated whether personality traits moderate the effects of a 12-month physical or combined physical and cognitive training interventions on physical and cognitive functioning. Participants were community-dwelling 70–85-year-old adults (n = 314). They were randomly assigned to physical training (weekly supervised walking/balance and strength/balance training, home exercises 2–3×/wk and moderate aerobic activity) or to a physical and cognitive training group (the same physical training and computer training on executive functions 3–4×/wk). The outcomes assessed at baseline and post-intervention were physical (maximum gait speed, six-minute walking distance, dual-task cost on gait speed) and cognitive functioning (Stroop, Trail-Making Test-B, verbal fluency, CERAD total score). Personality traits (NEO-PI-3, n = 239) were assessed post-intervention. Personality traits did not moderate intervention effects on physical functioning. Higher openness was associated with greater improvement in CERAD scores, especially in the physical and cognitive training group (group×time×trait B = -0.08, p = .038). Lower neuroticism (time×trait B = -0.04, p = .021) and higher conscientiousness (time×trait B = 0.04, p = .027) were associated with greater improvement in CERAD scores in both groups. Personality traits had mostly null moderating effects across physical and cognitive outcomes, with the possible exception of CERAD score. Individuals with more adaptive personality traits gained more on global cognitive scores during a 12-month training intervention.
Physical exercise has been considered to be an efficient mean of preserving cognitive function and it influences both the structural and functional characteristics of the brain. It has especially been shown to increase brain plasticity, the capacity to re-structure brain properties in response to interaction, such as cognitive practice. Studies have also examined the potential additive effect of cognitive training on the documented benefit of physical exercise, commonly, however, not at the neural level. We monitored, using magnetoencephalography (MEG), the brain processes associated with executive functions in older individuals who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial including two research arms: physical and cognitive training vs physical training alone. Measurements were conducted at 0 months, 6 months, and 12 months. The addition of cognitive training was associated with better performance in the Stroop test that reflects executive control. The extra benefit of cognitive training was also manifested as decreased modulation of beta frequency band (15–25 Hz) especially to difficult distractors. As beta band activity is associated with attentional control, this indicates fewer resources needed to inhibit irrelevant sensory inputs. These results imply an enhancing role of cognitive elements integrated with physical training in improving or maintaining executive functions in older individuals.
The present study evaluated nutritional composition, stable isotopic signature, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADCs), and relative contribution of seven insect meals, namely black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) (BSF), common housefly (Musca domestica) (CHF), yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) (YMW), lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus) (LMW), house cricket (Acheta domesticus) (HC), banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) (BC) and field cricket (Gryllus assimilis) (FC), on European perch (Perca fluviatilis), a potential aquaculture species in Europe. Nutritional composition on a dry matter basis varied widely across insect species. YMW, HC, and BC appeared to contain high protein content (>70%), whereas lower content was found in defatted BSF, LMW, and CHF (ranging 55–59%), adult FC remained intermediate (66.83%). Lipid levels were highest in LMW and CHF (27.72% and 26.53%, respectively), medium in BSF, HC, BC and FC, and lowest in the highly defatted YMW (8.14%). Methionine and lysine were the first limiting amino acids in all insect meals. Heatmap visualization indicated considerable similarity in amino acid profile between fishmeal and YMW. Most insect meals contain a high amount of saturated, monosaturated fatty acids and a lack of n-3 fatty acids. Although macro-minerals were lower in insect meals than in fishmeal, the trace minerals of YMW, BSF, HC, and FC surpassed fishmeal, implying that insect meals are an excellent source of trace minerals. The digestibility of nutrients and energy differed significantly among insect meals. Dry matter ADC varied from 67.91% (YMW) to 85.02% (LMW), with LMW and CHF significantly higher than YMW. Protein ADC was lowest in YMW (69.03%) and greatest in LMW (91.94%) and CHF (93.53%). BSF and HC exerted absolute lipid digestibility (104.86 and 99.99%, respectively), followed by LMW (94.75%), whereas BC had the lowest lipid digestibility among insect meals. Energy digestibility favored BSF, CHF, FC, HC, and LMW, but not BC and YMW. Ash and phosphorus digestibility did not differ among insect meals. FC contributed significantly to perch muscle development (mean and interquartile range; 23.9, 10.6–33.8%), followed by CHF (19.8%, 8.8–29.7%), whereas BC imprints relatively low contribution (12.6%, 7.4–17.4%). The stable isotope and mixing models provide insight into the role of ingredients in the accretion of perch muscle as well as in nutritional complementarity among them in satisfying nutrient requirements, thus growth performance of perch.
This study investigated Grade 2 teachers' (N = 50) professional vision through eye-tracking methodology and retrospective think-aloud interviews. The study examined the extent to which teachers' knowledge-based reasoning explains their visual focus of attention to whole class and individual students. We found that teachers' descriptions of students' social relations and emotions associated positively with teachers' visual focus of attention to the whole class. Teachers' descriptions of teacher-related information/elaboration and pedagogy linked negatively with teachers' visual focus of attention to individual students. The findings suggest that teachers' visual focus of attention to students may vary depending on the reasons that guide teachers’ attention.
While there is a growing body of research on influencer marketing, it focuses almost exclusively on the consumer marketing context, and offers limited insights for business-to-business (B2B) organizations. To address this gap, the purpose of this study is to explore the use of influencer marketing in B2B markets. We draw empirical insights from 22 interviews with a) 12 senior marketing managers representing influencer marketing users in various B2B industries, ranging from industrial product manufacturers to professional service providers, and b) 10 experts from marketing agencies who advise other B2B firms on how to apply influencer marketing. The study findings identify the key elements of influencer marketing in B2B markets, and reveal four different strategies that B2B organizations use to operationalize the influencer marketing concept in practice. The study contributes to theory by providing the first empirical conceptualization of the B2B influencer marketing phenomenon. In doing so, the study widens the scope of influencer marketing to accommodate broader collaborations with influencers, which has significant implications across B2B and B2C contexts. For managers, this study offers alternative strategies to implement influencer marketing, which are associated with unique characteristics and serve different business goals.
Background Identification of widespread biases present in reported research findings in many scientific disciplines, including psychology, such as failures to replicate and the likely extensive application of questionable research practices, has raised serious concerns over the reliability and trustworthiness of scientific research. This has led to the development of, and advocacy for, ‘open science’ practices, including data, materials, analysis, and output sharing, pre-registration of study predictions and analysis plans, and increased access to published research findings. Implementation of such practices has been enthusiastic in some quarters, but literacy in, and adoption of, these practices has lagged behind among many researchers in the scientific community. Advances In the current article I propose that researchers adopt an open science ‘mindset’, a comprehensive approach to open science predicated on researchers’ operating under the basic assumption that, wherever possible, open science practices will be a central component of all steps of their research projects. The primary, defining feature of the mindset is a commitment to open science principles in all research projects from inception to dissemination. Other features of the mindset include the assumption that all components of research projects (e.g. pre-registered hypotheses, protocols, materials, analysis plans, data, and output) will be accessible broadly; pro-active selection of open fora to disseminate research components and findings; open and transparent dissemination of reports of the research findings in advance of, and after, formal publication; and active promotion of open science practices through education, modeling, and advocacy. Conclusion The open science mindset is a ‘farm to fork’ approach to open science aimed at promoting comprehensive quality in application of open science, and widening participation in open science practices so that they become the norm in research in health psychology and behavioral medicine going forward.
Living in high latitudes and altitudes sets specific requirements on species’ ability to forecast seasonal changes and to respond to them in an appropriate way. Adaptation into diverse environmental conditions can also lead to ecological speciation through habitat isolation or by inducing changes in traits that influence assortative mating. In this review, we explain how the unique time-measuring systems of Drosophila virilis group species have enabled the species to occupy high latitudes and how the traits involved in species reproduction and survival exhibit strong linkage with latitudinally varying photoperiodic and climatic conditions. We also describe variation in reproductive barriers between the populations of two species with overlapping distributions and show how local adaptation and the reinforcement of prezygotic barriers have created partial reproductive isolation between conspecific populations. Finally, we consider the role of species-specific chromosomal inversions and the X chromosome in the development of reproductive barriers between diverging lineages.
Sustainability transitions governance needs to be inclusive and participatory and the question of justice is crucial for making effective and acceptable changes possible. But how do we ensure adequate participation in governance processes and enable reconciliation between competing goals in relation to sustainability transitions? Transition management highlights the need for participatory and reflexive governance processes to enable sustainability transitions. However, due to participant selection and limitations in chosen approaches, deliberative and participatory forums may have difficulties ensuring justice and legitimacy. A systemic and practice-oriented perspective on deliberation points to the need to widen deliberative activities and analysis on multiple sites, but the connection to transition governance and justice remains weak. In the context of food systems, various movements and networks, such as alternative food networks, food-policy councils, and food-sovereignty movements, work to create a more just and sustainable food system. They form an interesting manifestation for participation in just food governance and can provide new ideas for the development of more equitable governance practices. We analyze studies on civil society participation in food-system transitions to develop understanding of how to improve just transition governance. Based on this investigation, more just sustainability transition governance requires systemic and reflexive deliberation that is also capable of accounting for the role of social movements. There furthermore is a need for institutional arrangements to support this kind of decision making.
Meeting mobile money needs of the less privileged in developing and emerging markets opens up enormous possibilities for banks and newly emerged financial technology firms. Many consider mobile money services a separate domain within the banking and payment sector, different from its siblings: automated teller machines, net banking, point-of-sale banking, etc. This study was conducted to investigate how mobile money services act as a reliable driver of digital financial inclusion and to determine the role of mobile money agents in the transformation from traditional services to mobile money services. This paper presents a conceptual model based on the stimulus-organism-response paradigm. We propose that mobile money agent characteristics are the stimuli, that the mobile money customer is the organism, and that the response of the organism to the stimuli is continuous usage, which leads to financial inclusion in the developing country of Ghana. The continuous usage of mobile money services by customers encourages more engagement experiences and advocacy intentions. We provide empirical evidence suggesting that mobile money agent credibility and service quality stimulate customer empowerment. Furthermore, we argue that for the less financially empowered customer segment, mobile money agent credibility provides the needed impetus for the continuous usage of mobile money services.
Colonization of terrestrial environments by filamentous fungi relies on their ability to form networks that can forage for and connect resource patches. Despite the importance of these networks, ecologists rarely consider network features as functional traits because their measurement and interpretation are conceptually and methodologically difficult. To address these challenges, we have developed a pipeline to translate images of fungal mycelia, from both micro- and macro-scales, to weighted network graphs that capture ecologically relevant fungal behaviour. We focus on four properties that we hypothesize determine how fungi forage for resources, specifically: connectivity; relative construction cost; transport efficiency; and robustness against attack by fungivores. Constrained ordination and Pareto front analysis of these traits revealed that foraging strategies can be distinguished predominantly along a gradient of connectivity for micro- and macro-scale mycelial networks that is reminiscent of the qualitative ‘phalanx’ and ‘guerilla’ descriptors previously proposed in the literature. At one extreme are species with many inter-connections that increase the paths for multidirectional transport and robustness to damage, but with a high construction cost; at the other extreme are species with an opposite phenotype. Thus, we propose this approach represents a significant advance in quantifying ecological strategies for fungi using network information.
Purpose There is no artificial intelligence (AI) without people. People design and develop AI; they modify and use it and they have to reorganize the ways they have carried out tasks in their work and everyday life. National strategies are documents made to describe how different nations foster AI and as human dimensions are such an important aspect of AI, this study sought to investigate major national strategy documents to determine how they view the human role in emerging AI societies. Approach Our method for analyzing the strategies was conceptual analysis since the development of technology is embedded with conceptual ideas of humanity, explicit or implicit, and in addition to deepening analysis of explicit argumentation the method enables the deconstruction and reconstruction of meanings and conceptual relations within the strategies, exposing presumptions and tacit commitments of the writers. Findings The analysis of the documents illustrates that the general tendency in national strategies is globally dominantly technology-driven as the state of affairs appears to be creating new technologies. However, various human research points such as usability, user experience, sociotechnical and life-based themes are less well represented. Because national strategies are used to develop innovation processes, we argue that future development of national strategies could be improved by taking human research issues more energetically in the agenda. Originality Our study elaborates the current trends in AI-policy discourses and discusses reasons and possibilities for more holistic policymaking, making it a valuable resource for policymakers, researchers, and the larger public.
In Industry-Academia Collaborations (IAC) both academic, scientific research results and industrial practitioner findings and experiences are produced. Both types of knowledge should be gathered, codified, and disseminated efficiently and effectively. This paper investigates a recent (2014–2017) large-scale IAC R&D&I program case (Need for Speed, N4S) from a learning perspective. It was one of the programs in the Finnish SHOK (Strategic Centres of Science, Technology, and Innovation) system. The theoretical bases are in innovation management, knowledge management, and higher education (university) pedagogy. In the future, IAC projects should be more and more commonplace since major innovations are hardly ever done in isolation, not even by the largest companies. Both intra-organizational and inter-organizational learning networks are increasingly critical success factors. Collaborative learning capabilities will thus be required more often from all the participating parties. Efficient and effective knowledge creation and sharing are underpinning future core competencies. In this paper, we present and evaluate a collaboratively created and publicly shared digital knowledge repository called “Treasure Chest” produced during our case program. The starting point was a jointly created Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA), which defined the main research themes and listed motivating research questions to begin with—i.e., intended learning outcomes (ILO). During the 4-year program, our collaborative industry-academia (I-A) learning process produced a range of theoretical and empirical results, which were iteratively collected and packaged into the Treasure Chest repository. Outstandingly, it contained, in addition to traditional research documents, narratives of the industrial learning experiences and more than 100 actionable knowledge items. In conclusion, our vision of the future is that such transparently shared, ambitious, and versatile outcome goals with a continuous integrative collection of the results are keys to effective networked I-A collaboration and learning. In that way, the N4S largely avoided the general problem of often conflicting motives between industrial firms seeking answers and applied solutions to their immediate practical problems and academic researchers aiming at more generalizable knowledge creation and high-quality scientific publications.
Wood-pastures are threatened anthropogenic biotopes that provide habitat for an extensive group of species. Here we studied the effect of management, grazing intensity, time since abandonment, historical land-use intensity, soil properties and stand conditions on communities of saprotrophic fungi in wood-pastures in Central Finland. We found that the proportion of broadleaved trees and soil pH are the major drivers in the communities of saprotrophic fungi in these boreal wood-pastures. In addition, tree species richness, soil moisture, historical land-use intensity and time since abandonment affected the communities of saprotrophic fungi. Current management or grazing intensity did not have a clear effect on saprotrophic fungal species richness, although dung-inhabiting fungal species richness was highest at intermediate to high grazing intensity. Obviously, there were many more dung-inhabiting fungal species on grazed than on abandoned sites. Our study highlights the conservation value of wood-pastures as hotspots of saprotrophic fungi.
In student collaboration, purposeful peer interaction crucial for success on the task. Such collaboration requires adequate and purposeful student agency. Theoretically, the between-individual complementarity of agency behaviors enhances purposeful interaction. However, the level of agency of group members can disrupt the collaborative interactions. We conducted a case study of collaborative mathematical problem solving, where one student's behaviors of noncomplementary agency characterized the group interaction. We examined the video recording of the group by continuous quantitative coding of students' agency behaviors and segmented the interaction process into four phases. We analyzed qualitatively these phases based on the verbal transcript. We found that the target student's agency grew in relation to the other students despite her lack of mathematical competence. The findings provide us with a new perspective to understand the role of the situational individual agency in collaborative learning that underlines the tolerance of noncomplementarity of agency in student collaboration.
We study topologically monotone surjective $$W^{1,n}$$-maps of finite distortion $$f :\Omega \rightarrow \Omega '$$, where $$\Omega , \Omega '$$ are domains in $${\mathbb {R}}^n$$, $$n \ge 2$$. If the outer distortion function $$K_f \in L_{\mathrm {loc}}^{p}(\Omega )$$ with $$p \ge n-1$$, then any such map f is known to be homeomorphic, and hence the fibers $$f^{-1}\{y\}$$ are singletons. We show that as the exponent of integrability p of the distortion function $$K_f$$ increases in the range $$1/(n-1) \le p < n-1$$, then for increasingly many $$k \in \{0, \dots , n\}$$ depending on p, the k:th rational homology group $$H_k(f^{-1} \{y\}; {\mathbb {Q}})$$ of any reasonably tame fiber $$f^{-1}\{y\}$$ of f is equal to that of a point. In particular, if $$p \ge (n-2)/2$$ then this is true for all $$k \in \{0, \dots , n\}$$. We also formulate a Sobolev realization of a topological example by Bing of a monotone $$f :{\mathbb {R}}^3 \rightarrow {\mathbb {R}}^3$$ with homologically non-trivial fibers. This example has $$K_f \in L^{1/2 - \varepsilon }_{\mathrm {loc}}({\mathbb {R}}^3)$$ for all $$\varepsilon > 0$$, which shows that our result is sharp in the case $$n = 3$$.
Increasing the share of walking and cycling is one of the building blocks of sustainable mobility transformation. Fundamental changes are needed in society and urban structure to support the integration of walking and cycling into everyday routines. We conducted an online Delphi study with 30 walking and cycling experts during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Finland in the spring of 2020. The aim was to explore transport experts’ views on the future and derive scenarios of walking and cycling with the broader context of the urban mobility system. The scenarios were created using a combination of cluster analysis and qualitative content analysis. In addition, a methodological elaboration of the Disaggregative Delphi analysis was introduced, systematising the analysis of qualitative data. The analysis resulted in five scenarios depicting walking and cycling in 2034: 1. Business as Usual Plus, 2. The Demise of Bus-Transport, 3. The Era of Soft Modes, 4. Public Transport Serving All, and 5. Car-dependent Lifestyles Persist. The scenario set can be used as a basis for strategic transport planning and policy as well as a more practical tool for identifying measures for walking and cycling promotion in urban areas.
bold xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">Background: We conducted an exploratory study to test the delivery of technical instructions built on the principles of minimalism. The aim was to investigate how we could support target users’ skill levels in a context-sensitive manner. Literature review: Related work examines minimalism, user needs and profiling, and industrial maintenance and technician experience. Research questions: 1. How can the semantic structure of DITA XML be utilized in delivering technical information to users based on their skill levels? 2. How would a layered system of information support the principles of minimalism? Methodology: We created material and tested the concept in user studies with maintenance personnel in three countries. We collected feedback through participant observation, interviews, and questionnaires. Results and discussion: The minimalist approach of delivering information to maintenance technicians was well received and supported users with varying skill levels. Conclusion: The context-sensitive level of expertise concept empowers users to decide on the depth of technical information that they require to complete the task at hand. The semantic structure of DITA XML works well in the delivery of technical information to the users based on their skill levels. Many of the key principles of minimalism are applicable to hardware maintenance instructions.
Branding has become a strategic tool for university management in competition for students, faculty, and funding. In this study, we explore university branding in its extreme form of grandiose branding and ask How can grandiose branding initiate a process that prompts ethically and morally questionable practices in organizations? Grandiose branding is characterized by an excessive use of superlatives that frame higher education institutions as “world-class universities.” Through a self- and autoethnographic single-case study conducted in a business school, our study shows that branding efforts that do not align with an organization’s actual quality and performance can lead to a counterproductive cycle of camouflaging top management’s failures and justifying ethically and morally questionable actions directed towards the institution’s primary stakeholders. The study contributes to the earlier literature on grandiosity in the context of higher education by taking a process perspective and explores the implications of grandiose branding from rhetoric through implementation.
In microelectromechanical system devices, thin films experience thermal processing at temperatures some cases exceeding the growth or deposition temperature of the film. In the case of the thin film grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at relatively low temperatures, post-ALD thermal processing or high device operation temperature might cause performance issues at device level or even device failure. In this work, residual stress and the role of intrinsic stress in ALD Al 2 O 3 films grown from Me 3 Al and H 2 O, O 3 , or O 2 (plasma ALD) were studied via post-ALD thermal processing. Thermal expansion coefficient was determined using thermal cycling and the double substrate method. For some samples, post-ALD thermal annealing was done in nitrogen at 300, 450, 700, or 900 °C. Selected samples were also studied for crystallinity, composition, and optical properties. Samples that were thermally annealed at 900 °C had increased residual stress value (1400–1600 MPa) upon formation of denser Al 2 O 3 phase. The thermal expansion coefficient varied somewhat between Al 2 O 3 made using different oxygen precursors. For thermal-Al 2 O 3 , intrinsic stress decreased with increasing growth temperature. ALD Al 2 O 3 grown with plasma process had the lowest intrinsic stress. The results show that ALD Al 2 O 3 grown at 200 and 300 °C is suitable for applications, where films are exposed to post-ALD thermal processing even at temperature of 700 °C without a major change in optical properties or residual stress.
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