University of Georgia
  • Athens, GA, United States
Recent publications
Hemoptysis associated with respiratory disorders are some findings of caudal vena cava thrombosis (CVCT) in cattle. Nevertheless, CVCT may be accompanied by a broad spectrum of clinical signs and gross lesions. This study reported the frequency of CVCT in cattle necropsied in Southern Brazil and described its clinical signs, as well as pathological findings. From a total of 1,976 postmortem examination reports in cattle in Southern Brazil, there were 30 cases (1.5%) of CVCT. In the clinical evaluation, the main clinical course was chronic (13/30), followed by peracute (7/30), acute (4/30), and subacute (5/30). Hemoptysis (17/30), dyspnea (8/30), and anorexia or hyporexia (7/30) were the most reported clinical signs. Septic thrombophlebitis of the caudal vena cava (24/30), hepatic abscesses (24/30), pulmonary hemorrhage (23/30), and embolic pneumonia (19/30) were the main lesions observed at the necropsy. We concluded that CVCT is a relevant cause of death in bovines from Santa Catarina state, mainly in adult dairy cows. The disease is characterized by a wide range of clinical signs and lesions, requiring attention from veterinarians for the correct diagnosis. Furthermore, the association between the clinical history, clinical signs, and lesions is essential for the diagnosis of CVCT in cattle.
As a late-onset and fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects upper and lower motor neurons, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a difficult disease to diagnose and treat, needing further research on mechanisms of pathogenesis. In addition due to difficulties in delivering therapeutics past the blood brain barrier (BBB) to target disease-relevant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), diseases like ALS are particularly difficult to manage. However, recent advances in nanomedicine have provided new opportunities. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, spherical, nanosized particles that have shown various applicable properties in the treatment and diagnosis of ALS through inherent characteristics and drug delivery capabilities. Extracellular vesicles with unique cargos determined by cells of origin possess neural protecting qualities and can cross the BBB and deliver endogenous and/or engineered cargo to specific neural cell targets. In this review, we discuss the potential use of EVs as therapeutics, drug delivery systems, and biomarkers for ALS.
O-Acetyl esterification is an important structural and functional feature of pectins present in the cell walls of all land plants. The amount and positions of pectin acetyl substituents varies across plant tissues and stages of development. Plant growth and response to biotic and abiotic stress are known to be significantly influenced by pectin O-acetylation. Gel formation is a key characteristic of pectins, and many studies have shown that gel formation is dependent upon the degree of acetylation. Previous studies have indicated that members of the TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE (TBL) family may play a role in the O-acetylation of pectin, however, biochemical evidence for acceptor specific pectin acetyltransferase activity remains to be confirmed and the exact mechanism(s) for catalysis must be determined. Pectin acetylesterases (PAEs) affect pectin acetylation as they hydrolyze acetylester bonds and have a role in the amount and distribution of O-acetylation. Several mutant studies suggest the critical role of pectin O-acetylation; however, additional research is required to fully understand this. This review aims to discuss the importance, role, and putative mechanism of pectin O-acetylation.
•Xylan is an abundant carbohydrate component of plant cell walls that is vital for proper cell wall structure and vascular tissue development.•Xylan structure is known to vary between different tissues and species.•The role of xylan in the plant cell wall is to interact with cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses.•Xylan synthesis is directed by several types of Golgi-localized enzymes.•Xylan is being explored as an eco-friendly resource for diverse commercial applications.
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the experiences and impact of the Paralympic School Day program on disability-related perceptions of rural high school students. Methods : Ninth- and tenth-grade physical education classes from a rural high school participated in the Paralympic School Day event. Of the 68 who attended the event, 42 students furnished assent and consent to participate. Data from reflective writing responses were analyzed inductively using a three-step approach. Findings : The analysis revealed three interrelated themes: (a) “I didn’t expect it to be fun”: preconceptions and reality of trying parasport, (b) “Anyone can play a sport”: developing new perceptions of disability, and (c) “I never realized how blessed I was”: persistence of ableist framing. Discussion : As a result of participants interacting with and learning from athletes with physical disabilities, they developed an understanding of parasport and a new paradigm through which to view individuals with disabilities.
Various studies have examined emotional labour’s positive and negative aspects, but the structural conditions under which people experience emotional labour as fulfilling vs. taxing are underexplored. In this study, I use interviews with graduate students – a group whose relative social status changes routinely – to illuminate the types of emotion work that occasion positive and negative feelings. I find that graduate students often felt positive when performing emotional labour down the academic hierarchy to undergraduate students but felt negative about their emotional labour when performing it up the academic hierarchy to professors. I also find that women, people of colour and international students find their emotional labour particularly distressing when they perceive it to be an expectation of their marginalised social identity. Using identity theory, I show how status dynamics underlie people's emotional reactions when their identities are at risk of being disconfirmed. This research study contributes to the field of the sociology of emotions by specifying that status matters for whether emotional labour is a positive or negative experience for workers.
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli found in the avian intestinal tract can cause systemic disease in birds and act as a foodborne zoonotic pathogen associated with human disease. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli strain H1998 isolated from a chicken with colisepticemia.
Predicting what factors promote or protect populations from infectious disease is a fundamental epidemiological challenge. Social networks, where nodes represent hosts and edges represent direct or indirect contacts between them, are important in quantifying these aspects of infectious disease dynamics. However, how network structure and epidemic parameters interact in empirical networks to promote or protect animal populations from infectious disease remains a challenge. Here we draw on advances in spectral graph theory and machine learning to build predictive models of pathogen spread on a large collection of empirical networks from across the animal kingdom. We show that the spectral features of an animal network are powerful predictors of pathogen spread for a variety of hosts and pathogens and can be a valuable proxy for the vulnerability of animal networks to pathogen spread. We validate our findings using interpretable machine learning techniques and provide a flexible web application for animal health practitioners to assess the vulnerability of a particular network to pathogen spread.
Unsupervised clustering of intensive care unit (ICU) medications may identify unique medication clusters (i.e., pharmacophenotypes) in critically ill adults. We performed an unsupervised analysis with Restricted Boltzmann Machine of 991 medications profiles of patients managed in the ICU to explore pharmacophenotypes that correlated with ICU complications (e.g., mechanical ventilation) and patient-centered outcomes (e.g., length of stay, mortality). Six unique pharmacophenotypes were observed, with unique medication profiles and clinically relevant differences in ICU complications and patient-centered outcomes. While pharmacophenotypes 2 and 4 had no statistically significant difference in ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or duration of vasopressor use, their mortality differed significantly (9.0% vs. 21.9%, p < 0.0001). Pharmacophenotype 4 had a mortality rate of 21.9%, compared with the rest of the pharmacophenotypes ranging from 2.5 to 9%. Phenotyping approaches have shown promise in classifying the heterogenous syndromes of critical illness to predict treatment response and guide clinical decision support systems but have never included comprehensive medication information. This first-ever machine learning approach revealed differences among empirically-derived subgroups of ICU patients that are not typically revealed by traditional classifiers. Identification of pharmacophenotypes may enable enhanced decision making to optimize treatment decisions.
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) of a plexus nerve or nerve root cause significant morbidity and present a treatment challenge. The surgical approach can be complex and information is lacking on outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe surgical complication rates and oncologic outcomes for canine MPNST of the brachial or lumbosacral plexus. Dogs treated for a naïve MPNST with amputation/hemipelvectomy with or without a laminectomy were retrospectively analysed. Oncologic outcomes were disease free interval (DFI), overall survival (OS), and 1‐ and 2‐year survival rates. Thirty dogs were included. The surgery performed was amputation alone in 17 cases (57%), and amputation/hemipelvectomy with laminectomy in 13 cases (43%). Four dogs (13%) had an intraoperative complication, while 11 dogs (37%) had postoperative complications. Histologic margins were reported as R0 in 12 dogs (40%), R1 in 12 dogs (40%), and R2 in five dogs (17%). No association was found between histologic grade and margin nor extent of surgical approach and margin. Thirteen dogs (46%) had recurrence. The median DFI was 511 days (95% CI: 140–882 days). The median disease specific OST was 570 days (95% CI: 467–673 days) with 1‐ and 2‐year survival rates of 82% and 22% respectively. No variables were significantly associated with recurrence, DFI, or disease specific OST. These data show surgical treatment of plexus MPNST was associated with a high intra‐ and postoperative complication rate but relatively good disease outcomes. This information can guide clinicians in surgical risk management and owner communication regarding realistic outcomes and complications.
With a proliferation of scholarly work focusing on populist, far-left, and far-right parties, questions have arisen about the correct ways to ideologically classify such parties. To ensure transparency and uniformity in research, the discipline could benefit from a systematic procedure. In this letter, we discuss how we have employed the method of ‘Expert-informed Qualitative Comparative Classification’ (EiQCC) to construct the newest version of The PopuList (3.0) – a database of populist, far-left, and far-right parties in Europe since 1989. This method takes into account the in-depth knowledge of national party experts while allowing for systematic comparative analysis across cases and over time. We also examine how scholars have made use of the previous versions of the dataset, explain how the new version of The PopuList differs from previous ones, and compare it to other data. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of The PopuList dataset.
Sea levels across the planet are rising, particularly along the eastern coast of the United States. Climate‐induced sea level rise can result in the inundation and intrusion of seawater into freshwater drainages. This would alter salinity regimes and lead to the salinization of coastal freshwater ecosystems. Increased salinity levels in freshwater can negatively affect freshwater‐dependent species, including native mussels belonging to the order Unionida, which are highly sensitive to changes in water quality. Sea salt is largely made up of sodium and chloride ions, forming sodium chloride, a known toxicant to freshwater mussels. However, sea salt is a mixture that also contains other major ions, including potassium, sulfate, calcium, strontium, and magnesium, among others. Freshwater mussels exposed to sea salt would be exposed to each of the sea salt ions at the same time, resulting in a mixture toxicity effect. The mixture toxicity of these ions on early life stages of freshwater mussels is largely unknown because most research to date has evaluated individual salt ions in relative isolation. Therefore, we conducted acute toxicity tests on early life stages (glochidia and juvenile) of three freshwater mussel species that inhabit Atlantic Slope drainages (nonsalinity‐adapted Atlanticoncha ochracea , salinity‐adapted A. ochracea , Sagittunio nasutus , and Utterbackiana implicata ). Glochidia and juveniles of each species were exposed to a control and six concentrations of Instant Ocean® Sea Salt (IOSS), a synthetic sea salt that closely resembles the ionic composition of natural sea salt. Exposure concentrations were 1 part(s) per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, 8.5 ppt, 12.5 ppt, 17 ppt, and 34 ppt. We calculated the median effect concentration (EC50) for each of the eight acute toxicity tests and found that glochidia were more sensitive than juveniles to IOSS. At hour 24 EC50s for the glochidia ranged from 0.38 to 3.6 ppt, with the most sensitive freshwater mussel being the nonsalinity‐adapted A. ochracea , exhibiting an EC50 of 0.38 ppt (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33–0.44). Juvenile freshwater mussels exhibited EC50s at hour 96 ranging from 5.0 to 10.4 ppt, with the least sensitive freshwater mussel being the nonsalinity‐adapted A. ochracea , exhibiting an EC50 of 10.4 ppt (95% CI 9.1–12.0). Our results show that acute exposure to sea salt adversely affects freshwater mussel viability, particularly glochidia. This information can be used to enhance freshwater mussel conservation strategies in regions that are or will be impacted by climate‐induced sea level rise and associated freshwater salinization. Environ Toxicol Chem 2023;00:1–12. © 2023 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.
We report the synthesis and evaluation of two new apramycin 5‐O‐β‐D‐ribofuranosides, or apralogs, carrying aminoalkyl branches at the ribofuranose 4‐position. This novel modification conveys excellent activity for the inhibition of protein synthesis by wild‐type bacterial ribosomes and correspondingly high antibacterial activity against several Gram‐negative pathogens. Notably, these new modifications overcome the reduction of antibacterial activity in other 2‐deoxystreptamine‐type aminoglycosides carrying a 5‐O‐ribofuranosyl moiety when challenged by the presence of an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase enzyme capable of acting on the ribose 5‐position.
Chronological age classifies elite male gymnasts into developmental performance classifications: senior (18+ years), junior (14-18 years) and development (8-14 years). Here, we examine the influence of age and experience on the biomechanics of the high bar longswing across classifications. Joint angular kinematics and kinetics were obtained from 30 gymnasts performing three sets each of eight consecutive longswings. Differences between groups and relations between age, experience and key biomechanical variables were correlated. Kinetic variables and range of motion of the hip and knee were highest for development gymnasts. In all age groups, a dominant shoulder kinetic contribution was found, although circle location of the peak joint kinetics occurred earliest for junior gymnasts. Hip work contributed more prominently in development gymnasts. Age and experience were positively correlated to an increase in peak shoulder moments and powers and negatively correlated to peak hip and knee moments. The findings reveal that age and experience combine to influence the functional phase, joint kinematics and relative joint kinetic contribution, particularly with the senior group demonstrating a shoulder dominant technique. Changes in musculoskeletal loading across the age groups suggest that factors such as relative strength and practice may have influenced this joint mode transition of the longswing. ARTICLE HISTORY
Reformed science curricula provide opportunities for students to engage with authentic science practices. However, teacher implementation of such curricula requires teachers to consider their role in the classroom, including realigning instructional decisions with the epistemic aims of science. Guiding newcomers in science can take place in settings ranging from the classroom to the undergraduate research laboratory. We suggest thinking about the potential intersections of guiding students across these contexts is important. We describe the Classroom‐Research‐Mentoring (CRM) Framework as a novel lens for examining science practice‐based instruction. We present a comparative case study of two teachers as they instruct undergraduate students in a model‐based inquiry laboratory. We analyzed stimulated‐recall episodes uncovering how these teachers interacted with their students and the rationale behind their instructional choices. Through the application of the CRM Framework, we revealed ways teachers can have instructional goals that align with those of a research mentor. For example, our teachers had the goals of “creating an inclusive environment open to student ideas,” “acknowledging students as scientists,” and “focusing students on skills and ideas needed to solve biological problems.” We suggest three functions of research mentoring that translate across the classroom and research laboratory settings: (1) build a shared understanding of epistemic aims, (2) support learners in the productive use of science practices, and (3) motivate learner engagement in science practices.
The United States Department of Agriculture–Food Safety Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) performance standards require that manufacturers of fermented beef sausages validate their processes to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shiga toxin–producing E. coli (STEC). Most processors rely on rapid fermentation to a low pH and a mild heat treatment to achieve the lethality performance standard. However, this process alters the sensorial characteristics of traditional fermented sausages. An alternative method to achieve lethality using high-pressure processing (HPP) during the manufacture of summer sausage with higher pH (5.0) and minimal heat treatment was evaluated. Sausages inoculated with circa 9.1 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 and 8.9 log CFU/g of STEC were fermented to target pH values of 4.6 or 5.0. Subsequently, fermented sausages were heated to endpoint temperatures of 54.4°C, 48.9°C, or 43.3°C to the total process treatments of (1) Process A: pH 4.6 and 54.4°C, simulated cold air chilling, (2) Process B: pH 5.0 and 54.4°C, simulated cold air chilling, (3) Process C: pH 5.0 and 54.4°C, ice bath chilling, (4) Process D: pH 5.0 and 48.9°C, ice bath chilling, and (5) Process E: pH 5.0 and 43.3°C, ice bath chilling. After processing, the product was subjected to HPP (586 MPa; 4°C±2°C) for hold times of 1, 150, or 300 s and a nontreated (no HPP) control. All treatments subjected to HPP for 150 and 300 s reduced (P≤0.05) E. coli (O157:H7 and STEC) populations by>5.0 log CFU/g and >7.5 logCFU/g, respectively. The use of HPP allows for the production of more mild beef summer sausage (pH 5.0 and a mild thermal treatment of 43.3°C) while still achieving USDA-FSIS performance standards for lethality.
Paper represents a potent but underexplored keyword for Victorian studies today. Not only is it the unacknowledged techno-material a priori of Victorian studies itself, but its histories also offer material connections that link literary texts, bureaucracy, and consumer culture to global ecologies and resource extraction.
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13,708 members
Robert Galen
  • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Amy Medlock
  • Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute
Mark Herbert Ebell
  • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Js Wang
  • Department of Environmental Health Science
Harry Dailey
  • Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute
30602, Athens, GA, United States
Head of institution
Jere Morehead