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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to examine the feasibility of an endonasal, transmaxillary, transpterygoid approach to the foramen ovale by examining key anatomical, radiological and surgical landmarks. Method: Measurements were taken from 183 patients' computed tomography scans using BrainLAB iPlan 1.1 Cranial software. Endoscopic dissection was then carried out on a cadaver to assess surgical viability. Results: We found that the distances from the posterior maxillary wall to the foramen ovale and from the anterior nasal spine to the foramen ovale were statistically significantly larger in men than women. The distance from the base of the lateral pterygoid plate to the foramen ovale, and the angle between the foramen ovale, the anterior nasal spine and the sphenoid rostrum, were constant between the sexes. The importance of the lateral pterygoid plate in locating the foramen ovale was demonstrated. Conclusion: With the increasing popularity of image guidance and assisted navigation in endoscopic surgery, these findings increase anatomico-radiological understanding of the surgical approach investigated.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
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    ABSTRACT: Although the hominid knee has been heavily scrutinized, shape variation of the medial tibial condyle has yet to be described. Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas differ in the shape of their medial femoral condyles and in their capacity for external and internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. I hypothesize that these differences should be reflected in the shape of the medial tibial condyle of these hominids. Here I use geometric morphometric techniques to uncover shape differences between the medial tibial condyles of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Humans are distinguished from the other two species by having a much more oval-shaped medial tibial condyle, while those of chimpanzees and gorillas are more triangular in outline. Gorillas (especially males) are distinguished by having more concavely-curved condyles (mediolateral direction), which is interpreted as an effect of heavy loading through the medial compartment of the knee in conjunction with differences in the degree of arboreality. Anat Rec, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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