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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate kinematic changes experienced during running-induced fatigue. Further, the study examined relations between kinematic changes and core endurance. Repeated measures and correlation. Seventeen novice runners participated in a running-induced fatigue protocol and underwent core endurance assessment. Participants ran at a steady state corresponding to an intensity of 13 on the Borg scale and continued until 2min after a Borg score of 17 or 90% of maximum heart rate was reached. Kinematic data were analyzed for the lower extremities and trunk throughout a running protocol and, on separate days, core endurance measures were recorded. Changes in pre- and post-fatigue running kinematics and their relations with core endurance measures were analyzed. Analysis of peak joint angles revealed significant increases in trunk flexion (4°), decreases in trunk extension (3°), and increases in non-dominant ankle eversion (1.6°) as a result of running-induced fatigue. Post-fatigue increased trunk flexion changes displayed a strong to moderate positive relation with trunk extensor core endurance measures, in contrast to expected negative relations. Novice runners displayed an overall increase in trunk inclination and increased ankle eversion peak angles when fatigued utilizing a running-induced fatigue protocol. As most pronounced changes were found for the trunk, trunk kinematics appear to be significantly affected during fatigued running and should not be overlooked. Core endurance measures displayed unexpected relations with running kinematics and require further investigation to determine the significance of these relations.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze the palmar plate complex at the proximal interphalangeal joint using a three-dimensional (3D) technique, which makes it easier to understand the dimensions of structures and their relationship to the adjacent components. This method allows individual elements to be removed virtually, facilitating clearer observation of each component. Sixteen cadaveric specimens were dissected and reconstructed in a 3D virtual environment. The palmar plate is made up of a distal, fibrous portion and a proximal, membranous portion, which anchors distally on the base of the middle phalanx and is continuous with the bilateral check-rein ligaments proximally. The accessory collateral ligaments and the A3 pulley suspend the palmar plate laterally.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume)
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to describe the food retail environment and its use in a deprived urban area in Scotland by mapping all food outlets and determining where residents do their main food shopping as well as investigating the availability of fresh fruit and vegetables (F&V) (as an indicator of healthy eating) and takeaway food. Cross-sectional study. The food retail environment, the number, size and food availability of all food outlets, was mapped in Viewpark, a small community located to the east of Glasgow. Subsequently a validated questionnaire was used to determined food shopping usage and habits. There was high availability of common fresh fruit and vegetables (F&V) and very high availability of fast food outlets. Only 9% of the sample shopped solely at local food outlets within Viewpark whilst 91% shopped at a large supermarket outside Viewpark (n = 106). Walking was significantly negatively associated (B = -3.555, P = 0.008) with shopping outside the community. The majority of respondents (80%) reported buying F&V weekly and 57% purchased takeaways at least once a week - these individuals were employed, over 45 years old and had at least one child. The use of the local retail environment in a deprived community is influenced by car accessibility.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Public health
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