University of Ibadan
  • Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria
Recent publications
This paper presents a framework for the selection of microgrid configuration for water pumping applications in a rural area. The approach adopted is based on multi-criteria decision making. Four criteria, namely, (1) net-present cost, (2) cost of energy, (3) fuel cost, and (4) complexity of the system are used for making the selection. Weights are assigned to the criteria in the order of their importance and TOPSIS and VIKOR methods are used to determine the ranking of the alternatives. The results show the consistency of both methods in ranking the same alternative as the best. Both methods identified the scheme comprising PV–Battery as the best alternative with a closeness coefficient being closer to 1. However, the ranking of the second and fourth alternatives differed for both methods.
One of the most critical challenges affecting emerging nations is the inaccessibility to potable water, particularly in regions where people compete for domestic water with irrigation, heavy industry, and sewage disposal. Therefore, in order to efficiently explore for this resource, it is necessary to establish an efficient, dependable, and lasting method or methods of identifying zones of groundwater occurrence and distribution with high precision. The groundwater potential zones (GWPZ) in the Edo North region of Nigeria were mapped using integrative techniques for sustainability in this study. The objectives were accomplished by developing six separate theme layers that determine groundwater potential, namely Geomorphology (G), Slope (S), Drainage Density (DD), Lineament Density (LD), Landuse/Landcover (LU/LC), and Geology (GE). Thematic maps were weighted, normalised, and compared pair-wise using Saaty's Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model before being integrated and queried in the ArcGIS environment to categorise groundwater zones. Hence, the groundwater potentiality map created in a GIS environment classified recharge capacities into four zones: very low 561 Km² (17%); low 1989.9 Km² (60.3%); moderate 627 Km² (19%); and high 122.1 Km² (3.7%). The GIS model and RS findings suggest that the eastern and northern sections of the study area have moderate to high recharge and storage potential. These findings for water resource development are in areas with considerable groundwater potential.
Water erosion is a global concern that threatens sustainable agriculture. Using vetiver grass strip (VGS) and maize population density (MPD) separately to control soil erosion has been documented. Complementing VGS with high MPD could enhance crop yield and erosion control efficiency on sloping lands but there is no quantitative study on the combined effects of VGS with MPD on soil nutrient erosion globally. Thus, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to assess the effectiveness of VGS + MPD in controlling soil nutrient erosion and improving maize yields on two contrasting slopes under rainforest agroecology. Five treatments [VGS established at 5 m intervals with MPD of 40,000 stands ha − 1 (VGS 5 + MPD 40); VGS established at 5 m intervals with MPD of 53,333 stands ha − 1 (VGS 5 + MPD 53); VGS established at 10 intervals with MPD of 40,000 stands ha − 1 (VGS 10 + MPD 40); VGS established at 10 intervals with MPD of 53,333 stands ha − 1 (VGS 10 + MPD 53) and plot planted to MPD of 53,333 stands ha − 1 only serves as control (MPD 53)] were imposed on 5 % and 10 % slopes. Runoff was higher in control (MPD 53) than other treatments by a range of 92.2 % to 73.8 % on a 5 % slope and 73.3 % to 52.2 % on a 10 % slope. Similarly, the relative reductions in soil loss compared to the control ranged from 89.9 % to 70.2 % on a 5 % slope and 90.8 % to 84.2 % on a 10 % slope. Amongst treatments, VGS5 + MPD53 had the lowest nutrient volume discharge on both slopes due to complimentary impacts of higher MPD to provide a full vegetation cover to prevent splash erosion while closely spaced VGS helps to trap transportable fine particles down the slope. Runoff and soil loss from the 10 % slope exceeded the 5 % slope by 61.2 % and 77.4 % respectively. Average maize yields for VGS 5 + MPD 53 on both slopes were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than other treatments and maize yield on the 5 % slope exceeded the 10 % slope by 30.9 %. Slope gradient is a major driving force for water erosion and integration of VGS 5 with MPD 53 is the most effective in controlling soil nutrient erosion and improving maize yield on 5-10 % slopes under rainforest agroecology.
Background The development of digital technologies and the evolution of open innovation approaches have enabled the creation of diverse virtual organizations and enterprises coordinating their activities primarily online. The open innovation platform titled “International Natural Product Sciences Taskforce” (INPST) was established in 2018, to bring together in collaborative environment individuals and organizations interested in natural product scientific research, and to empower their interactions by using digital communication tools. Methods In this work, we present a general overview of INPST activities and showcase the specific use of Twitter as a powerful networking tool that was used to host a one-week “2021 INPST Twitter Networking Event” (spanning from 31st May 2021 to 6th June 2021) based on the application of the Twitter hashtag #INPST. Results and Conclusion The use of this hashtag during the networking event period was analyzed with Symplur Signals (, revealing a total of 6,036 tweets, shared by 686 users, which generated a total of 65,004,773 impressions (views of the respective tweets). This networking event's achieved high visibility and participation rate showcases a convincing example of how this social media platform can be used as a highly effective tool to host virtual Twitter-based international biomedical research events.
Indomethacin (IND) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with many pharmacological benefits and multi-organ toxicities. Thymol (THY) is a natural phenolic monoterpenoid with many biological properties. However, there is scarcity of information on its potential on IND-induced hepatorenal damage in rats. This study investigated the effect of THY on IND-induced hepatorenal damage in rats. The four experimental groups contain control, IND alone (5 mg/kg), THY alone (250 mg/kg) and co-treated group that were treated orally for 21 consecutive days. Twenty four hour after treatments, rats were sacrificed and markers of hepatorenal damage (ALT, ALP, AST, G6PDH, GGT, BIL, CHOL, GLDH, LDH, MDH, SDH, creatinine, urea, uric acid, cystatin-C and electrolytes), antioxidant status markers, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation (LPO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels and caspase-3 activity were evaluated. IND increased hepatorenal toxicity, inflammatory and apoptotic markers and decreased antioxidant status. Co-administration of IND with THY significantly decreased hepatorenal damage biomarkers improved the antioxidant status and reduced the MPO activity, LPO, NO, TNF-α, IL-1β levels and caspase-3 activity in the liver and kidney of rats. In conclusion, THY mitigates against IND-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and caspase-3 activation in the liver and kidney of the rats.
A series of five tetracyclic mono azo dyes based on the diazotization of 1-amino-8-hydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulphonic acid and subsequent coupling with substituted (un)sulphonated naphthalene derivatives have been synthesized. The chemical structures of the dyes were established using UV–visible, IR, NMR as well as mass spectrometry. Based on the number of sulphonic acid and other hydrophilic groups they contain, the compounds showed varying extent of water solubility. Spectroscopic characterization revealed the existence of azo-hydrazone tautomerism and the influence of the structures of solvating solvents on the equilibrium. Statistical analysis of single, dual and multiparametric equations of Kamlet Abboud and Taft parameters showed that solvent polarity was the most significant contributor to the observed spectral patterns of the dyes in pure solvents. The compounds could find useful applications as solvatochromic probes, food and drug colour additives.
This study was conducted to evaluate glycine equivalent (Glyequi) requirement in low crude protein (CP) diets with different levels of standardised ileal digestible (SID) threonine (Thr) on performance, serum metabolites, and muscle creatine of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d age. A total of 1275 one-day-old male Cobb-Vantress chicks were distributed in a completely randomised 3 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 15 treatments with 5 replicates of 17 birds each. Diets were formulated to comprise three dietary SID of Thr concentrations 6.9, 8.1 and 9.3 g/kg and five dietary Glyequi levels (12.8, 14.3, 15.8, 17.3 and 18.8 g/kg). An interaction (p < 0.05) was observed between the Glyequi and SID Thr levels for feed:gain and serum uric acid (SUA). With increasing levels of Glyequi, feed:gain decreased linearly (p < 0.05) in 6.9 and 8.1 g/kg SID Thr diets while SUA decreased linearly (p < 0.05) in 6.9 g/kg SID Thr diet. In diet containing 9.3 g/kg SID Thr, increasing Glyequi level optimised feed:gain (p = 0.04) at an estimated minimum level of 15.5 g/kg. Glyequi levels resulted in a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on BWG, feed:gain, muscle creatine with optimum point of 17.2, 16.7, 17.1 g/kg, respectively. Therefore, minimum requirement of Glyequi in low CP (174.0 g/kg) diet needed to optimised performance is 15.5 g/kg in 9.3 g/kg SID Thr diet, but could be or higher than 20.9 g/kg in 6.9 g/kg and 8.1 g/kg SID Thr diets for broilers. • Highlights • Feeding a low-protein diet of 174 g/kg with adequate Thr concentration at higher Glyequi levels could support performance in broilers of 1–21 d old. • Provision of 15.5 g/kg Glyequi in low CP diet containing 9.3 g/kg SID Thr level is required to improve performance. • Sufficient supply of dietary Thr concentration represents a sparing effect of Gly especially at marginal levels of dietary Glyequi in low-CP diets.
Roselle and Beetroots are essential plants used individually for hepatoprotective abilities. This study investigated the preventive potentials of the combinations of Roselle and beetroots against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced and Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced hepatic stress. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids (TF), 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazin (DPPH) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were evaluated. Oxidative stress was induced in rats with CCl4 and E. coli. Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and histopathology were evaluated in the liver. Roselle had the highest TPC and TF of 274.4 and 1140.9 GAE mg/mL, respectively. Roselle and beetroots inhibited DPPH and FRAP by (95.7% and 73.8%) and (887.6 and 662.6 µmol/L), respectively. In the extract-treated animal groups, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the GSH, SOD and CAT was observed with a decrease in the MDA and histology indicates preserved hepatocellular architecture. The investigated plant extracts combination therefore exhibited antioxidant activities and hepatic cell protection. The results confirmed the combined functionalities of these plants as protective against oxidative stress induced in the liver, which can be incorporated as a dietary strategy to combat hepatic stress after due clinical trials. .
Isopropyl 1-benzoyl-4-(benzoyloxy)-2,6-diphenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxylate (IDPC) was synthesized and characterized via spectroscopic (FT-IR and NMR) techniques. Hirshfeld surface and topological analyses were conducted to study structural and molecular properties. The energy gap (Eg), frontier orbital energies (EHOMO, ELUMO) and reactivity parameters (like chemical hardness and global hardness) were calculated using density functional theory with B3LYP/6–311++G (d,p) level of theory. Molecular docking of IDPC at the active sites of SARS-COVID receptors was investigated. IDPC molecule crystallized in the centrosymmetric triclinic (P1¯) space group. The topological and Hirshfeld surface analysis revealed that covalent, non-covalent and intermolecular H-bonding interactions, and electron delocalization exist in the molecular framework. Higher binding score (-6.966 kcal/mol) of IDPC at the active site of SARS-COVID main protease compared to other proteases suggests that IDPC has the potential of blocking polyprotein maturation. H-bonding and π-cationic and interactions of the phenyl ring and carbonyl oxygen of the ligand indicate the effective inhibiting potential of the compound against the virus.
Objective We aimed to synthesize evidence from published clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods We followed the standard methods of the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews for interventions and the PRISMA statement guidelines 2020 when conducting and reporting this study. A computer literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted from inception until 1 January 2022. We selected observational studies and clinical trials comparing TXA versus no TXA in aSAH patients. Data of all outcomes were pooled as the risk ratio (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals in the meta-analysis models. Results Thirteen studies with a total of 2991 patients were included in the analysis. TXA could significantly cut the risk of rebleeding (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.72) and mortality from rebleeding (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.92, p = 0.02). However, TXA did not significantly improve the overall mortality, neurological outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, or hydrocephalus (all p > 0.05). In terms of safety, no significant adverse events were reported. No statistical heterogeneity or publication bias was found in all outcomes. Conclusion In patients with aSAH, TXA significantly reduces the incidence of rebleeding and mortality from rebleeding. However, current evidence does not support any benefits in overall mortality, neurological outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, or hydrocephalus.
Background Low-and Medium-Income Countries (LMIC) continue to record a high burden of under-five deaths (U5D). There is a gap in knowledge of the factors contributing to housing materials inequalities in U5D. This study examined the contributions of the individual- and neighbourhood-level factors to housing materials inequalities in influencing U5D in LMIC. Methods We pooled data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for 56 LMIC conducted between 2010 and 2018. In all, we analysed the data of 798,796 children living in 59,791 neighbourhoods. The outcome variable was U5D among live births within 0 to 59 months of birth. The main determinate variable was housing material types, categorised as unimproved housing materials (UHM) and improved housing materials (IHM) while the individual-level and neighbourhood-level factors are the independent variables. Data were analysed using the Fairlie decomposition analysis at α = 0.05. Results The overall U5D rate was 53 per 1000 children, 61 among children from houses built with UHM, and 41 among children from houses built with IHM ( p < 0.001). This rate was higher among children from houses that were built with UHM in all countries except Malawi, Zambia, Lesotho, Gambia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Indonesia, Maldives, Jordan, and Albania. None of these countries had significant pro-IHM inequality. The factors explaining housing inequalities in U5D include household wealth status, residence location, source of drinking water, media access, paternal employment, birth interval, and toilet type. Conclusions There are variations in individual- and neighbourhood-level factors driving housing materials inequalities as it influences U5D in LMIC. Interventions focusing on reducing the burden of U5D in households built with UHM are urgently needed.
Background There is growing evidence for physiotherapy in the intensive care unit (ICU), but physiotherapy in the ICU and patients’ referral rate remains low in Nigeria. This study assessed the healthcare professionals’ perception of the physiotherapists’ scope of practice and skills in managing patients in the ICU of selected teaching hospitals in Southern Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional survey that involved seventy healthcare professionals working in the ICU who completed an adapted and validated questionnaire. The data obtained from the cross-sectional study were presented using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, frequency distribution, and percentage. Results The mean age of the participants was 39.74 ± 7.08 years. The majority of the participants had a bachelor’s degree and had worked for a minimum of 5 years in the ICU, with all the participants working in a mixed ICU and 46.7% work in ICUs with four to six beds. Physiotherapists (PTs) are not posted exclusively to the ICUs, and PTs were reported to be on call in most of the ICUs during the weekdays and weekends. Patients were referred for physiotherapy by the physicians. Healthcare professionals had negative perceptions about PTs’ scope in airway suctioning, nebulization, weaning, and adjustment of mechanical ventilators, intubation, extubation, and changing tracheostomy tubes for ICU patients. Participants had a positive perception about PTs’ assessment skills in the ICU except for hypoxemia calculation, readiness for weaning, and the need for humidification. Conclusion Healthcare professionals working in the ICU in the selected hospitals had both negative and positive perceptions regarding certain areas about the scope of practice and skills of PTs in managing patients in the ICU.
Built heritage has been and is being threatened by natural and man-made factors such as urbanisation, climate change, civil unrest, and activities of extractive industries among others. These factors have led to the destruction of built heritage culminating in a gap in the cultural history and identity of the people. Over the years, in every country, there have been different regimes that have regulated the preservation and sustainability of built heritage sites, ranging from the traditional pre-colonial era, the colonial era and the post-colonial era. This article from the perspective of law and history, examines the trajectory of the heritage management systems over the years in Nigeria to identify necessary areas of improvements that are needed to adequately manage and protect built heritage against the identified endangering factor of urban development. From its comprehensive analysis, this paper argues that in-order to adequately manage built heritage, it is important to adopt a holistic approach that will require the harmonisation of the various heritage management systems while taking steps to document indigenous conservation methods. On the other hand, harmonisation of all heritage laws with town planning laws is essential for sustainability.
Abstract Background Vernonia amygdalina (leaf), Garcinia kola (seed), and Leucaena leucocephala (seed) are three well-known tropical plants used in African ethnomedicine to reduce parasitic worm burdens and are potential sources of alternative solution for controlling parasitic helminths infection in grazing livestock. This study investigated extracts from these plants for anthelmintic activity against adult Haemonchus placei, an haematophagous nematode from cattle abomasa. Powdered plant materials were macerated in acetone and the crude acetone extracts evaluated for anthelmintic activity using H. placei adult worm motility assay. Afterwards, fresh sample of V. amygdalina was macerated successively in chloroform and acetone and the extracts evaluated for anthelmintic activity. The chloroform extract was subjected to phytochemical and FT-IR analyses and fractionated by vacuum liquid chromatography. Anthelmintic data were fitted to a nonlinear regression equation (Log [extract or fraction] vs. lethality; variable slope) to produce best-fit sigmoidal curves and LC50 values computed with associated uncertainty. Results Of the three tropical plants, only V. amygdalina was active against adult H. placei with best-fit LC50 of 6.51 mg/mL (95% CI: 5.32–7.75). Evaluation of the two extracts obtained by successive maceration showed that chloroform extract (LC50, 2.46 mg/mL, 95% CI: 1.87–3.28) was 11 times as potent as acetone extract (LC50, 27.01 mg/mL, 95% CI: 21.32–48.57) (α
We examine the predictive ability of economic policy uncertainty on stock returns of selected OPEC countries. In order to deal with certain statistical properties of the predictors, which include serial correlation, persistence, conditional heteroskedasticity, and endogeneity effects, wse utilize the Feasible Quasi-Generalized Least Squares (FQGLS) estimator in order to obtain accurate forecast estimates. As a precondition for forecast analysis, we conduct the predictability test, which shows that economic policy uncertainty is significant only for five countries, namely Kuwait, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. Hence, we proceed with the main forecast analysis for only this set of countries. Our results are twofold. We first account for asymmetries in forecasting stock returns by comparing the forecast performance of the symmetric economic policy uncertainty-based predictive model with its asymmetric variant. On the other hand, we compare the performance of the best model from above with the standard ARFIMA model using an alternative forecast test. In both cases, we find that the asymmetric model yields the most accurate forecast returns for stock returns of the five countries. In essence, neglecting the role of asymmetries in forecasting stock returns can lead to bias results. Our findings are not only robust to different sample sizes (i.e., 50%, and 75%) and different forecast horizons (4, 8, and 12 months) but have important policy implications for policymakers and potential investors.
Background The Nigerian health care system is weak due to lack of coordination, fragmentation of services by donor funding of vertical services, dearth and poor distribution of resources, and inadequate infrastructures. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has supported the country’s health system and provided strategies and skills which need to be documented for use by other health programs attempting disease control or eradication. This study, therefore, explored the contributions of the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) activities to the operations of other health programs within the Nigerian health system from the perspectives of frontline workers and managers. Methods This cross-sectional qualitative study used key informant interviews (KIIs) and inductive thematic analysis. Twenty-nine KIIs were conducted with individuals who have been involved continuously in PEI activities for at least 12 months since the program's inception. This research was part of a more extensive study, the Synthesis and Translation of Research and Innovations from Polio Eradication (STRIPE), conducted in 2018. The KII tool focused on four major themes: work experience in other health programs, similarities and differences between polio programs and other health programs, contributions of polio programs, and missed opportunities for implementing polio lessons. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a thematic framework. Results The implementation of the PEI has increased health promotion activities and coverage of maternal and child health interventions through the development of tangible and intangible resources, building the capacities of health workers and discovering innovations. The presence of a robust PEI program within a weakened health system of similar programs lacking such extensive support led to a shift in health workers' primary roles. This was perceived to reduce human resources efforts in rural areas with a limited workforce, and to affect other programs' service delivery. Conclusion The PEI has made a notable impact on the Nigerian health system. There should be hastened efforts to transition these resources from the PEI into other programs where there are missed opportunities and future control programs. The primary health care managers should continue integration efforts to ensure that programs leverage opportunities within successful programs to improve the health of the community members.
Background Primary urethral cancer in males is rare. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is more rare. We report a case in an African male suspected to have a urethral stricture. Case presentation A 66-year-old man presented in with preceding intermittent haematuria and acute urinary retention. Failed attempts at catheterisation necessitating a suprapubic catheter insertion raised the suspicion of a urethral stricture. Multiple irregular urethral filling defects were seen on a retrograde urethrogram. Urethroscopy revealed obstructing urethral masses. Histology reported clear cell adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Primary urethral cancer should be entertained as a differential diagnosis of a urethral stricture in a patient with haematuria, difficult urethral catheterisation and ambiguous urethrogram findings. Cystoscopy and biopsy are essential in the investigative work-up to make the distinction.
The levels of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) were determined in Nigerian and Brazilian milk samples. Their concentrations in powdered milk were in the order K > Ca > Na > Mg > Zn > Fe > Cu > Mo > Mn > Pb, and for liquid milk, K > Ca > Mg > Zn > Fe > Mo > Cu. The margin of exposure and provisional tolerable weekly intake values of Pb in powdered milk indicated no significant health risks to consumers. The rank order of microelements in powdered milk consumers based on target hazard quotient (THQ) was Zn > Mo > Cu > Pb > Fe > Mn, and for liquid milk, Zn > Mo > Cu > Fe. The THQs of microelements in milk for the Nigerians and Brazilians were lower than 1. Carcinogenic risk (CR) of Pb in children and adults was close to 1 E-6 but lower than 1 E-5, indicating inconsiderable non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. The presence of Pb in powdered milk is of great concern, therefore, food quality and safety plans must be carried out during production.
In this study, a comparative analysis of the impacts of uncertainties induced by government economic policy and the crude oil and stock markets on the stock returns of 62 energy firms is carried out across different market states. We find that economic policy uncertainty (EPU) has a stronger influence than the two market-based uncertainties. However, the oil market uncertainty (OVX) outperforms the general stock market uncertainty (VIX) for the causality-in-mean, but the reverse holds for the causality-in-variance. Stronger causal impacts are also observed during the normal and bearish market states, in that order. Finally, more significant connection is attributed to the causality-in-mean than the causality-in-variance. Thus, uncertainties, especially the one induced by the economic policy, should not be jettisoned in modeling and forecasting stock returns. The regime-switching regression model also supports the role of uncertainties in predicting the stock returns of the energy firms, with particular emphasis on adverse impact in most regimes. The fact that causality is stronger at the middle and lower quantiles also suggests the poor risk-hedging power of the stocks at the normal and bearish market states.
This study evaluated the water quality, pollution, and health risks associated with illegal gold mining activities in two estuaries (Pra and Ankobra) in the Southwestern region of Ghana. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) used for the evaluation indicated that both estuaries were in the marginal water quality category. Nemerow's Pollution Index (NPI) evaluation showed that turbidity (from siltation), PO4, Pb, Cu, and Fe contributed to the pollution of the two estuaries. The health risks index of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Total Hazard Index (HI) evaluated on shellfish (Macrobrachium) from the estuaries were above USEPA recommended threshold; therefore, there is a likelihood of human health risks impacts on the coastal dwellers surrounding the estuaries. Overall, the study buttresses the need to take urgent strategic actions to control the direct impacts of pollution on the estuarine systems and the surrounding coastal communities.
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10,187 members
Isaac Adewole
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Oluremi Ogun
  • Department of Economics
Adeola Adenikinju
  • Department of Economics and Centre for Petroleum, Energy Economics and Law
Effiong Akang
  • Department of Pathology
Agbowo, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria
Head of institution
Prof. Abel Idowu Olayinka