University of Jyväskylä
  • Jyväskylä, Finland
Recent publications
Background Identification of widespread biases present in reported research findings in many scientific disciplines, including psychology, such as failures to replicate and the likely extensive application of questionable research practices, has raised serious concerns over the reliability and trustworthiness of scientific research. This has led to the development of, and advocacy for, ‘open science’ practices, including data, materials, analysis, and output sharing, pre-registration of study predictions and analysis plans, and increased access to published research findings. Implementation of such practices has been enthusiastic in some quarters, but literacy in, and adoption of, these practices has lagged behind among many researchers in the scientific community. Advances In the current article I propose that researchers adopt an open science ‘mindset’, a comprehensive approach to open science predicated on researchers’ operating under the basic assumption that, wherever possible, open science practices will be a central component of all steps of their research projects. The primary, defining feature of the mindset is a commitment to open science principles in all research projects from inception to dissemination. Other features of the mindset include the assumption that all components of research projects (e.g. pre-registered hypotheses, protocols, materials, analysis plans, data, and output) will be accessible broadly; pro-active selection of open fora to disseminate research components and findings; open and transparent dissemination of reports of the research findings in advance of, and after, formal publication; and active promotion of open science practices through education, modeling, and advocacy. Conclusion The open science mindset is a ‘farm to fork’ approach to open science aimed at promoting comprehensive quality in application of open science, and widening participation in open science practices so that they become the norm in research in health psychology and behavioral medicine going forward.
Colonization of terrestrial environments by filamentous fungi relies on their ability to form networks that can forage for and connect resource patches. Despite the importance of these networks, ecologists rarely consider network features as functional traits because their measurement and interpretation are conceptually and methodologically difficult. To address these challenges, we have developed a pipeline to translate images of fungal mycelia, from both micro- and macro-scales, to weighted network graphs that capture ecologically relevant fungal behaviour. We focus on four properties that we hypothesize determine how fungi forage for resources, specifically: connectivity; relative construction cost; transport efficiency; and robustness against attack by fungivores. Constrained ordination and Pareto front analysis of these traits revealed that foraging strategies can be distinguished predominantly along a gradient of connectivity for micro- and macro-scale mycelial networks that is reminiscent of the qualitative ‘phalanx’ and ‘guerilla’ descriptors previously proposed in the literature. At one extreme are species with many inter-connections that increase the paths for multidirectional transport and robustness to damage, but with a high construction cost; at the other extreme are species with an opposite phenotype. Thus, we propose this approach represents a significant advance in quantifying ecological strategies for fungi using network information.
Purpose There is no artificial intelligence (AI) without people. People design and develop AI; they modify and use it and they have to reorganize the ways they have carried out tasks in their work and everyday life. National strategies are documents made to describe how different nations foster AI and as human dimensions are such an important aspect of AI, this study sought to investigate major national strategy documents to determine how they view the human role in emerging AI societies. Approach Our method for analyzing the strategies was conceptual analysis since the development of technology is embedded with conceptual ideas of humanity, explicit or implicit, and in addition to deepening analysis of explicit argumentation the method enables the deconstruction and reconstruction of meanings and conceptual relations within the strategies, exposing presumptions and tacit commitments of the writers. Findings The analysis of the documents illustrates that the general tendency in national strategies is globally dominantly technology-driven as the state of affairs appears to be creating new technologies. However, various human research points such as usability, user experience, sociotechnical and life-based themes are less well represented. Because national strategies are used to develop innovation processes, we argue that future development of national strategies could be improved by taking human research issues more energetically in the agenda. Originality Our study elaborates the current trends in AI-policy discourses and discusses reasons and possibilities for more holistic policymaking, making it a valuable resource for policymakers, researchers, and the larger public.
In Industry-Academia Collaborations (IAC) both academic, scientific research results and industrial practitioner findings and experiences are produced. Both types of knowledge should be gathered, codified, and disseminated efficiently and effectively. This paper investigates a recent (2014–2017) large-scale IAC R&D&I program case (Need for Speed, N4S) from a learning perspective. It was one of the programs in the Finnish SHOK (Strategic Centres of Science, Technology, and Innovation) system. The theoretical bases are in innovation management, knowledge management, and higher education (university) pedagogy. In the future, IAC projects should be more and more commonplace since major innovations are hardly ever done in isolation, not even by the largest companies. Both intra-organizational and inter-organizational learning networks are increasingly critical success factors. Collaborative learning capabilities will thus be required more often from all the participating parties. Efficient and effective knowledge creation and sharing are underpinning future core competencies. In this paper, we present and evaluate a collaboratively created and publicly shared digital knowledge repository called “Treasure Chest” produced during our case program. The starting point was a jointly created Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA), which defined the main research themes and listed motivating research questions to begin with—i.e., intended learning outcomes (ILO). During the 4-year program, our collaborative industry-academia (I-A) learning process produced a range of theoretical and empirical results, which were iteratively collected and packaged into the Treasure Chest repository. Outstandingly, it contained, in addition to traditional research documents, narratives of the industrial learning experiences and more than 100 actionable knowledge items. In conclusion, our vision of the future is that such transparently shared, ambitious, and versatile outcome goals with a continuous integrative collection of the results are keys to effective networked I-A collaboration and learning. In that way, the N4S largely avoided the general problem of often conflicting motives between industrial firms seeking answers and applied solutions to their immediate practical problems and academic researchers aiming at more generalizable knowledge creation and high-quality scientific publications.
Wood-pastures are threatened anthropogenic biotopes that provide habitat for an extensive group of species. Here we studied the effect of management, grazing intensity, time since abandonment, historical land-use intensity, soil properties and stand conditions on communities of saprotrophic fungi in wood-pastures in Central Finland. We found that the proportion of broadleaved trees and soil pH are the major drivers in the communities of saprotrophic fungi in these boreal wood-pastures. In addition, tree species richness, soil moisture, historical land-use intensity and time since abandonment affected the communities of saprotrophic fungi. Current management or grazing intensity did not have a clear effect on saprotrophic fungal species richness, although dung-inhabiting fungal species richness was highest at intermediate to high grazing intensity. Obviously, there were many more dung-inhabiting fungal species on grazed than on abandoned sites. Our study highlights the conservation value of wood-pastures as hotspots of saprotrophic fungi.
In student collaboration, purposeful peer interaction crucial for success on the task. Such collaboration requires adequate and purposeful student agency. Theoretically, the between-individual complementarity of agency behaviors enhances purposeful interaction. However, the level of agency of group members can disrupt the collaborative interactions. We conducted a case study of collaborative mathematical problem solving, where one student's behaviors of noncomplementary agency characterized the group interaction. We examined the video recording of the group by continuous quantitative coding of students' agency behaviors and segmented the interaction process into four phases. We analyzed qualitatively these phases based on the verbal transcript. We found that the target student's agency grew in relation to the other students despite her lack of mathematical competence. The findings provide us with a new perspective to understand the role of the situational individual agency in collaborative learning that underlines the tolerance of noncomplementarity of agency in student collaboration.
The associations among readers’ cognitive skills (general cognitive ability, reading skills, and attentional functioning), task demands (easy versus difficult questions), and process measures (total fixation time on relevant and irrelevant paragraphs) was investigated to explain task-oriented reading accuracy and efficiency (number of scores in a given time unit). Structural equation modeling was applied to a large dataset collected with sixth-grade students, which included samples of dysfluent readers and those with attention difficulties. The results are in line with previous findings regarding the dominant role of general cognitive ability in the accuracy of task-oriented reading. However, efficiency in task-oriented reading was mostly explained by the shorter viewing times of both paragraph types (i.e., relevant and irrelevant), which were modestly explained by general cognitive ability and reading fluency. These findings suggest that high efficiency in task orientation is obtained by relying on a selective reading strategy when reading both irrelevant and relevant paragraphs. The selective reading strategy seems to be specifically learned, and this potentially applies to most students, even those with low cognitive abilities.
This paper concerns fully nonlinear elliptic obstacle problems with oblique boundary conditions. We investigate the existence, uniqueness and W2,p\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$W^{2,p}$$\end{document}-regularity results by finding approximate non-obstacle problems with the same oblique boundary condition and then making a suitable limiting process.
We prove that if M is a closed n-dimensional Riemannian manifold, n≥3, with Ric≥n-1 and for which the optimal constant in the critical Sobolev inequality equals the one of the n-dimensional sphere Sn, then M is isometric to Sn. An almost-rigidity result is also established, saying that if equality is almost achieved, then M is close in the measure Gromov–Hausdorff sense to a spherical suspension. These statements are obtained in the RCD-setting of (possibly non-smooth) metric measure spaces satisfying synthetic lower Ricci curvature bounds. An independent result of our analysis is the characterization of the best constant in the Sobolev inequality on any compact CD space, extending to the non-smooth setting a classical result by Aubin. Our arguments are based on a new concentration compactness result for mGH-converging sequences of RCD spaces and on a Pólya–Szegő inequality of Euclidean-type in CD spaces. As an application of the technical tools developed we prove both an existence result for the Yamabe equation and the continuity of the generalized Yamabe constant under measure Gromov–Hausdorff convergence, in the RCD-setting.
Let G(d,n) be the Grassmannian manifold of n-dimensional subspaces of Rd, and let πV:Rd→V be the orthogonal projection. We prove that if μ is a compactly supported Radon measure on Rd satisfying the s-dimensional Frostman condition μ(B(x,r))⩽Crs for all x∈Rd and r>0, then∫G(d,n)‖πVμ‖Lp(V)pdγd,n(V)<∞,1⩽p<2d−n−sd−s. The upper bound for p is sharp, at least, for d−1⩽s⩽d, and every 0<n<d. Our motivation for this question comes from finding improved lower bounds on the Hausdorff dimension of (s,t)-Furstenberg sets. For 0⩽s⩽1 and 0⩽t⩽2, a set K⊂R2 is called an (s,t)-Furstenberg set if there exists a t-dimensional family L of affine lines in R2 such that dimH⁡(K∩ℓ)⩾s for all ℓ∈L. As a consequence of our projection theorem in R2, we show that every (s,t)-Furstenberg set K⊂R2 with 1<t⩽2 satisfiesdimH⁡K⩾2s+(1−s)(t−1). This improves on previous bounds for pairs (s,t) with s>12 and t⩾1+ϵ for a small absolute constant ϵ>0. We also prove a higher dimensional analogue of this estimate for codimension-1 Furstenberg sets in Rd. As another corollary of our method, we obtain a δ-discretised sum-product estimate for (δ,s)-sets. Our bound improves on a previous estimate of Chen for every 12<s<1, and also of Guth-Katz-Zahl for s⩾0.5151.
This paper contributes to process-oriented international business research by showing how three distinct historical approaches can enrich theoretical understanding concerning temporality in firm de-internationalization. First, we show how comparative historical analysis unleashes the causal structure of the process and provides explanatory understanding of the temporal grounding of the mechanisms driving the process. Second, we explicate how interpretive history reveals the embeddedness of de-internationalization in the prevailing spirit of the time. Finally, we consider how poststructuralist history enables us to focus on the strong subjectivity of individuals in which multiple temporalities come together in a chaotic combination underlying behavior.
ARM TrustZone offers a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) embedded into the processor cores. Some vendors offer ARM modules that do not fully comply with TrustZone specifications, which may lead to vulnerabilities in the system. In this paper, we present a DMA attack tutorial from the insecure world onto the secure world, and the design and implementation of this attack in a real insecure hardware.
Research offers some indication that the online customers' shopping experience (OCSE) can be a strong predictor of online impulsive buying behavior, but there is not much empirical support available to form a holistic understanding; whether, and indeed how, the effects of the OCSE on online impulsive buying behavior are affected by customers' attitudinal loyalty and self-control are not well understood areas of research. In this study, we examine how functional and psychological dimensions of the OCSE influence online impulsive buying within e-commerce platforms. We will investigate customers' attitudinal loyalty as a mediator between the OCSE and online impulsive buying behavior, and the customers' self-control as a moderator between customers' attitudinal loyalty and online impulsive buying. To analyze these relationships we will conduct an online survey (n = 1489) with customers of two leading Chinese e-commerce platforms: Jindong and Taobao. The findings from structural equation modeling indicate a positive relationship between the tested dimensions of the OCSE and customers' online impulsive buying. We also find a mediating role of customers' attitudinal loyalty and negative moderation of customers’ self-control. Theoretically, the findings contribute to the literature regarding online impulsive buying and the online customer experience. For managers, the findings stress the importance of ethical management with regard to the online shopping experiences.
Forests and forest-based bioeconomy have central roles in the contemporary sustainability transition. However, the transition towards a bioeconomy is loaded with tensions regarding economic growth, ecological integrity, and social justice. These tensions reproduce varying transition discourses. Political actors at the level of the European Union (EU) and nation states take part in the processes creating the discourses and aim to govern the forest bioeconomy-based transition in certain directions viewed as favourable. The transition tensions are strongly felt in regions that are rich with forest resources but poor in terms of economic and political power, called ‘forest peripheries’. In this study, we explored how the forest bioeconomy discourses are downscaled in the development of the forest peripheries in East and North Finland. We examined the ways in which the regional development actors interpret prevailing forest-related policies and reproduce or challenge associated forest discourse(s). The focus was on the linkages between the macro-policies and the regional development, uncertainties that relate to the practical implementation and realisation of the policies, and the conflicts and power relations between the policies, practices, and the actors behind them. As a research strategy, we used embedded triangulation, where the interviews of development actors as initial data were contrasted with policy documents as the supportive data.For the analysis, we used the critical discourse analysis. From the policy documents, we identified the ‘You can have it all (if you close your eyes)’ discourse as the most hegemonic discourse, which aims to merge all the sides under the sustainable forest bioeconomy that favours the biomass regime. From the interviews, we identified three interlinked regional forest bioeconomy discourses: 1) ‘You can have it all is possible’, 2) ‘You can have it all is dependent on many ifs’, and 3) ‘You can have it all runs into conflicts’. The first discourse reproduced the hegemonic discourse, power relations appeared to be vertically unproblematic, and relatively manifested just transition for the forest peripheries. The second discourse produced an alternative discourse, which displayed more dependencies on the qualities of economic actors under the biotech regime. Power relations appeared to be more horizontal and complex, with a random just transition. The third discourse manifested tensions between the ideological aspirations of the policies and the practical reality in the forest peripheries. Conflicts arise from disharmonies between policy implementation and regional needs, cultural clashes, and misrecognition of the regional perspectives. The discourse reflected skewed power relations in vertical and horizontal manners. The transition appeared to be unjust in many ways because the external benefits seemed to be regarded over the regional ones.
Cortical processing of proprioceptive afference can be investigated by examining phase locked evoked and induced responses in cortical signals to passive movement stimuli. Reproducibility of evoked and induced responses has been studied using electroencephalography (EEG), but proprioceptive domain has received little attention. It is unclear whether evoked and induced responses to proprioceptive stimulation arising from the lower limbs are reproducible using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Nineteen healthy volunteers (18 right-foot dominant, 36.1 ± 6.6 yr, 7 females) were measured in two MEG sessions separated by 9 ± 5 days in which their right ankle was rotated intermittently using a pneumatic movement actuator (160 stimuli, 3000 ± 250 ms interstimulus interval) to elicit evoked fields and induced responses. The peak evoked field amplitude used in the final analysis was calculated from the gradiometer pair yielding the peak vector sum over vertex (i.e., the primary sensorimotor cortex for the lower limb). Peak induced response amplitudes were analyzed from the peak gradiometer demonstrating the most robust beta suppression and beta rebound. The between session reproducibility was estimated using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Evoked field amplitudes, beta suppression and beta rebound amplitudes all demonstrated a large inter-individual variation but excellent between session reproducibility (ICC >0.81). Kinematics of the proprioceptive stimuli were stable and did not correlate with MEG response strengths. The results indicate that evoked and induced responses to proprioceptive stimuli from the lower limbs are reproducible and provide a valid tool for longitudinal experiments investigating the processing of proprioceptive afference in e.g., different clinical populations, but caution is advised when comparing individuals using these measures.
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