Purpose: Conventional therapies and surgery remain the standard treatment for breast cancer. However, combating the eventual development of metastasis is still a challenge. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the various species of viruses under clinical evaluation as a vector for oncolytic, gene-, and immune-stimulating therapies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of a recombinant NDV (rNDV-P05) in a breast cancer murine model. Methods: Tumors were induced by injecting the cellular suspension (4T1 cell line) subcutaneously. The virus strain P05 was applied three times at intervals of seven days, starting seven days after tumor induction, and was completed 21 days later. Determination of tumor weight, spleen index, and lung metastasis were done after sacrificing the mice. Serum levels of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CD8+ infiltrated cells were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Results: rNDV-P05 showed a route-of-administration-dependent effect, demonstrating that the systemic administration of the virus significantly reduces the tumor mass and volume, spleen index, and abundance of metastatic clonogenic colonies in lung tissue, and increases the inhibition rate of the tumor. The intratumoral administration of rNDV-P05 was ineffective for all the parameters evaluated. Antitumor and antimetastatic capability of rNDV-P05 is mediated, at least partially, through its immune-stimulatory effect on the upregulation of TNF-α, TRAIL, IFN-α, and IFN-γ, and its ability to recruit CD8+ T cells into tumor tissue. Conclusion: Systemic treatment with rNDV-P05 decreases the tumoral parameters in the breast cancer murine model.
We examined the degree of reproductive isolation in four populations of Triatoma mexicana Herrich-Schaeffer from Mexico along with fertility and the segregation of morphological characteristics in two generations of offspring from crosses between these populations. The percentage of couples with (fertile) offspring was high among all sets of crosses between cohorts from Peñamiller, Meztitlán, and Orizabita. It was low in crosses involving a cohort from Tierra Blanca, mainly in crosses with Meztitlán. Among sets of crosses involving Tierra Blanca specimens, whole first-generation (F1) individuals were morphologically similar to the specimens from other locations. All F1 individuals of crosses involving Peñamiller looked like Peñamiller. However, in crosses between F1 and F1 progeny of parental crosses, alleles for size, overall color, length of head, ante and post ocular distance, and humeral angle apparently had Mendelian dominant/recessive relationships. The cohorts from Peñamiller and Meztitlán seemed to be dominant with respect to Orizabita and Tierra Blanca. Results indicated that cohorts from Peñamiller, Meztitlán, and Orizabita were not reproductively isolated. In contrast, Tierra Blanca was reproductively isolated from the other three populations of T. mexicana and is apparently undergoing an early divergence process of speciation for allopatry.
Controlled synthesis of biomaterials with pH-responsive materials by radiation chemistry allows the development of new materials with fine-tuned properties that is affordable for simple production schemes and without potentially harmful chemicals. This work develops new lignocellulose-based materials with antimicrobial properties for wound dressing. The proposal was the radiation-grafting-induced of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) onto a lignocellulosic membrane from Agave salmiana (v. Maguey) to provide pH-response. The lignocellulose-based materials were suitable for the load and release of an antimicrobial glycopeptide drug, improving the drug load and a prolonged release. Finally, the loaded pH-responsive materials exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria at different pH. The new materials were characterized by several techniques such as thermogravimetric analyzes, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopic, mechanical properties, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy, and microbiological tests. Graphical abstract
The formation of the Baja California Peninsula (BCP) has impacted the microevolutionary dynamics of different species in ways that depend on biological traits such as dispersal capacity. Plants with relatively low levels of vagility have exhibited high genetic divergence between the BCP and Continental mainland. Brahea armata (Arecaceae) is a palm species inhabiting the northern part of the BCP and Sonora; its distribution occurs in isolated oases of vegetation. We aimed to evaluate the influence of the formation of the BCP on the genetic structure of B. armata using nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast markers (cpDNA) to compare patterns of genetic diversity and structure with previous published studies. Because gene flow through seeds is usually more limited compared to pollen flow, we expect to find stronger genetic structure at (cpDNA) than at nuclear markers. Moreover, larger genetic structure might also be explained by the smaller effective population size of cpDNA. We analyzed six microsatellite markers and two cpDNA regions. The main results indicated high levels of genetic differentiation among isolated populations located in the BCP, while low genetic differentiation was found between southern populations of the BCP and Sonora, suggesting long distance gene flow. In contrast, chloroplast markers indicated high levels of genetic structure between BCP and Sonora populations, suggesting asymmetrical gene flow between pollen (measured by nuclear microsatellites) and seed (cpDNA markers). This study provides valuable information on genetic diversity of B. armata that can be relevant for conservation and management; and develops microsatellites markers that can be transferred to other Brahea species.
In this study, we prepared fish oil microcapsules by spray-drying using mesquite gum and chito-san as wall materials, and the encapsulation efficiency, microstructure, and lipid hydroperoxide concentration were evaluated. First, stable mesquite gum (216 nm and -22.3 mV) and mesquite gum/chitosan emulsions (333 nm and +47.9 mV) were produced. The fish oil emulsions were spray-dried, and the mesquite gum microcapsules displayed an encapsulation efficiency of 67.18% while mesquite gum/chitosan microcapsules exhibited an efficiency of 92.92%. The lipid hydroper-oxide content of the fish oil microcapsules depended on the composition of the wall material, storage time, and storage temperature
A deeper understanding of what factors influence metacognition has never become more pressing than in today’s digital era, in which information flows constantly and quickly. To this end, the present study explored the role of culture in mediating how individuals experience metacognitive phenomena. For this purpose, the International Group on Metacognition (IGM) developed a rigorous standard international protocol to measure metacognition in Spanish-speaking university students (N = 1,461) in 12 cultures in Latin-America and Spain, employing both a subjective measure of metacognitive awareness (the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory [MAI]) and various metrics of objective metacognitive monitoring across three domains of learning—vocabulary, probabilities (mathematical reasoning), and paper folding (visual-spatial reasoning). Data were subsequently compared across the various cultures with subjective metacognitive awareness and the raw frequencies of the four mutually exclusive cells of the 2x2 performance/judgment array as outcomes. Results revealed significant differences regarding both macro-level components of subjective metacognitive awareness, knowledge and regulation of cognition. Further, significant and meaningful differences emerged for the raw frequencies of the four mutually exclusive cells as a function of culture, especially for vocabulary, in which differences among cultures emerged for all four cells. Implications for metacognitive research, theory, and practice are discussed.
This article is a review of the presence of, and studies concerning, Islam in Mexico. It is a reflection on the historical presence of Islam in the country and thus takes a descriptive and cultural-historical approach to frame the actors, issues, and dynamics that make up what we define today under the rubric of “Islam in Mexico.” In that sense, I offer a review of the state of the field from the view of the social sciences, especially disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, and history that put into perspective the ways and epistemologies used to approach and construct an object of study. Finally, I point to some reflections on the changes in the practice of Islam and the challenges to study its changing presence in Mexico, especially in reference to the interplay between local and transregional/mobile dynamics. This last part is based on my reflections from fieldwork and other research from 2010 to 2020.
Wind energy production has had accelerated growth in recent years, reaching an annual increase of 17% in 2021. Wind speed plays a crucial role in the stability required for power grid operation. However, wind intermittency makes accurate forecasting a complicated process. Implementing new technologies has allowed the development of hybrid models and techniques, improving wind speed forecasting accuracy. Additionally, statistical and artificial intelligence methods, especially artificial neural networks, have been applied to enhance the results. However, there is a concern about identifying the main factors influencing the forecasting process and providing a basis for estimation with artificial neural network models. This paper reviews and classifies the forecasting models used in recent years according to the input model type, the pre-processing and post-processing technique, the artificial neural network model, the prediction horizon, the steps ahead number, and the evaluation metric. The research results indicate that artificial neural network (ANN)-based models can provide accurate wind forecasting and essential information about the specific location of potential wind use for a power plant by understanding the future wind speed values.
The heuristic approach to decision-making holds that the selection process becomes more efficient when part of the information available is ignored. One element involved in selecting information is emotional valence. If emotional congruency is related to simplified decision-making strategies, then the interaction of this factor with task complexity should exist. The present study explored how factors of this nature influence decision-making efficiency. We hypothesized that emotional congruency would have a positive effect on task execution and that the magnitude of that effect would increase with greater task complexity because in that condition the amount of information to be processed is greater, meaning that a heuristic approach to the problem would be more efficient. We design a decision in browser decision-making task in which participants had to select emotional images to gain points. Depending on the correlation between emotional valence and in-task image value, we defined three emotional congruency conditions: direct, null, and inverse. Our results show that distinct types of emotional congruency have differential effects on behavior. While direct congruency-enhanced overall decision-making performance, inverse congruency interacted with task complexity to modify the pace at which task feedback affected behavior.
This study evaluates, through artificial neural network (NN) simulations, the roles of amygdala (AMG) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in reversal learning as responsible for assigning and updating incentive values, respectively, by taking into account some of its physiological characteristics and its connections with mesolimbic system structures. An architecture was built which contained modules of nodes representing OFC, amygdala (AMG), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NACC). Simulations were based on experimental responses of rats during a discrimination and reversal learning task in a T-maze. During simulations, intact NN responded similar to control rats. OFC showed retarded encoding in afferent connections as comparing with AMG nodes and an increase in the recruitment of neural nodes during reversal tasks. Activity of neural nodes plausibly emulates reinforcer preference during discriminations and reversals in AMG, COF and NACC. All these findings were disrupted by OFC’s inactivation. NN with OFC nodes inactivated (RN), just like rats with OFC inactivated, achieved discrimination learning although its reversal was impaired. As with rats, perseveration of incorrect responses was not found because subjects stop responding after a few incorrect trials. These findings are in accordance with the hypotheses of AMG as key in encoding novel predicting-outcome cues and OFC as critical for incentive value updating and the crucial role this prefrontal region plays for correct performance in discrimination tasks.
Objective Strong empirical research has shown a relationship between body dissatisfaction and symptoms of eating disorders (ED) and the direct and combined influence of emotional factors and dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI) on ED symptoms. However, whether these emotional variables and competencies moderate the well-established relationship between body dissatisfaction and ED symptomatology has not yet been tested. Neither have studies of this nature been performed among high at-risk populations such as Mexican female adolescents. Thus, this research aimed to explore the moderator role of EI subdimensions in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and ED symptoms among female adolescents from Sinaloa, Mexico. Methods A total of 485 female adolescents aged 14–19 years old (M = 16.81, SD = 1.33) who were students in middle school, high school, and college completed questionnaires about body dissatisfaction, ED symptomatology, and EI. We conducted moderating analyses. Results Subdimensions of EI significantly moderated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and symptoms of ED. For participants high in body dissatisfaction, lower levels in stress management ability and higher levels in the interpersonal EI and Adaptability EI dimensions were associated with higher levels of ED symptomatology. Discussion Subdimensions of EI have an important role in moderating the association between body dissatisfaction and symptoms of ED. The findings of this study contribute to improving the knowledge about the role of emotional competencies in ED. Proposals for future research and to improve preventative approaches are discussed. Public Significance Statement This study shows the moderating role of EI dimensions in the well-established relationship between body dissatisfaction and ED symptomatology. The research was conducted with a population at high risk of ED: female adolescents in the northwest of Mexico. Results showed that low Stress management EI, high Adaptability EI, and high Interpersonal EI were associated with higher levels of ED symptomatology among participants with high (but not low) body dissatisfaction. These insightful results have theoretical and practical implications.
The present study investigates the use of gamification to foster commitment and engagement among users with disabilities. Two case studies demonstrating the application of gamification are provided. The first is the development of an application to teach a blind person Mexican currency, and the second one is the creation of an application to aid individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in navigating their environment. The study reveals that universal design for learning principles can be used indirectly to adjust apps for users to utilize the software consistently. This study provides preliminary evaluations for both case studies, which were undertaken with relatively small samples. The first case study revealed that three blind individuals who took part in the review scored an average of 91.7 on the system usability scale. At the same time, the second case study involving the observation of a single individual with ASD also revealed that utilizing the designed app improved performance. Despite the limited sample size, the findings suggest that gamification may effectively encourage and generate commitment among the users with disabilities.
This work presents the influence of the reproducibility, stability and the morphology of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) obtained by green synthesis of nanoparticles (GNPs) assisted by a Mentha spicata extract solution as reducing stock solution (RSS). Noteworthy colloidal dispersion at 6.4 months has been reported by the presence of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the UV–Vis spectra for spherical nanoparticles (680AgN), while quasi-spherical nanoparticles (1300AgN) presented aggregation. Thereby, a great amount of RSS as reducing agent present in the synthesis involves the formation of NPs (nanoparticles) with tendency to agglomeration as shown by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Z potential for 1300AgN system. Meantime, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra supported that hydroxy group of the poly phenols species reported at 3420 cm−1, and the C=C bonds presented in the aromatic rings at 1633 cm−1 are the main electron-donating species to obtain AgNPs. Finally, the performance of the AgNPs systems to the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) was evaluated in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). These outcomes show NPs with ordered morphology by GNPs reproducible and, with outstanding colloidal stability without an external stabilizer agent, at natural pH of the NPs, and they are useful to diverse applications. Graphical abstract
Effort discounting is the decrease in the subjective value of a reward as the effort required to obtain it increases. In the present study, we assessed the effects of two procedures (fixed sequence and titrating sequence procedures) and two effort types (climbing floors and pedaling) on data-systematicity and the rate of effort discounting with human participants. There were no differences in the rate of discounting or in the production of systematic data between procedures. However, discounting was steeper when the required effort was climbing floors compared to pedaling, and there were more nonsystematic data production due to the use of pedaling as the required effort. Both the hyperbolic and parabolic models were fitted to the indifference points and there was a better fit of the hyperbolic model compared with the parabolic model. The effort type, but not procedure, affected the level of data systematicity and influences the degree of effort discounting, suggesting these two factors influence behavior by different mechanisms.
Background: Validated questionnaires are used to assess asthma control over the past 1-4 weeks from reporting. However, they do not adequately capture asthma control in patients with fluctuating symptoms. Using the Mobile Airways Sentinel Network for airway diseases (MASK-air) app, we developed and validated an electronic daily asthma control score (e-DASTHMA). Methods: We used MASK-air data (freely available to users in 27 countries) to develop and assess different daily control scores for asthma. Data-driven control scores were developed based on asthma symptoms reported by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and self-reported asthma medication use. We included the daily monitoring data from all MASK-air users aged 16-90 years (or older than 13 years to 90 years in countries with a lower age of digital consent) who had used the app in at least 3 different calendar months and had reported at least 1 day of asthma medication use. For each score, we assessed construct validity, test-retest reliability, responsiveness, and accuracy. We used VASs on dyspnoea and work disturbance, EQ-5D-VAS, Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test (CARAT), CARAT asthma, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment: Allergy Specific (WPAI:AS) questionnaires as comparators. We performed an internal validation using MASK-air data from Jan 1 to Oct 12, 2022, and an external validation using a cohort of patients with physician-diagnosed asthma (the INSPIRERS cohort) who had had their diagnosis and control (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] classification) of asthma ascertained by a physician. Findings: We studied 135 635 days of MASK-air data from 1662 users from May 21, 2015, to Dec 31, 2021. The scores were strongly correlated with VAS dyspnoea (Spearman correlation coefficient range 0·68-0·82) and moderately correlated with work comparators and quality-of-life-related comparators (for WPAI:AS work, we observed Spearman correlation coefficients of 0·59-0·68). They also displayed high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients range 0·79-0·95) and moderate-to-high responsiveness (correlation coefficient range 0·69-0·79; effect size measures range 0·57-0·99 in the comparison with VAS dyspnoea). The best-performing score displayed a strong correlation with the effect of asthma on work and school activities in the INSPIRERS cohort (Spearman correlation coefficients 0·70; 95% CI 0·61-0·78) and good accuracy for the identification of patients with uncontrolled or partly controlled asthma according to GINA (area under the receiver operating curve 0·73; 95% CI 0·68-0·78). Interpretation: e-DASTHMA is a good tool for the daily assessment of asthma control. This tool can be used as an endpoint in clinical trials as well as in clinical practice to assess fluctuations in asthma control and guide treatment optimisation. Funding: None.
Aim To determine genomic characteristics and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem non-susceptible K. pneumoniae, E. coli, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa from medical centers of Mexico using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data analyzed with the EPISEQ® CS application and other bioinformatic platforms. Methods Clinical isolates collected from 28 centers in Mexico included carbapenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 22), Escherichia coli (n = 24), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 16), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 13). Isolates were subjected to WGS using the Illumina (MiSeq) platform. FASTQ files were uploaded to the EPISEQ® CS application for analysis. Additionally, the tools Kleborate v2.0.4 and Pathogenwatch were used as comparators for Klebsiella genomes, and the bacterial whole genome sequence typing database (BacWGSTdb) was used for E. coli and A. baumannii. Results For K. pneumoniae, both bioinformatic approaches detected multiple genes encoding aminoglycoside, quinolone, and phenicol resistance and the presence of blaNDM-1 explained carbapenem non-susceptibility in 18 strains and blaKPC-3 in four strains. Regarding E. coli, both EPISEQ® CS and BacWGSTdb analyses detected multiple virulence and resistance genes: 20 of 24 (83.3%) strains carried blaNDM, three of 24 (12.4%) carried blaOXA-232, and one carried blaOXA-181. Genes that confer resistance to aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, phenicols, trimethoprim, and macrolides were also detected by both platforms. Regarding A. baumannii, the most frequent carbapenemase-encoding gene detected by both platforms was blaOXA-72, followed by blaOXA-66. Both approaches detected similar genes for aminoglycosides, carbapenems, tetracyclines, phenicols, and sulfonamides. Regarding P. aeruginosa, blaVIM, blaIMP, and blaGES were the more frequently detected. Multiple virulence genes were detected in all strains. Conclusion EPISEQ® CS compared to the other available platforms, enabled a comprehensive resistance and virulence analysis, providing a reliable method for bacterial strain typing and characterization of virulome and resistome.
We report the record of the velvety fruit-eating bat (Enchisthenes hartii), 68 and 47 years after the first and last specimen collected for which information is available, for the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A pregnant female of E. hartii was captured in an arboreal corridor, within a landscape made up of grasslands, cultivated areas, and fragments of tropical deciduous forest. Our record is remarkable, since it provides important information on the presence of E. hartii in the southern coast region, in the area of influence of the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, as well as on its reproductive activity.
Opuntia is a genus of plants known as prickly pear cactus (nopales), with about 200 species, and is taxonomically complicated. The present study was focused on characterizing micromorphology and providing a phylogenetic hypothesis to place Opuntia setocarpa (described in 2017) in relation to other related species. Three individuals were characterized and collected in Neveras in the Sierra of Cacoma of the municipality Autln de Navarro in Jalisco, Mexico. The micromorphology of spines, epidermis and stoma was characterized with scanning electron microscopy. The phylogenetic hypothesis was performed with maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference including other Mexican species. Opuntia setocarpa is recovered as a supported species within Opuntia s.s.
Background: The clinical relevance and management of incidental splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) remain poorly defined. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical course of incidental SVT in comparison with symptomatic SVT and assess safety and effectiveness of anticoagulant treatment in incidental SVT. Methods: Individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials or prospective studies published up to June 2021. Efficacy outcomes were recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and all-cause mortality. Safety outcome was major bleeding. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incidental versus symptomatic SVT were estimated before and after propensity-score matching. Multivariable Cox models were used considering anticoagulant treatment as time-varying covariate. Results: 493 patients with incidental SVT and 493 propensity-matched patients with symptomatic SVT were analyzed. Patients with incidental SVT were less likely to receive anticoagulant treatment (72.4% vs 83.6%). IRRs (95% CI) for major bleeding, recurrent VTE and all-cause mortality in patients with incidental SVT compared with symptomatic SVT were 1.3 (0.8, 2.2), 2.0 (1.2, 3.3), and 0.5 (0.4, 0.7), respectively. In patients with incidental SVT, anticoagulant therapy was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.71), recurrent VTE (HR 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.61), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.23; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.35). Conclusion: Patients with incidental SVT appeared to have a similar risk of major bleeding, higher risk of recurrent thrombosis, but lower all-cause mortality compared with patients with symptomatic SVT. Anticoagulant therapy seemed safe and effective in patients with incidental SVT.
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Juárez 976 Centro, 44100, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
Head of institution
Ricardo Villanueva Lomelí