Background Thrombocytopenia is frequent in Plasmodium vivax malaria but the role of platelets in pathogenesis is unknown. Our study explores the platelet (PLT) proteome from uncomplicated P. vivax patients, to fingerprint molecular pathways related to platelet function. Plasma levels of Platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4) and Von Willebrand factor (VWf), as well as in vitro PLTs— P. vivax infected erythrocytes ( Pv -IEs) interactions were also evaluated to explore the PLT response and effect on parasite development. Methods A cohort of 48 patients and 25 healthy controls were enrolled. PLTs were purified from 5 patients and 5 healthy controls for Liquid Chromatography–Mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Plasma levels of PF4/CXCL4 and VWf were measured in all participants. Additionally, P. vivax isolates (n = 10) were co-cultured with PLTs to measure PLT activation by PF4/CXCL4 and Pv- IE schizonts formation by light microscopy. Results The proteome from uncomplicated P. vivax patients showed 26 out of 215 proteins significantly decreased. PF4/CXCL4 was significantly decreased followed by other proteins involved in platelet activation, cytoskeletal remodeling, and endothelial adhesion, including glycoprotein V that was significantly decreased in thrombocytopenic patients. In contrast, acute phase proteins, including SERPINs and Amyloid Serum A1 were increased. High levels of VWf in plasma from patients suggested endothelial activation while PF4/CXCL4 plasma levels were similar between patients and controls. Interestingly, high levels of PF4/CXCL4 were released from PLTs— Pv -IEs co-cultures while Pv -IEs schizont formation was inhibited. Conclusions The PLT proteome analyzed in this study suggests that PLTs actively respond to P. vivax infection. Altogether, our findings suggest important roles of PF4/CXCL4 during uncomplicated P. vivax infection through a possible intracellular localization. Our study shows that platelets are active responders to P. vivax infection, inhibiting intraerythrocytic parasite development. Future studies are needed to further investigate the molecular pathways of interaction between platelet proteins found in this study and host response, which could affect parasite control as well as disease progression.
The concept of shared decision-making (SDM) has emerged as a key component in the return to play interface as a hallmark of good practice that is athlete focused and allows greater engagement from the athlete. SDM is an appealing, well-intentioned framework that would seemingly lend itself to effectively being implemented. However, in this editorial, we have identified concerns surrounding the social complexities of elite sports and the difficulties of truly applying this concept in practice. In what follows, we explain the dynamics associated, discuss the importance of context when considering the efficacy of this practice and lastly offer what we see as certain key issues that might impede effective SDM.
Background and objective Chronic low back pain is pervasive, societally impactful, and current treatments only provide moderate relief. Exploring whether therapeutic elements, either unrecognised or perceived as implicit within clinical encounters, are acknowledged and deliberately targeted may improve treatment efficacy. Contextual factors (specifically, patient’s and practitioner’s beliefs/characteristics; patient-practitioner relationships; the therapeutic setting/environment; and treatment characteristics) could be important, but there is limited evidence regarding their influence. This research aims to review the impact of interventions modifying contextual factors during conservative care on patient’s pain and physical functioning. Databases and data treatment Four electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED) were searched from 2009 until 15th February 2022, using tailored search strategies, and resulted in 3476 unique citations. After initial screening, 170 full-text records were potentially eligible and assessed against the inclusion–exclusion criteria. Thereafter, studies were assessed for methodological quality using a modified Downs and Black scale, data extracted, and synthesised using a narrative approach. Results Twenty-one primary studies ( N = 3075 participants), were included in this review. Eight studies reported significant improvements in pain intensity, and seven in physical functioning, in favour of the contextual factor intervention(s). Notable contextual factors included: addressing maladaptive illness beliefs; verbal suggestions to influence symptom change expectations; visual or physical cues to suggest pain-relieving treatment properties; and positive communication such as empathy to enhance the therapeutic alliance. Conclusion This review identified influential contextual factors which may augment conservative chronic low back pain care. The heterogeneity of interventions suggests modifying more than one contextual factor may be more impactful on patients’ clinical outcomes, although these findings require judicious interpretation.
Cryogenic carbon capture (CCC) is a potential technological solution to reduce CO2 emissions and achieve the needed environmental targets. CCC provides a relatively compact solution to industries where more mature technologies would have difficulty scaling down economically. However, there is a lack of research on frost formation of CO2 within packed bed systems, despite the influence of the CO2 frost layer on thermal conductivity leading to excessive cooling costs. Understanding the rate of CO2 frost growth and accumulation within a packed bed is critical to the design of the capture column. Therefore, real-time quantitative imaging becomes increasingly desirable to study the CO2 frost formation during cryogenic carbon capture, but it may be difficult by most of the traditional measurement methods. This study aims to investigate the use of an Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) to monitor the real-time CO2 frost formation in a fixed packed bed. In this work, the evolution of the permittivity distribution during the capture process has been investigated in detail by experiments, elucidating the effect of the bed material type and bed material temperature. An ECT sensor was constructed to measure frost distribution to elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 frost formation by first testing on ice frost in the packed bed. The ECT images of ice formation were reconstructed by measurement data with a conventional algorithm. The results show that ECT could effectively monitor the changes of relative permittivity caused by the frost formation in real-time. With the help of an image reconstruction algorithm, the outline and position of the permittivity change area can be monitored. These results indicate that ECT has the potential to be a novel technique for monitoring CO2 frost formation during cryogenic carbon capture.
Chronological markers in fluvial sediments can provide useful information on geomorphic response to historic catchment disturbance, and help explain historic channel morphodynamics. We concentrate on the River Nent catchment in Northern England, which was heavily impacted by lead and zinc mining in the 18th and 19th centuries. We date a 2 m deep profile of fine (<2mm) floodplain sediments using ore extraction records, covering the period 1845 to 1913, based on a significant correlation between zinc concentrations and zinc-ore extraction (r = 0.78, n = 27; p < 0.01). These dates were constrained with a basal OSL date of 2.7 ± 0.3 ka (Agemin to Agemean 1.4–3.0 ka) and existing lichenometric dates for surface gravels. Earliest lead contaminated sediments at the base of the profile most likely resulted from Roman mining operations within the catchment. Local mine-worker population statistics were used to simulate pre-1845 lead ore extraction; where above-average peaks in lead concentration, recorded at the 125–130 cm, 105–110 cm and 95–100 cm horizons, were linked to respective peaks in lead ore extraction in 1825, 1850 and 1866. Estimates of historic sediment delivery volumes at a 0.062 km² sink site at Blagill, approximately 6.5 km downstream of the headwaters to the Nent, were estimated through coupling the chronological markers with accumulated sediment thickness and reach area. Sediment delivery was seen to be strongly enhanced by phases of metal mining, with peaks between 1800 and 1825 reflecting the final stages of lead mining, and later between 1892 and 1895, reflecting the peak extraction of zinc. Although lag times between ore extraction peaks and sediment delivery to the Blagill site introduce uncertainty to the proposed chronology, we conclude that where good local mining statistics are available, our approach provides a useful alternative or may be used in conjunction with other commonly used methodologies.
The design of selective and stable non-precious metal catalysts for hydrogenation of alkyne is highly desirable. In this study, L-lysine modification strategy is applied to support Ni nanoparticles, which greatly improves the stability and photocatalytic performance in the hydrogenation of phenylacetylene to styrene. The robust stability is attributed to that both amino and carboxyl groups of L-lysine can function simultaneously as the anchor, much stronger than a single group, to strongly interact with metallic Ni via N and O coordination. The high selectivity to styrene is due to that L-lysine modification results in a larger adsorption energy difference between styrene and phenylacetylene on the surface of Ni, therefore phenylacetylene is preferentially adsorbed on Ni surface. This protocol shows that the modulation of interaction between ligands and Ni is favorable to design stable, active and selective catalysts for hydrogenation of alkynes.
Macrocyclic compounds are formed via a series of cyclic oligomers possessing repeating units, and classical examples include cyclodextrins, calix[n]arenes, cucurbit[n]urils and pillar[n]arenes (n represents the number of repeat units). Given their unique host–guest binding ability, macrocycles are often developed as hosts for specific guest molecular assembly systems, adsorption materials, drug delivery carriers, catalysts, and molecular recognition systems. For example, macrocyclic host molecules are widely used to encapsulate hydrophobic drug molecules to improve both the solubility and utilization efficiency of the drug. One type of potential host molecule that has seen increased agricultural use in recent years are pesticides. This includes herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, and given the increased use, there is need to develop systems that can rapidly and effectively identify and detect such pesticides. In this review, we will discuss the use of cucurbit[n]urils, pillar[n]arenes, calix[n]arenes, cyclodextrins in this area, and their ability to form host–guest species with herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. Particular emphasis is given to the ability of such systems to improve the toxicity and release of the pesticide and the potential for practical application.
Studies find that oil-rich African countries (OACs) suffer slow socio-economic growth and development. The petroleum operations in these countries are also primarily in the hands of multinational corporations (MNCs). Motivated by their profit maximisation prospects (PMPs), the MNCs face significant corporate social responsibility (CSR) dilemmas with reference to their contribution to the socio-economic growth of these African economies. Even though there are few studies on CSR and corporate financial performance (CFP) within the African context, little or no attention has been paid to how and the extent to which MNCs' PMPs, CSR and CFP interact to affect the socio-economic growth of OACs. Drawing from legitimacy, institutional, and agency theories we employ a panel data approach covering 14 years (2003–2017) to understand the drivers of these PMPs, how PMPs affect corporate ethical considerations, and CFP and their implications on OACs' socio-economic growth. We find that PMPs of MNCs within OACs impede their CSR commitment. There is a significant positive relationship between CSR and CFP; efficient CSR practices impact CFP positively, and MNCs' contribution to OACs' socio-economic growth is significantly constrained by weak institutional environments. We conclude that institutional reforms and strategic investment in CSR could foster rapid socio-economic growth and development within OACs. Our study contributes to policy and knowledge on MNC's PMPs, CSR practices, CFP and literature on business ethics and the natural resource-curse.
One of the challenges to increase the life and improve the performance of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM) fuel cell is to use an appropriate cell cooling method. Proper cooling is important in maintaining a uniform temperature distribution and preservation of membrane water content to in order to prevent local hot spots and for high cell performance. In this work, three-dimensional multiphase numerical models of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using active (liquid cooling) and passive (heat pipes) cooling methods have been developed, wherein a heat pipe model was first simulated by simulink to determine the heat extraction capacity of the heat pipe. A 4-way serpentine flow field was employed as the typical flow field for gas channels and cooling channels. The results show that the use of heat pipe cooling, in addition to maintaining high water content and thus reducing membrane resistance and increasing cell performance, imposes less parasitic load on the cell power generation system than water cooling.
The application of environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has revolutionised large scale biodiversity monitoring of aquatic ecosystems. Validation studies have been performed mainly in laboratories and mesocosm experiments, however large-scale field experiments are necessary to verify the robustness of eDNA based monitoring for more specific applications and different environmental conditions. Here, eDNA samples were collected from three fishponds with high fish density and broad species diversity during summer and autumn. This sampling design included a large number of spatial replicates evenly spaced across the pond surface and samples from the inflow, while pooled samples were used to test the effect of filtration volumes on detectability. Most common species were detected using eDNA, but rare species were often missed out under these high stocking densities. Average read counts and site occupancy positively correlated strongly with species abundance and biomass, with the exception of samples affected by PCR inhibition. Higher diversity detections were observed in autumn compared to summer samplings and in running compared to standing water. Fish communities detected in pooled samples reflect the overall community structure, and the species detectability increases with higher filtration volumes. This work highlights how eDNA based surveys can be optimised based on sampling conditions to achieve the highest overall detection, which has important implications for applying this method to aid management and policy initiatives.
To suppress the fluorescence quenching of pyrene in the aggregation state, this article presents a facile strategy for the construction of pyrene‐based aggregation‐induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) via decorating the pyrene core with benzophenone units at the 1‐, 2‐ or 2,7‐positions. This set of pyrene‐based compounds 1–3 displayed a weak deep blue fluorescence in solution, but an enhanced excimer emission with λem max of 426–436 nm in the aggregation state. Interestingly, unlike reported benzophenone derivatives, this series of compounds did not exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence/ phosphorescent properties. This article presents a facile strategy for the construction of pyrene‐based aggregation‐induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) via decorating the pyrene core with benzophenone units at the 1‐, 2‐ or 2,7‐positions.
Complexation of 4‐chloromethylpyridine hydrochloride (G) with cucurbituril (Q) has been investigated using NMR spectroscopy, UV‐visible spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), Quantum calculation, and X‐ray crystallography. The data indicated that the guest 4‐chloromethylpyridine hydrochloride is completely encapsulated by the cavity of the Q host in both aqueous solution and the solid state, generating a highly stable inclusion complex, namely G2@Q. Interestingly, ion–dipole interactions and hydrogen‐bonding interactions play a central role in the formation of the inclusion complex G2@Q, which provides a reliable basis for the encapsulation of small organic guests by the hydrophobic microenvironment of the cavity. We have proved that the guest molecular is encapsulated by the cavity of the Q host in both aqueous solution and the solid state. Ion‐dipole interactions and hydrogen‐bonding interactions play an important role in the formation of the inclusion complex. which provides a reliable basis for the encapsulation of small organic guests by the hydrophobic microenvironment of the cavity.
While previous studies have shown the importance of visuo-spatial working memory in the processing of co-speech iconic gestures, clear evidence for a potential involvement of the verbal working memory (vWM) is currently lacking. To address this issue, participants in the present study were presented with a dual task paradigm. The main outcome variable was the performance on a Stroop-like gesture task which provides a behavioural index of gesture-speech integration. Participants performed this task under conditions of either high or low concurrent vWM load. Unlike in previous studies, the number of words to remember in the high load condition was determined by their individual verbal span rather than being fixed. Results showed reaction time costs in the form of longer reaction times for semantically incongruent gesture-speech combinations as compared to congruent combinations. However, this semantic congruency effect disappeared when the vWM load increased. This result suggests a causal involvement of verbal working memory capacity in gesture-speech integration.
This article contributes to research on employee volunteering (EV) by focusing on the experiences of individuals to address the current overemphasis upon collective organizational outcomes. Drawing on qualitative research with employees and corporate social responsibility managers across seven companies, it demonstrates why employees’ experiences are central to understanding the complex mechanisms that link EV with organizational outcomes. The article reveals how both positive and negative organizational outcomes are influenced by the complex relationship between personal motivations and employees’ volunteering experiences—within their organization and within their community—combined with their broader reflexive interpretation of their employing organization and its values.
Potassium ferricyanide in an aqueous solution is easily decomposed into highly toxic substances (potassium cyanide and hydrogen cyanide) by light or alkaline action, which poses a major hazard to environmental and human health. Here, a reticulated aggregation-induced emission (AIE) supramolecular polymer material (TPAP-Mb@tQ) was prepared by the supramolecular self-assembly of twisted cucurbituril (tQ) and a triphenylamine derivative (TPAP-Mb). TPAP-Mb@tQ not only recognizes Fe(CN)63- with sensitive specificity with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.64 × 10-7 M but can also effectively remove and adsorb Fe(CN)63- from an aqueous solution with a removal rate as high as 97.38%. Meanwhile, an important component of the supramolecular polymer material (tQ) can be reused. Thus, the tQ-based supramolecular assembly has the potential to be used for applications addressing toxic anionic contaminants present in aqueous environments.
The study of liquid marbles (LMs) composed of stabilizing liquid droplets with solid particles in a gaseous environment has matured into an established area in surface and colloid science. The minimized "solid-liquid-air" triphase interface enables LMs to drastically reduce adhesion to a solid substrate, making them unique non-wetting droplets transportable with limited energy. The small volume, enclosed environment, and simple preparation render them suitable microreactors in industrial applications and processes such as cell culture, material synthesis, and blood coagulation. Extensive application contexts request precise and highly efficient manipulations of these non-wetting droplets. Many external fields, including magnetic, acoustic, photothermal, and pH, have emerged to prepare, deform, actuate, coalesce, mix, and disrupt these non-wetting droplets. Electric fields are rising among these external stimuli as an efficient source for manipulating the LMs with high controllability and a significant ability to contribute further to proposed applications. This Feature Article attempts to outline the recent developments related to LMs with the aid of electric fields. The effects of electric fields on the preparation and manipulation of LMs with intricate interfacial processes are discussed in detail. We highlight a wealth of novel electric field-involved LM-based applications and beyond while also envisaging the challenges, opportunities, and new directions for future development in this emerging research area.
Aims To describe how people of African descent perceive and understand type 2 diabetes, and to examine the impact of their perceptions and beliefs on the uptake of diet, exercise, weight control and adherence to medication recommendations. Design Systematic literature review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Data sources We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL Complete, Psych INFO, Academic Search Premier, Education Research Complete, Web of Science and Scopus, World Health Organization (WHO), Diabetes UK and American Diabetes Association for articles published from January 1999 to December 2019. Review methods Informed by the PRISMA guidelines, we independently reviewed titles and abstracts, identified articles for full‐text review that met inclusion criteria, conducted a quality assessment and extracted data. Findings were synthesized using a thematic approach. Results Twenty‐six studies met the inclusion criteria. Knowledge and understanding of diabetes were poor. Beliefs and behaviours about diet, exercise, weight and health care were erroneous. Most diabetic participants could not recognize diabetes symptoms, failed to take their diagnosis seriously and did not adhere to medication recommendations. The resultant effect was an increased risk of complications with undesirable outcomes. Conclusion Poor diabetes perceptions are linked to negative consequences and may be responsible for poorer outcomes among people of African descent. This review highlights the need to consider this population's beliefs and practices in structuring culturally sensitive programmes for diabetes management. Impact This systematic literature review is the first to exclusively explore perceptions of people of African descent in relation to diabetes. It is important to consider people of African descents' diabetes perceptions and practices before formulating interventions for their diabetes management.
Estuaries are globally important zones for urban, recreational and commercial activities as well as supporting a range of habitats and species of significant ecological importance. The role of estuaries is recognised by the legislative framework that has been developed to protect and manage these areas as well as those species and resources in adjoining habitats. However, estuaries worldwide are subject to a number of major threats, including increasing industrialisation and urbanisation, increasing resource scarcity notably for space and energy, and the impacts of climate change, sea-level rise and related increases in vulnerability and decreases in resilience. In addition to local pressures, climate change is now increasingly recognised as having a range of severe impacts on estuarine ecosystem functions and services, but current legislation and associated management may not necessarily be wholly appropriate to deal with these longer-term changes. Here we consider how the current legislation and management addresses the potential impacts of climate change on a large estuarine system. Alongside a set of recommendations, we emphasise that the implementation of governance instruments needs to be underpinned by continued monitoring, improved modelling and enhanced predictive capabilities and integration and collaboration across management levels.
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