University of Iceland
  • Reykjavík, Iceland
Recent publications
A grand-canonical approach is employed to calculate the voltage-dependent activation energy and estimate the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on intrinsic sites of MoS2, including edges of varying S-coverage as well as S-vacancies on the basal plane. Certain edge configurations are found to be vastly more active than others, namely S-deficient edges on the Mo-termination where, in the fully S-depleted case, HER can proceed with activation energy below 0.5 eV at an electrode potential of 0 V vs. SHE. There is a clear distinction between the performance of Mo-rich and S-rich adsorption sites, as HER at the latter sites is characterized by large (generally above 1.5 eV) Heyrovsky and Tafel energy barriers despite near-thermoneutral hydrogen adsorption energy. Thus, exposing Mo-atoms on the edges to which hydrogen can directly bind is crucial for efficient hydrogen evolution. While S-vacancies on the basal plane do expose Mo-rich sites, the energy barriers are still significant due to high coordination of the Mo atoms. Kinetic modelling based on the voltage-dependent reaction energetics gives a theoretical overpotential of 0.25 V and 1.09 V for the Mo-edge with no S atoms and the weakly sulfur-deficient (2% S-vacancies) basal plane, respectively, with Volmer-Heyrovsky being the dominant pathway. These values coincide well with reported experimentally measured values of the overpotential for the edges and basal plane. For the partly Mo-exposed edges, the calculated overpotential is 0.6-0.7 V while edges with only S-sites give overpotential exceeding that of the basal plane. These results show that the overpotential systematically decreases with increased sulfur-deficiency and reduced Mo-coordination. The fundamental difference between Mo- and S-rich sites suggests that catalyst design of transition metal dichalcogenides should be focused on facilitating and modifying the metal sites, rather than activating the chalcogen sites.
Background The Bangkok Basin has been known from non-instrumental observations of the local population to be subject to ground motion amplification due to the deep alluvial sediments and basin geometry. This study analyzes available seismic data to confirm that basin effects are significant in the Bangkok Basin. The paper contributes to the evaluation of basin effects by characterizing the engineering ground motion parameters and HVSR curves for the Bangkok basin which produce lengthening of ground motion duration with respect to nearby rock sites, albeit with very low ground motions. For this purpose, we analyzed ground motion records from seismic stations located within the Bangkok alluvial basin from 2007 to 2021. Recorded peak horizontal ground acceleration (PGA) for seismic stations inside the basin always exceeded 1 cm/s² during eight earthquakes with Mw ≥ 5.5. Of these, two were intraslab events and six were shallow crustal earthquakes. These recorded ground motions shook high-rise buildings in Bangkok even though their epicentral distance exceeded 600 km. Methods Several time and frequency domain analyses (such as analysis of residual, HVSR, Hodogram plots, etc.) are used on the ground motion records in the Bangkok basin to determine the frequency content of recorded ground motion and to demonstrate the significance of surface waves induced by the deep basin in altering the engineering ground motion amplitudes. In addition, centerless circular array microtremor analysis is used to determine the depth of sedimentary basin to the bedrock. Results Based on comparisons from those stations located outside the Bangkok basin, we observed the capability of alluvial deposits in the Bangkok basin to amplify ground motion records by about 3 times. We observed that there is a unique site amplification effect between 0.3 and 0.1 Hz due to local surface waves and other moderate amplifications between 2 and 0.5 Hz due to a soft layer like other deep alluvial basins in other metropolitan areas. Conclusion We noticed that there is a unique site amplification effect between 0.1 and 0.3 Hz and smaller peaks around 2 and 0.5 Hz consistent with expectations for site amplification effects associated with deep basins. Moreover, we noticed the presence of low frequencies content of the surface wave generated within the basin which deserved further studies using the 2D/3D ground motion modelling through basin topography and velocity models.
Purpose Pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are usually mild and the mortality rates are low, but concerns have been raised about long-term symptoms that may resemble other postinfectious syndromes. Studies with robust control groups and high response rates have been few. Methods We obtained identifiers for all 837 Icelandic children diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 by PCR between March 2020 and June 2021 and contacted them by telephone. We asked about 10 physical and mental symptoms being present at least twice weekly for at least 2 months. Participants who reported symptoms were contacted again a year later. For each subject who completed the questionnaire, an age- and sex-matched comparator without SARS-CoV-2 infection was asked to complete the same questionnaire, and the risk difference was calculated. Results Responses from 643 cases and 602 comparators were analyzed. Children who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to report one or more symptoms, except for anxiety/depression and sleep disturbances. Fatigue and loss of concentration were evidently more common in cases among teenagers (risk difference: 15%; 95% CI: 7–22% and 15%; 95% CI: 7–23%, respectively). At the second follow-up, close to a third of Long COVID cases had resolved but some participants had developed new persistent symptoms. Conclusion Symptoms of Long COVID in children are common and impact their quality of life. The importance of further unraveling the pathophysiology of acute and long-term symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is vital as well as potential preventive measures.
Background Leveraging a large nationwide study of Icelandic women, we aimed to narrow the evidence gap around female attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cardiometabolic comorbidities by determining the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases among women with ADHD and examine the association between cardiometabolic conditions and co-occurring ADHD with anxiety and mood disorders, alcoholism/substance use disorder (SUD), self-harm, and suicide attempts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the nationwide, all-female, population-based SAGA Cohort Study (n = 26,668). To ascertain diagnoses and symptoms, we used self-reported history of ADHD diagnoses, selected cardiometabolic conditions and psychiatric disorders, and measured current depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms through appropriate questionnaires (PHQ-9, GAD-7, and PCL-5). We calculated age-adjusted prevalences of cardiometabolic conditions by women’s ADHD status and estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using modified Poisson regression models. Similarly, we assessed the association of cardiometabolic conditions and co-occurring ADHD with current psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders, using adjusted PRs and 95% CIs. Results We identified 2299 (8.6%) women with a history of ADHD diagnosis. The age-adjusted prevalence of having at least one cardiometabolic condition was higher among women with ADHD (49.5%) than those without (41.7%), (PR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.14–1.25), with higher prevalence of all measured cardiometabolic conditions (myocardial infarctions (PR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.83-–3.49), type 2 diabetes (PR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.66–2.61), hypertension (PR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.12–1.34), and obesity (PR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11–1.25)). Women with cardiometabolic conditions and co-occurring ADHD had, compared with those without ADHD, substantially increased prevalence of (a) all measured mood and anxiety disorders, e.g., depression (PR = 2.38, 95% CI 2.19–2.58), bipolar disorder (PR = 4.81, 95% CI 3.65–6.35), posttraumatic stress disorder (PR = 2.78, 95% CI 2.52–3.07), social phobia (PR = 2.96, 95% CI 2.64–3.32); (b) moderate/severe depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms with PR = 1.76 (95% CI 1.67–1.85), PR = 1.97 (95% CI 1.82–2.12), and PR = 2.01 (95% CI 1.88–2.15), respectively; (c) alcoholism/SUD, PR = 4.79 (95% CI 3.90–5.89); and (d) self-harm, PR = 1.47 (95% CI 1.29–1.67) and suicide attempts, PR = 2.37 (95% CI 2.05–2.73). Conclusions ADHD is overrepresented among women with cardiometabolic conditions and contributes substantially to other psychiatric comorbidities among women with cardiometabolic conditions.
Ownership strategy is a governance mechanism formulated to reach consensus between owners on how to direct their organization towards value creation. Once implemented within an organization, questions arise as to how the ownership strategy influences board dynamics, board decision-making, and, if the company’s governance improves as a result. These important questions are addressed in this study by means of a theoretical discussion and empirical case-based research. This approach looks at how an ownership strategy influences board dynamics as defined by the intellectual capital framework by Nicholson and Kiel (2004). Results of the study suggest that an ownership strategy influences board dynamics and affects board decision-making through board procedures and norms. The results suggest a positive association between board dynamics and an ownership strategy as it creates a clearer framework for decision-making. This study contributes by developing the concept of ownership strategy and explores its influence on board dynamics and decision-making. Given the results, company owners and corporate governance practitioners should consider ownership strategy as a possible governance mechanism to align owners with their board of directors. Policymakers, business owners, and directors interested in promoting long-term governance models can benefit by contemplating the role of an ownership strategy within organizations.
Lunar surface chemistry is essential for revealing petrological characteristics to understand the evolution of the Moon. Existing chemistry mapping from Apollo and Luna returned samples could only calibrate chemical features before 3.0 Gyr, missing the critical late period of the Moon. Here we present major oxides chemistry maps by adding distinctive 2.0 Gyr Chang’e-5 lunar soil samples in combination with a deep learning-based inversion model. The inferred chemical contents are more precise than the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) maps and are closest to returned samples abundances compared to existing literature. The verification of in situ measurement data acquired by Chang'e 3 and Chang'e 4 lunar rover demonstrated that Chang’e-5 samples are indispensable ground truth in mapping lunar surface chemistry. From these maps, young mare basalt units are determined which can be potential sites in future sample return mission to constrain the late lunar magmatic and thermal history.
Although rarely measured, victims’ suffering is likely a large part of the overall cost of bullying. We use the compensating income variation method on data from the Icelandic SAGA (Stress-And-Gene-Analysis) cohort to estimate the monetary compensation needed to offset the welfare loss associated with bullying of women. We examine differences by frequency and extensivity of bullying, the type of bullying, the victim´s age during most recent bullying and years since most recent bullying. We find considerable differences in results across those bullying characteristics. To put this in context, the yearly value of reduced well-being associated with bullying in adulthood ($14,532–25,002 depending on model specification) by far exceeds the societal cost of reduced productivity and absenteeism, and the value of reduced well-being associated with bullying in childhood ($46,391–48,565, depending on model specification) by far exceeds the sum of the societal medical cost, travel cost of parents, and cost of reduced productivity of parents. Therefore, the greatest monetary damage from bullying is likely associated with the victims suffering, and its inclusion in the evaluation of societal consequences of bullying is thus crucial.
How can we move towards a tourism that focuses on the inner landscape of the guest and the host; on how they are moved from the inside or touched by the tourism experience? What is being moved? Who is being moved? How can both guest and host be moved by the relations created in their encounter? To explore these questions I guide the reader through my own personal journey of being moved by the landscape of Melrakkaslétta, a journey that moved me to think about alternative approaches to tourism where the inner landscapes of guests and hosts are central. The aim of this journey is to highlight how landscapes are not only visual outer phenomena that we look at from a distance but rather whole entanglements of materials, beings, senses and processes that are constantly moving with and being moved by each other.
The objective of the chapter is to trace how places are created through mobilities and tourism performances. The discussion is based on relational ontology, framing tourism as an ordering that enacts realities rather than a neatly defined industry or a sector. Hence, instead of thinking about tourism as a practice that happens within a pre-defined space it is illustrated how tourism encounters produce space. The chapter sets out from two encounters between tourists and a ship grounded at the shoreline at the shoreline of Skápadalur in Patreksfjörður, in the southern part of the Westfjords region in Iceland. The wreckage of a ship called Garðar has become an object of interest for the growing number of tourists visiting the region. The chapter traces some of the mobilities through which Garðar has contributed to the making of place, most recently through its entanglement with tourism mobilities. The story of Garðar exemplifies how places emerge through different kinds of mobilities and encounters in time and space and how tourism mobilities contribute to place making through a wide array of objects and performances.
Nature is the principal attraction cited by tourists for visiting Iceland. The diverse natural attractions in various locations across the country make mobility essential for tourism. With driving being the main mode of transport, roads become central to visitors’ experience in the growing tourism sector. This chapter argues that the road has an often overlooked role in creating an understanding of the environment. The chapter sets out by looking at roads along the key trajectory of tourism along the Golden Circle leading to the waterfall of Gullfoss and the Geysir area, by investigating roadbuilding of the past and present in the national park of Þingvellir and how roads are represented through time. Road networks are a pragmatic infrastructure for creating connections but also become meaningful for how we understand the landscape around us. With the tourism sector largely emphasising individual attractions or destinations as part of the tourist experience, this chapter shifts focus onto routes, roads and landscapes, highlighting how roads become fundamental in constructing relations to nature through the transformation of the landscape and by enabling mobilities.
How should we make sense of our current situation, global and local? What could such a making of sense imply? What, indeed, should we make of the notion of sense in this regard? In this chapter, in the company of Merleau-Ponty, Barad, Ingold and others, the modalities of sense are explored and deployed in interrelation with lived experiences of mobilities at the margins—of nature and culture. More specifically, such ruminations are developed from out of interactions with more-than-human actors such as seabirds nesting on offshore rocks and with concrete, decaying silos at the heart of a small fishing village in North-East Iceland. In the process, a sense will be developed of what such encounters can tell us—human sensitive, active and acted-upon beings—about the way in which we have to make sense of what we face. The ultimate aim is to think beyond tourism towards a wide-ranging notion of the coming-and-going of beings, through a situated, embodied common sense, that makes sense in the current global crisis.
This chapter takes the reader on a journey into the wilderness of Melrakkaslétta and follows the researcher who takes on the role of an explorer to rethink the potentiality of a place as a tourist destination. Selected encounters with features and figures whilst journeying are examined. What these have in common, although different in nature, is that they bring the flow of movement to a momentary, sometimes poetical, standstill which requires rethinking the order of things in an explorative manner. The features selected are: Beach Arctic terns Moss and lichens Modern ruin The aim is to examine how one can be in touch with the surroundings by allowing for the narratives they entail to emerge when moving with them. A beach reveals how heterogeneous materialities are moved about by natural forces which reflects on the constant rejuvenation that a place undergoes. Arctic terns provide a sense for constant renewal through seasonal changes and extreme mobile abilities. Moss and lichens bring one into direct touch with multispecies habitation that grows and nurtures, whilst modern ruins of a derelict farm give an insight into more-than-human co-habitation of flows and fluxes. These features represent mobile forces that constantly shape a place; a destination.
The chapter addresses how places are temporal and multilayered. They are obvious and hidden at the same time and always becoming through relational encounters of more-than-humans. In the chapter, the author makes use of two different methods, walking and map analysis, to explore how Western Barðastrandarsýsla county, a marginal place in southern part of the Westfjord peninsula, Iceland, can be and has been defined. Walking is an embodied experience, it relates to all the senses through the lived experience of the body as it moves with the environment. As a research method, walking reveals or produces a sense of understanding of the environment and emergent landscapes. Maps and place name archives produce another kind of knowledge about the landscape, gained and recorded through the ages. By analysing maps and crossing them with embodied experience of walking the old routes of Western Barðastrandarsýsla county, new knowledge can be created that provides understanding of the past and becoming of a place.
This chapter follows the journey of a doctoral research project from the setting of a research agenda, a theoretical framework and a methodological approach to conducting research on site. The research sets focus on Melrakkaslétta, a rural area on the Icelandic northeast coast. Melrakkaslétta is situated far north of the beaten Icelandic tourism track and has as such mostly been bypassed by the recent global tourism boom. This, however, does not mean that Melrakkaslétta is an immobile place as it has for centuries been inhabited and visited by humans and other beings. The research design is set within a qualitative research paradigm, where through flat ontology and a post-ANT lens, ethnographic methodology is applied with the aim of co-creating knowledge with the humans and the more-than-human world of Melrakkaslétta. The chapter explores the decisions and reasoning for the research, where the aim is to inspect tourism in a non-touristy, rural area, with the agenda of avoiding perceiving the margin either as a rural idyll or a site of rural hardship, decline and struggle. Instead, at the core is the assumption that in Melrakkaslétta, as elsewhere in the world, joy and well-being occur amongst the various challenges of any existence.
This article explores the latent potential in the anthropological concept of survival, especially through Tylor's usage of the term. Once a core concept of anthropological theory in the late nineteenth century, the idea was critiqued and abandoned in the wake of the structural and functional anthropology of the early twentieth century. However, the concept implies many different things, and in clearing away some of the more problematic meanings, this article focuses on the core of the idea: namely the persistence of the past in the present. The intention is to examine the concept in terms of what it tells us about the relation between the past and the present and, by implication, the historical process itself. By drawing on the distinctions between survival and related terms of relics, persistent practices, and revivals, this article suggests a reappraisal of the concept and its relevance to contemporary anthropology and archaeology.
Sedimentary records of environmental conditions retrieved from archeological sites provide valuable insight into the milieux of ancient humans and context to understand societal and cultural changes. At Jordan River Dureijat, an open-air site in Israel’s Hula Valley documenting the entire Epipaleolithic period as well as the Early Neolithic, sediments exposed on the walls of the excavation pit reveal a sequence of lacustrine deposits accumulated continuously between c. 21.1 and 11.3 cal ka BP near the southeast margin of Paleolake Hula. Through sediment-grain-size, geochemical, and paleontological analyses, we describe the nature of the Paleolake Hula from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the start of the Holocene. Until c. 17.2 cal ka BP, Paleolake Hula existed as a relatively large and well-buffered waterbody. A rapid and substantial drawdown of the lake occurred at 17.2 cal ka BP, followed by more frequent changes in the position of the shoreline in a smaller and shallower lake, resulting in the deposition of alternating near-shore and deeper lacustrine facies. Since the LGM, seven beds of structureless, silty sediments preserve archeological artifacts belonging to three Epipaleolithic cultures as well as the Early Neolithic pre-pottery Neolithic A culture. These sediments were deposited during phases of low lake level during which times humans waded into the shallow part of the lake, leaving behind stone and bone tools such as bladelets, lunates and burins, fishing hooks, line weights and net sinkers. Using radiocarbon-dated charcoal and a Bayesian statistical model, we produced a chronostratigraphic model for the archeological site, which enables the comparison of proxy paleoclimate records produced from this site’s sediments with regional archives as well as with global trends and changes in the Northern Hemisphere climate. Periods of low lake stands are correlated with the end of the LGM, Heinrich Event 1, and the beginning of the Younger Dryas Stadial. High water stands occurred contemporaneously with the peak of the LGM and during the Bølling–Allerød interstadial. This new water-level record from Lake Hula confirms that lake-level changes here broadly paralleled those of the Dead Sea and Sea of Galilee during the late Pleistocene, highlighting the importance of northern water sources to the overall water balance of the lakes along the Dead Sea Transform.
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Solveig Asa Arnadottir
  • Department of Physiotherapy
Jakob Kristinsson
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Jón Grétar Stefánsson
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  • Institute for Experimental Pathology at Keldur
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  • Faculty of Nursing
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