Waterfronts as public spaces have always been the most vibrant part of the city. Their association within the city is a unique product of environmental, economic, and social factors. A successful waterfront will reflect the quality of living, enhance the image of the city and create strong identity within the city inhabitants and visitors. Many coastal cities thrive to remain competitive, that’s why they aspire to regenerate their waterfronts in an attempt to implement design measures that lead to increased tourism, stimulate the growth of the economy, boost the vitality of the city, and create a unique cultural experience for the users. The research addresses the lack of proper knowledge that the urban designers and local officials often have about integrating physical design features with the local social dynamics during the design process of new urban public spaces. The research aim is to study and evaluate the latest physical features and urban patterns of Jeddah waterfront. The purpose being is to investigate the major impacts of the waterfront urban regeneration on the socio-cultural activities happening at the waterfront, and whether this regeneration enhanced both the quality of life and the users’ perception of the city. The study explored the literature to develop the evaluation framework process, and later created the public survey to measure users’ perception. The methodology used though the proposed framework aims to evaluate the success of urban waterfronts regeneration from a socio-cultural perspective. At the end, the study reveals the regeneration provided major improvements and positive impacts on the socio-cultural activities.
Disulfiram and hydralazine have recently been reported to have anti-cancer action, and repositioned to be used as adjuvant in cancer therapy. Chemotherapy combined with other medications, such as those that affect the immune system or epigenetic cell profile, can overcome resistance with fewer adverse effects compared to chemotherapy alone. In the present study, a combination of doxorubicin (DOX) with hydrazine (Hyd) and disulfiram (Dis), as a triple treatment, was evaluated against wild-type and DOX-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Both wild-type MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7_WT) and DOX-resistant MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7_DoxR) were treated with different combination ratios of DOX, Dis, and Hyd followed by measuring the cell viability using the MTT assay. Synergism was determined using a combination index, isobologram analysis, and dose-reducing index. The anti-proliferation activity and mechanism of the triple combination were investigated by apoptosis analysis. The results showed a reduction in the IC50 values of DOX in MCF-7_WT cells (from 0.24 μM to 0.012 μM) and MCF-7_DoxR cells (from 1.13 μM to 0.44 μM) when treated with Dis (0.03μM), and Hyd (20μM) combination. Moreover, The triple combination DOX/Hyd/Dis induced significant apoptosis in both MCF-7_WT and MCF-7_DoxR cells compared to DOX alone. The triple combination of DOX, Dis, and Hyd showed a synergistic drugs combination to decrease the DOX dose needed to kill both MCF-7_WT and MCF-7_DoxR cancer cells and enhanced chemosensitivity to DOX.
Objective We aim to assess the effect of low-pressure pneumoperitoneum on post operative pain and ten of the known inflammatory markers. Background The standard of care pneumoperitoneum set pressure in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is set to 12–14 mmHg, but many societies advocate to operate at the lowest pressure allowing adequate exposure of the operative field. Many trials have described the benefits of operating at a low-pressure pneumoperitoneum in terms of lower post operative pain, and better hemodynamic stability. But only few describe the effects on inflammatory markers and cytokines. Methods A prospective, double-blinded, randomised, controlled clinical trial, including patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients randomised into low-pressure (8–10 mmHg) vs. standard-pressure (12–14 mmHg) with an allocation ratio of 1:1. Perioperative variables were collected and analysed. Results one hundred patients were allocated, 50 patients in each study arm. Low-pressure patients reported lower median pain score 6-hour post operatively (5 vs. 6, p-value = 0.021) in comparison with standard-pressure group. Eight out of 10 inflammatory markers demonstrated better results in low-pressure group in comparison with standard-pressure, but the effect was not statistically significant. Total operative time and surgery difficulty was not significantly different between the two groups even in the hands of inexperienced surgeons. Conclusion low-pressure laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with less post operative pain and lower rise of inflammatory markers. It is feasible with comparable complications to the standard of care. Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05530564/ September 7th, 2022).
Background: With the absence of new antimicrobial drugs being developed to replace those facing resistance, bacterial resistance continues to grow. Despite previous studies conducted in various countries, there is a lack of comprehensive local reporting on the occurrence of carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacteria. Objective: This study aims to identify the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacterial isolates. Method: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at an academic hospital in Jordan over an eight-month period, spanning from November 2021 to June 2022. The study involved screening electronic medical records to identify patients with clinical cultures showing the growth of Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility results of the Gram-negative isolates were recorded. Results: A total of 1,043 isolated Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed for carbapenem susceptibility. Among the species tested, the most common carbapenem-resistant bacteria were Acinetobacter baumannii (153/164, 93.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (184/311, 59.2%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (67/160, 41.9%). The least commonly isolated species resistant to carbapenem were Escherichia coli (25/361, 6.9%) and Proteus mirabilis (1/30, 3.3%). None of Serratia marcescens or Proteus vulgaris isolates were resistant to carbapenem (0%). Overall, the prevalence of carbapenem-resistance gram-negative isolates was 41.2% (430 out of 1,043). Conclusion: This study provides population-specific data that are crucial for guiding empirical antimicrobial treatment decisions not only within the participating hospital but also in other nearby healthcare facilities. The results underscore the urgent need for coordinated efforts to address antibiotic resistance in Jordan. Comprehensive measures such as strict infection control methods, annual nationwide surveillance programs, and effective antimicrobial stewardship programs at the national level are imperative to reduce the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Background: Early recognition of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with SAP. This study investigated the predictors of SAP, and the predictive value of the neutrophil percentage-to-albumin ratio (NPAR) for SAP.Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted among stroke patients admitted to Jordan University Hospital from January 2015 to May 2021. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for SAP. The predictive performance was assessed using C-statistics, described as the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, ROC) with a 95% confidence interval.Results: Four hundred and six patients were included in the analysis, and the prevalence of SAP was 19.7%. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that males (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 5.74; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 2.04–1 6.1)], dysphagia (AOR: 5.29; 95% CI: 1.80–15.5), hemiparesis (AOR: 3.27; 95% CI: 1.13–9.47), lower GCS score (AOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58–0.91), higher levels of neutrophil- lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (AOR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.07–1.24), monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) (AOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13–1.96), and neutrophil percentage to albumin ratio (NPAR) (AOR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.33–1.76) were independent predictors of SAP. The NPAR demonstrated a significantly higher AUC than both the NLR (0.939 versus 0.865, Z = 3.169, p = 0.002) and MLR (0.939 versus 0.842, Z = 3.940, p < 0.001). The AUCs of the NLR and MLR were comparable (0.865 versus 0.842, Z = 1.274, p = 0.203).Conclusion: Male gender, dysphagia and hemiparesis were the strongest predictors of SAP, and NPAR has an excellent performance in predicting SAP which was better than high NLR and MLR
Objective The burden of neurological disease-related disabilities and deaths is one of the most serious issues globally. We aimed to examine the hospitalisation profile related to nervous system diseases in Australia for the duration between 1998 and 2019. Design A secular trend analysis using a population-based dataset. Setting This analysis used a population-based study of hospitalised patients in Australia. Hospitalisation data were extracted from the National Hospital Morbidity Database, which collects sets of episode-level information for Australian patients admitted to all private and public hospitals. Participants All patients who were hospitalised in all private and public hospitalisations. Primary outcome measure Hospitalisation rates related to nervous system diseases. Results Hospitalisation rates increased by 1.04 times (from 650.36 (95% CI 646.73 to 654.00) in 1998 to 1328.90 (95% CI 1324.44 to 1333.35) in 2019 per 100 000 persons, p<0.01). Overnight-stay episodes accounted for 57.0% of the total number of hospitalisations. Rates of the same-day hospitalisation for diseases of the nervous system increased by 2.10-fold (from 219.74 (95% CI 217.63 to 221.86) in 1998 to 680.23 (95% CI 677.03 to 683.43) in 2019 per 100 000 persons). Rates of overnight-stay hospital admission increased by 42.7% (from 430.62 (95% CI 427.66 to 433.58) in 1998 to 614.70 (95% CI 611.66 to 617.75) in 2019 per 100 000 persons). ‘Episodic and paroxysmal disorders’ were the most prevalent reason for hospitalisation, which accounted for 49.0% of the total number of episodes. Female hospitalisation rates increased by 1.13-fold (from 618.23 (95% CI 613.24 to 623.22) in 1998 to 1316.33 (95% CI 1310.07 to 1322.58) in 2019 per 100 000 persons). Male hospitalisation rates increased by 86.4% (from 682.95 (95% CI 677.67 to 688.23) in 1998 to 1273.18 (95% CI 1266.98 to 1279.37) in 2019 per 100 000 persons). Conclusion Hospitalisation rates for neurological disorders in Australia are high, potentially owing to the ageing of the population. Males had greater rates of hospitalisation than females.
Background. As the field of transplantation has expanded, so have the quantity and variety of articles published on the topic. Evaluation of publications and journals is crucial to the expansion of transplant research. This study investigated the research output and journal metrics of the leading solid organ transplant journals published between 2011 and 2021 based on estimations of the trends in the category CiteScore from the Scopus database. Materials and Methods. We obtained data on the listed journals from the Scopus Source List. We then filtered the list for “Transplantation” journals. Only the top quartiles or quartile 1 (Q1) journals were placed in this category. This study focused specifically on transplantation journals and did not include other journals related to diseases of transplanted organs such as the kidney, liver, heart, and lungs. Results. The number of transplantation journals increased by 42.8% in the last ten years, from 28 in 2011 to 40 in 2021. Between 2011 and 2021, nine transplantation journals ranked in the highest quartile (Q1). The American Journal of Transplantation was the top journal in both years, with a 150% increase in citations and an 11.2% increase in articles published. Open access (OA) transplant journals rose from 3 in 2011 to 10 in 2021. In 2021, OA journals earned 8,555 citations, a 125% increase from 2011. Despite this increase, non-OA journals received more citations than OA in 2021 ( p value 0.026). Conclusion. Solid organ transplantation advances lead to more publications and citations. Regular journals and publications evaluation benefits academics and policymakers by promoting the growth of research. This study examined solid organ transplantation journals and gave a global perspective on transplant journal rankings and compared their status in 2011 and 2021.
Purpose: Some articles have focused on the effectiveness of the Pavlik harness treatment for unstable and dislocated hips, yet data on monitoring its effectiveness with the acetabular index remains elusive. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Pavlik harness effectiveness in infants ≤6 months diagnosed with grade I developmental dysplasia of the hip using acetabular index improvement and identify the possible predictors of successful Pavlik harness treatment. Methods: A retrospective review of infants with grade I acetabular dysplasia treated with a Pavlik harness and monitored with anteroposterior pelvis X-rays at presentation and follow-up. Successful treatment was defined as achieving an acetabular index <30°. Results: A total of 231 infants with acetabular dysplasia were treated with a Pavlik harness. A successful outcome was achieved in 135 infants (58.4%). Younger age, lower initial acetabular index, and patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip were significant predictors of a successful outcome. An age of 4.5 months or older was found to be the threshold for an unsuccessful result following Pavlik harness treatment, with a sensitivity of 65.2% and specificity of 57.3%. An initial acetabular index of 35.5° was found to be the threshold for an unsuccessful result, with a sensitivity of 83.7% and specificity of 61.5%. Conclusion: Pavlik Harness’s success in correcting the acetabular index in acetabular dysplasia patients was related to unilateral cases, a younger age at presentation, and a lower initial acetabular index. The thresholds for unsuccessful treatment were an age of 4.5 months or greater and an acetabular index of 35.5° or higher.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a frequently utilized approach to treat locally advanced breast cancer, but, unfortunately, a subset of tumors fails to undergo complete pathological response. Apoptosis and therapy-induced senescence (TIS) are both cell stress mechanisms but their exact role in mediating the pathological response to NAC is not fully elucidated. We investigated the change in expression of PAMIP1, the gene encoding for the pro-apoptotic protein, NOXA, following NAC in two breast cancer gene datasets, and the change in NOXA protein expression in response to NAC in 55 matched patient samples (pre- and post-NAC). PAMIP1 expression significantly declined in post-NAC in the two sets, and in our cohort, 75% of the samples exhibited a downregulation in NOXA post-NAC. Matched samples that showed a decline in NOXA post-NAC were examined for TIS based on a signature of downregulated expression of Lamin-B1 and Ki-67 and increased p16INK4a, and the majority exhibited a decrease in Lamin B1 (66%) and Ki-67 (80%), and increased p16INK4a (49%). Since our cohort consisted of patients that did not develop complete pathological response, such findings have clinical implications on the role of TIS and NOXA downregulation in mediating suboptimal responses to the currently established NAC.
Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) is one of the most widely used indicators to quantify the barrier integrity of endothelial layers. Over the last decade, the integration of TEER sensors into organ-on-a-chip (OOC) platforms has gained increasing interest for its efficient and effective measurement of TEER in OOCs. To date, microfabricated electrodes or direct insertion of wires has been used to integrate TEER sensors into OOCs, with each method having advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we developed a TEER-SPE chip consisting of carbon-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) embedded in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based multi-layered microfluidic device with a porous poly(ethylene terephthalate) membrane in-between. As proof of concept, we demonstrated the successful cultures of hCMEC/D3 cells and the formation of confluent monolayers in the TEER-SPE chip and obtained TEER measurements for 4 days. Additionally, the TEER-SPE chip could detect changes in the barrier integrity due to shear stress or an inflammatory cytokine (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α). The novel approach enables a low-cost and facile fabrication of carbon-based SPEs on PMMA substrates and the subsequent assembly of PMMA layers for rapid prototyping. Being cost-effective and cleanroom-free, our method lowers the existing logistical and technical barriers presenting itself as another step forward to the broader adoption of OOCs with TEER measurement capability.
In this paper, we give singular value and norm inequalities involving convex functions of positive semidefinite matrices. Our results generalize some known inequalities for the spectral norm and for the Schatten p-norms for \( p\ge 1\).
Background Patient safety practices are crucial in healthcare as they aim to reduce harm, medical errors, and ensure favorable outcomes for patients. Therefore, this study aims to examine the attitudes towards patient safety among undergraduate medical students in Jordanian medical schools. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical students. Participants completed the Attitudes to Patient Safety Questionnaire- III (APSQ-III), which examines students’ attitudes in 26 items distributed in nine domains. Results are represented as mean ± standard deviation for all participants and subgroups. Results Our study included 1226 medical students. They reported positive attitudes toward patient safety with a mean score of 4.9 (SD ± 0.65). Participants scored the highest score in “Working hours as error cause” followed by “Team functioning”. Gender, academic-year, and first-generation student status had a significant association with certain patient safety domains. Females scored significantly higher than males in four domains, while males scored higher in one domain. First-generation medical students had a significantly lower score for “Professional incompetence as error cause”. Interestingly, pre-clinical students recorded more positive attitudes in “Patient safety training received” and “Disclosure responsibility” domains. Conclusion Undergraduate medical students in Jordan demonstrated positive attitudes towards patient safety concepts. Our study provides baseline data to improve current educational programs and enhance the patient safety culture among medical students. Additional studies are needed to delve into actual attitudes toward patient safety and to assess how educational programs contribute to the cultivation of this culture.
The innovation inherent to employing expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads lies in its transfor-mative impact on traditional concrete practices. Through the incorporation of EPS beads in concrete mixtures, a novel approach emerges that significantly alters the material's characteristics, and opens up new avenues for construction and design. Studying the shear behavior of RC beams made with EPS beads is essential for advancing knowledge, improving design practices, ensuring structural integrity, and promoting the effective and responsible use of innovative materials in construction. This research experimentally investigated the effect of using EPS beads and pozzolana aggregate (PA) on the shear behavior of the RC beams. A total of 27 simply supported rectangular beams were cast, using three novel distinct mix designs, and were subjected to two-point load testing until failure. These three mixes were categorized as follows: a control mix, a mix with only EPS, and a mix with EPS, along with an additive. The ultimate failure load was experimentally recorded for all specimens, and the influence of the temperature (300 • C and 600 • C) on the RC beams made with EPS was examined. The findings revealed a reduction in the concrete compressive strength and density in the beams containing EPS and EPS with superplasticizers of (21.7%, 24.9%) and (11.3%, 16.2%), respectively. Additionally, EPS played a significant role in diminishing the ultimate shear capacity of the beams, compared to the control beams, by about 19.4%. However, the addition of a superplasticizer along with the EPS helped to maintain the beam capacity, to some extent. Conversely, the beams exposed to a temperature of 300 • C exhibited an almost similar capacity to that of the control beams without heating. Nevertheless, at 600 • C, the beams displayed a noticeable decrease in the ultimate load capacity, compared to the unheated control beams.
Background Since 2019, the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic and its consequences from restrictions to risks have impacted our lives in all aspects. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the changes that were implemented as a result of the shift in healthcare priorities and the medical and social implications of the lockdown. Objectives This study aimed to assess the experience of giving birth during the pandemic, how this is affected by acquiring coronavirus disease-19 infection, and its effect on postnatal mood. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted which involved 490 women who gave birth during the pandemic across the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Methods An electronic questionnaire was distributed among women experiencing childbirth during this period in Jordan by advertising it on social media platforms targeting pregnant women and mothers. The sample size was statistically determined to be representative of the population. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows v.27. Results The study demonstrated that getting infected with the virus throughout the pregnancy did not affect the childbirth experience with respect to the parameters measured, but other factors during the pandemic such as the type of hospital and mode of delivery did. Positive interaction with staff in the delivery suite was a major determinant of a positive birth experience. Women associated low mood post-delivery with giving birth in pandemic circumstances, and it affected first-time mothers more than multiparous women. Conclusion Although the acquisition of coronavirus disease-19 infection did not have a significant impact on women’s childbirth experience, several pandemic-related factors did. Given the importance of a woman’s perception and evaluation of events surrounding her birth experience in determining her postnatal physical and psychological well-being, having to give birth during the pandemic circumstances, especially for first-time mothers, can have potentially detrimental consequences that may affect her health and reproductive choices in the future. The results of this study offer a better understanding of the effect of pandemic and lockdown circumstances on the perceived experience of mothers during childbirth and postnatally and factors that should be taken into consideration when planning healthcare provision to this population in future similar conditions.
This study aims to investigate the use of question tags among Jordanian female and male Facebook users and identify some commonly used words for question tags in colloquial Arabic. To this end, a focus group was formed, comprising individuals who possessed an advanced command of the Arabic language and an understanding of sociolinguistic concepts. In addition, a corpus of 515 comments on controversial topics was compiled. Data were analyzed by semi-automatically retrieving it from computerized sources and then analyzing it within its context. The analysis revealed that question tags in Jordanian Arabic serve various functions, including mitigation, confirmation, doubt, hedging, inviting response or interaction, and convincing. The study also found that the use of question tags differs between males and females and can be influenced by linguistic and social factors. Females tend to use question tags more frequently than males, which could be attributed to social norms, cultural expectations, and gender stereotypes in language use. As for linguistic factors, they include various elements, including intonation patterns and word choice. Females typically employ rising intonation patterns, which can give a statement the quality of a question, whereas males more commonly use falling intonation patterns. Furthermore, females tend to employ more polite and indirect language, whereas males often opt for a more direct and assertive communication style. The implications of this linguistic variation highlight the need for awareness and sensitivity to gender differences in communication styles.
Theranostics practice and training in developing countries the training curriculum of theranostics The challenges and opportunities of expanding theranostics
Citation: AlShamaileh, E.; Altwaiq, A.M.; Al-Mobydeen, A.; Hamadneh, I.; Al-Saqarat, B.S.; Hamaideh, A.; Moosa, I.S. The Corrosion Inhibition of Montmorillonite Nanoclay for Steel in Acidic Solution. Materials 2023, 16, 6291. https://doi. Abstract: The aim of this research is to study the anticorrosive behavior of a coating consisting of modified montmorillonite nanoclay as an inorganic green inhibitor. The anticorrosion protection for mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution is studied via weight loss, electrochemical methods, SEM, and XRD. The results proved that montmorillonite nanoclay acts as a good inhibitor with a mixed-type character for steel in an acidic solution. Both anodic and cathodic processes on the metal surface are slowed down. There is a clear direct correlation between the added amount of montmorillonite nanoclay and the inhibition efficiency, reaching a value of 75%. The inhibition mechanism involves the adsorption of the montmorillonite nanoclay onto the metal surface. Weight loss experiments are carried out with steel samples in 1.0 M HCl solution at room temperature, and the same trend of inhibition is produced. SEM was used to image the surface at the different stages of the corrosion inhibition process, and also to examine the starting nanoclay and steel. XRD was used to characterize the nanoparticle structure of the coating. Montmorillonite nanoclay is an environmentally friendly material that improved the corrosion resistance of mild steel in an acidic medium.
Numerous studies suggest that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encounter language problems related to syntax. In particular, these children face difficulties in comprehending and answering complex language structures in Arabic. This paper examines whether a prototype Arabic assistive application can have an impact on the ability of children with ASD to comprehend and answer content questions and on their communicative skills. Via two questionnaires targeting 57 caregivers and ASD specialists in Jordan and a focus-group discussion with three teachers working in three autism centers in Jordan, a prototype assistive application named Aseel was created. To test the effect of using this app on enhancing ASD children’s ability to comprehend and answer Arabic questions, a sample consisting of two groups of children: 20 verbal and 5 nonverbal children with ASD enrolled in three autism centers in Amman, Jordan was recruited. A pre-test containing 55 content questions was designed and tested on the two groups. Then, a treatment for three weeks took place in which the teachers trained the children on answering these questions using the app. A post-test was conducted after a three-day break to test whether the app affected the ability of verbal and nonverbal children with ASD to comprehend and answer the questions accurately. The data analysis revealed that the differences between the answers of the two groups in the pre- and post-tests were statistically significant. This suggests that this technology has the potential to aid both verbal and nonverbal children with ASD in effectively learning complex Arabic content questions. This assistive application enhances collaboration between teacher and children with ASD, visual-spatial thinking and communication with others. Another advantage of this app is increasing ASD children’s vocabulary repertoire. Preliminary results involving nonverbal children showed that the icons which visually and auditorily represent the most basic needs for a person are proving effective in helping this group communicate with their caregivers and teachers.
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