The purpose of this study is to build an optimization model of Islamic social finance and evaluate the existence of Islamic social finance and its effect on reducing modern slavery of children, using the Islamic social finance optimization framework approach in alleviating poverty and several sustainable development goals in Indonesia. The existence of modern slavery which has re-emerged is an important concern to study because slavery is anti-development. Moreover, Islam seeks to abolish slavery, so that modern slavery should no longer occur in Islamic countries, including Indonesia. This research is conducted using a quantitative descriptive method, with Partial Least Square Method and data from Indonesia in particular since Indonesia is a country with the largest Muslim population in the world. This research is important to be carried out since this subject has never been studied quantitatively. The findings of this study, which are based on the discussion of existing data indicate that quantitatively, in the short term there is no impact on the distribution of Islamic social finance funds, in the form of zakat, infaq, sadaqah on modern slavery of children in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia, considering that the existence of modern slavery is anti-development as marked by its effect on welfare, as an Islamic country with the largest population in the world should pay more attention to the eradication of modern slavery of children.
This research investigates the factors that influence the Investor switching intention from deposits or investing their funds in traditional financial services, namely banks, to invest in the Financial Technology Peer-to-Peer Lending. We build the research model adapting the Push–Pull Mooring (PPM) Framework to describe the migration theory of customers switching behavior. The Push factors include customer’s Satisfaction on Bank and perceived Service Quality on Bank. While the Pull Factors is Individual’s Knowledge toward Peer-to-Peer Lending and Personal Reward Sensitivity. Multiple Regression Analysis is used to analyze the model and relationship between variables. We collected data from 170 respondents who are investing part of their portfolio in a bank deposit. We find that Pushing factors of customer satisfaction and perceived Service Quality on banks has a negative effect on investor switching intention. The Pull factor of an Individual’s Knowledge toward Peer-to-Peer Lending and personal Reward Sensitivity positively affects investor switching intention.
The current study was designed to predict why human primates often behave unfairly (equity aversion) by not exhibiting equity preference (the ability to equally distribute outcomes 1:1 among participants). Parallel to humans, besides inequity aversion, lab monkeys such as kin of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) also demonstrate equity aversion depending on their preference for the outcome (food) type. During the pre-experiment phase, a food-preference test was conducted to determine the most preferred income per individual monkey. Red grapes were the most preferred outcome (100%) when compared to vanilla wafers (0%). The first set of experiments used a 1:1 ratio (equity condition) of grape distribution among six kin-pairs of female long-tailed macaques, and we compared their aversion (Av) versus acceptance (Ac). In the second experiment, we assessed the response to the 0:2 and 1:3 ratio distribution of grapes (inequity condition). A total of 60 trials were conducted for each condition with N = 6 pairs. Our results show aversion to the inequity conditions (1:3 ratios) in long-tailed macaques was not significantly different from aversion to the equity conditions (1:1 ratios). We suggest that the aversion observed in this species was associated with the degree of preference for the outcome (food type) offered rather than the distribution ratio. The subjective preferences for outcome types could bring this species into irrationality; they failed to share foods with an equal ratio of 1:1.
This article reports the synthesis of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-N-methylolacrylamide) (P(NVCL-co-NMA)) nanogels and investigates their thermo-/pH-responsive behavior. The formation of nanogels was synthesized using free radical emulsion polymerization by varying the monomer composition of NVCL:NMA, and their molecular structure was characterized by 1H-NMR and FTIR. It was found that the nanogels were successfully prepared, and the nanogels exhibited LCST-type phase transition behavior. Cloud point transition temperature (Tc) was studied as a function of copolymer composition, MBA concentration, and pH of the solution by exploring their changes in turbidity using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Our studies reveal that Tc nanogels increased with increasing concentration of NMA, which is due to the hydrophilicity of NMA. Our research also demonstrated that the increase in MBA percentage could decrease the Tc of the synthesized nanogels. Interestingly, P(NVCL-co-NMA) nanogels showed not only a thermoresponsive behavior but also a pH response with increasing Tc in a strong acidic environment owing to the H-bonds within the polymer chains. The results show that nanogels with initial monomer composition of NVCL and NMA of 75% and 25%, respectively, and using 4% of MBA showed Tc around 35°C at pH 7.4. In addition, DLS studies also confirmed this result since the particle sizes became much larger after surpassing the temperature of 35°C. Due to this founding, such nanogels might have potential application in controlled release. Nevertheless, further studies regarding the adjustment of Tc are still needed.
This study aims to test the role of transformational leadership in moderating the relationship between work conflict and employee performance at Railway Company. The sample in this survey is 150 employees of a railway company’s operations management center selected using a non-random sampling method. The data were collected through an online survey through WhatsApp and email. Partial Least Square–Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) was implied to explain the relationship among the conceptualized variables in this study. The results revealed a negative relationship between. The results show that there is a negative link between work conflict and employee performance. In addition, transformational leadership has been found to negatively ease the relationship between work conflict and employee performance. This study also finds that there is a positive relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance. Based on the results, this study therefore concluded that transformational leadership is a variable conceptualized to partially ease the relationship between work conflict and employee performance. This study also describes the theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research opportunities.
Background Frozen embryo transfer procedure is becoming more common in assisted reproduction technology. The effect of this technology is still not yet well studied in developing countries with limited resources, including Indonesia. This study explores the clinical outcomes between frozen and fresh embryo transfer-conceived children aged 0–3 years in Indonesia. Results The participants were divided into frozen embryo ( n = 30) and fresh embryo ( n = 30) transfer groups. There were no differences in growth and development. However, in vitro fertilization (IVF) children with frozen embryo transfer had a lower risk of developing low birth weight compared to the fresh embryo group with an OR of 0.17 (95% CI : 0.03–0.85). All children, both in the fresh and frozen embryos, have normal development. Conclusions Frozen versus fresh embryo transfer does not affect child growth and development.
The phytosynthesis method was used to prepare ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) via Senna alata L. leaf extract (SALE) by involving alkaloids, which play an essential role as a source of weak bases during the formation reaction of NPs. ZnO NPs on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE/ZnO NP) have been introduced to investigate its electrochemical activity towards the antiretroviral drug, lamivudine (3TC). Several characterization techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) techniques were employed to analyze the properties of GCE/ZnO NPs. As a result, ZnO NPs in spherical shape showed a high purity crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a particle diameter of 40–60 nm. A Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) measurement confirmed that the electrochemical reduction of 3TC on GCE/ZnO NPs exhibited an excellent linear range of 10–300 µM with a detection limit of 1.902 µM, quantitation limit of 6.330 µM, and sensitivity of 0.0278 µA/µM. Thus, this research suggests a facile method for the preparation of material-based ZnO NPs as a promising antiretroviral drug sensors due to their excellent electrochemical properties.
For a decade, distributed energy resources in Malaysia have growth as one of the paths in battling with sustainable energy crisis and environmental pollution. Several intriguing initiatives and incentives have been established to encourage the use and sales-side of renewable energy at the distribution consumers. However, Malaysia's distributed energy resources penetration is still at its slow pace, with only 7.6% (excluding large hydropower) shared in energy mix generation. Therefore, innovation in power systems is required to drive the uptake of distributed energy resources. This paper reviews the business model innovation that allows distributed energy resources to participate in national grid services and the wholesale electricity market. Different technical and non-technical challenges with high shares of variable renewable energy in power systems are highlighted, and the current update on compensation scheme, Net-Energy-Metering 3.0 is also discussed. Along with these challenges, stance the prospect of adopting distributed energy resources innovation projects such as peer-to-peer energy trading and virtual power plant in the electricity market. It could further furnish the benefits to a better environmental and power system in terms of carbon dioxide avoidance, grid flexibility and increase revenue for distributed energy resources owners respectively. Through the review, it led to observation that policy and regulatory in Malaysia are the main factors in accelerating the distributed energy resources deployment. Therefore, the abilities and roles of Malaysia Energy Commission and Sustainable Energy Development Authority as a regulator and implementing agencies are crucial in determining the present and future distributed energy resources business model.
Malachite green (MG) contributes to water contamination because its accumulation adversely impacts aquatic systems. For the first time, we prepare a high photoresponse of ZnO/SmMnO3 heterojunction via a high-speed stirring method at the nonpolar–polar interface assisted by Alstonia scholaris leaves extract (ASLE) as natural hydrolyzing and stabilizing agents. The heterojunction formation boosts the photocatalytic activity of ZnO up to 91.74% under visible light irradiation. Photoluminescence analysis confirmed that modification with SmMnO3 increases the separation of photogenerated charges and plummets the recombination rates of electron-holes, which induces high photodegradation of MG. With 3 mg of catalyst, the %TOC removal efficiency for MG degradation over ZnO/SmMnO3 was found to be 53.09%, which is higher than that over ZnO. The kinetics model for the photocatalytic reaction was a pseudo-first-order with excellent stability in four consecutive cycles with no structural change. The radical trapping experiment suggests that h+ was the major species in the MG photodegradation reaction. Additionally, morphology and elemental analyses clearly present the formation of ZnO/SmMnO3 heterojunction without any impurities. The current research demonstrates a simple and advanced technique to design heterojunction photocatalyst at the interface of hexane-water.
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