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    ABSTRACT: Substance misuse in pregnancy is not a new problem, but although impaired foetal growth and the risk of developing neonatal abstinence syndrome are widely appreciated, relatively little attention has been paid to longer term consequences for the infant. Available evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to opioids and other drugs of misuse is detrimental to the developing foetal brain; consistent with this, poor in utero head growth, delayed infant visual maturation and impaired general neurodevelopmental progress independent of social confounders are increasingly being recognised. This review considers current evidence and discusses best practice in the neonatal management and follow-up of affected babies. More studies are required to explore alternatives to methadone maintenance in pregnancy and to define optimal treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome. All infants born to drug-misusing mothers must be considered vulnerable, even if they have not required treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Early human development
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    ABSTRACT: A challenge to biochemically monitoring alcohol consumption in pregnancy is the prohibitive costs of collecting thousands of blood samples. This pilot study looks at the feasibility of using residual samples to monitor chronic and acute alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Residual anomalies screening samples (n = 150, 2006/7) were tested for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT, chronic marker) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG, acute marker). Valid readings were obtained for CDT but not EtG. These results pave the way for a larger representative study, to provide, for the first time, a national biochemical baseline estimate of chronic alcohol consumption in the pregnant population.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Substance Use & Misuse
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    ABSTRACT: Growth charts have become widely used, if not universal, tools for the assessment of the growth and health of children. In 2006, the WHO published a set of charts designed to represent standards to which all the world's children should aspire. They were produced in response to the apparent variability in the patterns of child growth documented worldwide, and with the aim of creating a prescriptive standard based on best feeding advice. Our modern understanding and use of growth references arose out of the application of technology, mathematics and charting to the biology of growth in the 19th century. As means of summarizing normal development, modern growth standards have replaced Renaissance conceptions of human form based on idealized proportions in harmony with the cosmos, and the simple reference to key developmental milestones first noted by the ancients. The WHO growth standards are the culmination of a search for a human ideal based on 20th century biology. However, while they may be the 'best' standards based on contemporary feeding advice, they are 'provisional' because all developmental processes in biology, including body growth, are plastic and permit a flexibility of life course trajectories in response to epigenetic, nutritional and other environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Nestlé Nutrition Institute workshop series
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