Hemoptysis associated with respiratory disorders are some findings of caudal vena cava thrombosis (CVCT) in cattle. Nevertheless, CVCT may be accompanied by a broad spectrum of clinical signs and gross lesions. This study reported the frequency of CVCT in cattle necropsied in Southern Brazil and described its clinical signs, as well as pathological findings. From a total of 1,976 postmortem examination reports in cattle in Southern Brazil, there were 30 cases (1.5%) of CVCT. In the clinical evaluation, the main clinical course was chronic (13/30), followed by peracute (7/30), acute (4/30), and subacute (5/30). Hemoptysis (17/30), dyspnea (8/30), and anorexia or hyporexia (7/30) were the most reported clinical signs. Septic thrombophlebitis of the caudal vena cava (24/30), hepatic abscesses (24/30), pulmonary hemorrhage (23/30), and embolic pneumonia (19/30) were the main lesions observed at the necropsy. We concluded that CVCT is a relevant cause of death in bovines from Santa Catarina state, mainly in adult dairy cows. The disease is characterized by a wide range of clinical signs and lesions, requiring attention from veterinarians for the correct diagnosis. Furthermore, the association between the clinical history, clinical signs, and lesions is essential for the diagnosis of CVCT in cattle.
As a late-onset and fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects upper and lower motor neurons, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a difficult disease to diagnose and treat, needing further research on mechanisms of pathogenesis. In addition due to difficulties in delivering therapeutics past the blood brain barrier (BBB) to target disease-relevant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), diseases like ALS are particularly difficult to manage. However, recent advances in nanomedicine have provided new opportunities. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, spherical, nanosized particles that have shown various applicable properties in the treatment and diagnosis of ALS through inherent characteristics and drug delivery capabilities. Extracellular vesicles with unique cargos determined by cells of origin possess neural protecting qualities and can cross the BBB and deliver endogenous and/or engineered cargo to specific neural cell targets. In this review, we discuss the potential use of EVs as therapeutics, drug delivery systems, and biomarkers for ALS.
O-Acetyl esterification is an important structural and functional feature of pectins present in the cell walls of all land plants. The amount and positions of pectin acetyl substituents varies across plant tissues and stages of development. Plant growth and response to biotic and abiotic stress are known to be significantly influenced by pectin O-acetylation. Gel formation is a key characteristic of pectins, and many studies have shown that gel formation is dependent upon the degree of acetylation. Previous studies have indicated that members of the TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE (TBL) family may play a role in the O-acetylation of pectin, however, biochemical evidence for acceptor specific pectin acetyltransferase activity remains to be confirmed and the exact mechanism(s) for catalysis must be determined. Pectin acetylesterases (PAEs) affect pectin acetylation as they hydrolyze acetylester bonds and have a role in the amount and distribution of O-acetylation. Several mutant studies suggest the critical role of pectin O-acetylation; however, additional research is required to fully understand this. This review aims to discuss the importance, role, and putative mechanism of pectin O-acetylation.
•Xylan is an abundant carbohydrate component of plant cell walls that is vital for proper cell wall structure and vascular tissue development.•Xylan structure is known to vary between different tissues and species.•The role of xylan in the plant cell wall is to interact with cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses.•Xylan synthesis is directed by several types of Golgi-localized enzymes.•Xylan is being explored as an eco-friendly resource for diverse commercial applications.
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the experiences and impact of the Paralympic School Day program on disability-related perceptions of rural high school students. Methods : Ninth- and tenth-grade physical education classes from a rural high school participated in the Paralympic School Day event. Of the 68 who attended the event, 42 students furnished assent and consent to participate. Data from reflective writing responses were analyzed inductively using a three-step approach. Findings : The analysis revealed three interrelated themes: (a) “I didn’t expect it to be fun”: preconceptions and reality of trying parasport, (b) “Anyone can play a sport”: developing new perceptions of disability, and (c) “I never realized how blessed I was”: persistence of ableist framing. Discussion : As a result of participants interacting with and learning from athletes with physical disabilities, they developed an understanding of parasport and a new paradigm through which to view individuals with disabilities.
Molecular clocks are the basis for dating the divergence between lineages over macroevolutionary timescales (~105 to 108 years). However, classical DNA-based clocks tick too slowly to inform us about the recent past. Here, we demonstrate that stochastic DNA methylation changes at a subset of cytosines in plant genomes display a clocklike behavior. This “epimutation clock” is orders of magnitude faster than DNA-based clocks and enables phylogenetic explorations on a scale of years to centuries. We show experimentally that epimutation clocks recapitulate known topologies and branching times of intraspecies phylogenetic trees in the self-fertilizing plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the clonal seagrass Zostera marina, which represent two major modes of plant reproduction. This discovery will open new possibilities for high-resolution temporal studies of plant biodiversity.
Attachment theory has high potential for advancing a relational understanding of mentoring. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence that protégés develop attachments to mentors. The present manuscript provides this foundation by developing and validating a measure of attachment to mentors across five studies. In Study 1, we find qualitative evidence that protégés experience the four features of attachment in their relationships with mentors. In Study 2, we develop a pool of items to measure attachment to mentors and conduct content validation. In Studies 3a and 3b, we develop a multidimensional measure of attachment and conduct exploratory and confirmatory analyses. In Study 4, we replicate the factor structure and provide evidence of reliability and measurement invariance over time. Consistent with attachment theory, we find that attachment to mentors is related to, and empirically distinct from, mentor support, protégé work-related exploration, protégé attachment anxiety and avoidance, and relationship satisfaction in the hypothesized directions. Our findings support the application of attachment theory to mentoring relationships and provide an empirical foundation for future examination of the development, maintenance, and termination of attachment relationships in the work domain. Moreover, our work offers a new measurement tool and insights for assessing and developing mentoring relationships in practice.
The adelgids (Adelgidae) are a small family of sap-feeding insects, which together with true aphids (Aphididae) and phylloxerans (Phylloxeridae) make up the infraorder Aphidomorpha. Some adelgid species are highly destructive to forest ecosystems, such as Adelges tsugae, A. piceae, A. laricis, Pineus pini, and P. boerneri. Despite this, there are no high-quality genomic resources for adelgids, hindering advanced genomic analyses within Adelgidae and among Aphidomorpha. Here, we used PacBio continuous long read and Illumina RNA-seq sequencing to construct a high-quality draft genome assembly for the Cooley spruce gall adelgid, Adelges cooleyi (Gillette), a gall-forming species endemic to North America. The assembled genome is 270.2 Mb in total size and has scaffold and contig N50 statistics of 14.87 Mb and 7.18 Mb, respectively. There are 24,967 predicted coding sequences, and assembly completeness is estimated at 98.1% and 99.6% with core BUSCO gene sets of Arthropoda and Hemiptera, respectively. Phylogenomic analysis using the A. cooleyi genome, three publicly available adelgid transcriptomes, four phylloxera transcriptomes, the Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (grape phylloxera) genome, four aphid genomes, and two outgroup coccoid genomes fully resolves adelgids and phylloxerans as sister taxa. The mitochondrial genome is 24 Kb, among the largest in insects sampled to date, with 39.4% composed of non-coding regions. This genome assembly is currently the only genome-scale, annotated assembly for adelgids and will be a valuable resource for understanding the ecology and evolution of Aphidomorpha.
ISSN: (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tfdt20 A content analysis to understand the cross-functional nature of the merchandising constituency in the behavioural theory of the apparel firm Laura McAndrews To cite this article: Laura McAndrews (28 Sep 2023): A content analysis to understand the cross-functional nature of the merchandising constituency in the behavioural theory of the apparel firm, International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate an apparel firm's job positions within the merchandising constituency, discover the organisation of teams within the merchandising constituency, and understand the cross-functional nature of the teams. A direct approach content analysis was conducted on the case study Gap Inc. to collect and analyse 476 job postings on their career website from February to August 2021. The findings illustrated how Gap Inc. organises its internal constituencies and merchandising constituency within a brand, division, job category, and department detailing job responsibilities and cross-functional partners. Further, the findings uncover product category teams that are the core of the merchandising constituency and are structured cross-functionally. This study contributes to the knowledge of the apparel firm, specifically the identification of the cross-functional product category teams. ARTICLE HISTORY KEYWORDS Cross-functional teams; behavioural theory of the apparel firm; apparel jobs; merchandising constituency; apparel merchandising competency framework
Jeremy is a veteran teacher with a dozen years of experience in his classroom in rural Georgia. Understanding the importance of mentoring preservice and induction-stage teachers, he invited Matt to student teach in his fourth-grade classroom. Argumentation is Jeremy’s favorite science practice, so he created a lesson with a focus on student discussions around explanations of a phenomenon and the evidence that supports the explanation.
This is a commentary to the case narrative, “School-Cafeteria Make-Over Real-World Style” written by Cassie F. Quigley, Dani Herro, and Lisa Weatherbee.
Ms. Nicole Deal has been teaching fourth grade for almost three years and recently attended a teacher’s conference on integrating experiential learning activities into the elementary classroom. Many of her students live in a rural area of Virginia and are often exposed to local wildlife like deer, turkeys, and squirrels but have limited knowledge about non-game animals like reptiles and amphibians. Nicole decides to acquire a permit to keep an Eastern box turtle, a corn snake, and a tiger salamander in separate aquariums in her classroom. She is so excited to engage her students with the animals, helping them to observe their behavior and even hold them while delivering presentations in class and to younger grades at her school. As autumn sets in, her students start to notice their classroom animals are not as active as they were earlier in the year, the students are deeply concerned for their well-being, and Nicole is unsure if this is normal behavior or if the animals are in need of medical attention. How should she handle this potential “teachable moment?”
Chelsea is a fifth-year teacher in a second-grade classroom in the suburbs of Atlanta. About half of her students have been identified as gifted and talented by the state. She planned an interactive unit on animal life cycles which included opportunities for her students to be able to watch frogs complete their metamorphosis from eggs, to tadpoles, to froglets, and finally into adult frogs. It was the circle of life. The stability and change of plants and animals were a big idea for second-grade science, and her unit incorporated 3D practices she had seen presented during preplanning development. This open case explores a situation where Chelsea had to confront a life cycle of a whole different kind.
Ms. Cat is a first-year teacher in an inclusive PreK classroom in rural northeast Georgia. The majority of her students have goals involving communication, social skills and self-regulation. Ms. Cat created a lesson for all her students to plant seeds in their school’s courtyard as a part of their “plants and flowers” unit. The content of the lesson is in the forefront of her mind as she begins the lesson, but then individual students’ needs take precedent. What happens when you have to take a step back from the content and focus on developmental skills, but still make the science learning activity meaningful for everyone?
Austin is an informal science educator working at a summer camp at a local elementary school inland from the “Forgotten Coast” of Florida. This summer camp was centered around marine science and was open to all ages of elementary school students. Austin surprised the campers at the end of the week with a “Sharks at Dark!” day with ten ethanol-preserved deep-sea sharks laid out on tables. This lesson was designed to show the unique diversity of deep-sea sharks that researchers study. This open case explores a situation where Austin had to confront a group of third graders’ concerns about the ethics of sacrificing animals for the purpose of science.
Universal design for learning (UDL) has been advocated for by adapted physical education scholars as a panacea to the challenges associated with teaching disabled and nondisabled students together in physical education. So much so that UDL currently occupies a privileged and largely unquestioned position in adapted physical education scholarship and practice, until now. To move scholarship forward, this article draws on published theoretical and empirical work relating to UDL generally and in physical education in particular to critically discuss the scientific research supporting , or not, the use of UDL as a so-called inclusive approach. We end this article with a call to action for scholars in this field, ourselves included, to conduct theoretically guided and empirically informed research relating to UDL in physical education, which adheres to established hallmarks of research quality that are tied to the ontological and epistemological assumptions of researchers because, at present, it is conspicuous by its absence.
Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a predominant cause of Japanese encephalitis (JE) globally. Its infection is usually accompanied by disrupted blood‒brain barrier (BBB) integrity and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in a poorly understood pathogenesis. Productive JEV infection in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) is considered the initial event of the virus in penetrating the BBB. Type I/III IFN and related factors have been described as negative regulators in CNS inflammation, whereas their role in JE remains ambiguous. Methods RNA-sequencing profiling (RNA-seq), real-time quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting analysis were performed to analyze the gene and protein expression changes between mock- and JEV-infected hBMECs. Bioinformatic tools were used to cluster altered signaling pathway members during JEV infection. The shRNA-mediated immune factor-knockdown hBMECs and the in vitro transwell BBB model were utilized to explore the interrelation between immune factors, as well as between immune factors and BBB endothelial integrity. Results RNA-Seq data of JEV-infected hBMECs identified 417, 1256, and 2748 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 12, 36, and 72 h post-infection (hpi), respectively. The altered genes clustered into distinct pathways in gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, including host antiviral immune defense and endothelial cell leakage. Further investigation revealed that pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, including TLR3, RIG-I, and MDA5) sensed JEV and initiated IRF/IFN signaling. IFNs triggered the expression of interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) via the JAK/STAT pathway. Distinct PRRs exert different functions in barrier homeostasis, while treatment with IFN (IFN-β and IFN-λ1) in hBMECs stabilizes the endothelial barrier by alleviating exogenous destruction. Despite the complex interrelationship, IFITs are considered nonessential in the IFN-mediated maintenance of hBMEC barrier integrity. Conclusions This research provided the first comprehensive description of the molecular mechanisms of host‒pathogen interplay in hBMECs responding to JEV invasion, in which type I/III IFN and related factors strongly correlated with regulating the hBMEC barrier and restricting JEV infection. This might help with developing an attractive therapeutic strategy in JE.
One of the primary goals for the researchers is to create a high-quality sensor with a simple structure because of the urgent requirement to identify biomolecules at low concentrations to diagnose diseases and detect hazardous chemicals for health early on. Recently graphene has attracted much interest in the field of improved biosensors. Meanwhile, graphene with new materials such as CaF2 has been widely used to improve the applications of graphene-based sensors. Using the fantastic features of the graphene/CaF2 multilayer, this article proposes an improvement sensor in the sensitivity (S), the figure of merit (FOM), and the quality factor (Q). The proposed sensor is based on the five-layers graphene/dielectric grating integrated with a Fabry–Perot cavity. By tuning graphene chemical potential (µc), due to the semi-metal features of graphene, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) waves excited at the graphene/dielectric boundaries. Due to the vertical polarization of the source to the gratings and the symmetry of the electric field, both corners of the grating act as electric dipoles, and this causes the propagation of plasmonic waves on the graphene surface to propagate towards each other. Finally, it causes Fabry–Perot (FP) interference on the surface of graphene in the proposed structure's active medium (the area where the sample is located). In this article, using the inherent nature of FP interference and its S to the environment's refractive index (RI), by changing a minimal amount in the RI of the sample, the resonance wavelength (interferometer order) shifts sharply. The proposed design can detect and sense some cancers, such as Adrenal Gland Cancer, Blood Cancer, Breast Cancer I, Breast Cancer II, Cervical Cancer, and skin cancer precisely. By optimizing the structure, we can achieve an S as high as 9000 nm/RIU and a FOM of about 52.14 for the first resonance order (M1). Likewise, the remarkable S of 38,000 nm/RIU and the FOM of 81 have been obtained for the second mode (M2). In addition, the proposed label-free SPR sensor can detect changes in the concentration of various materials, including gases and biomolecules, hemoglobin, breast cancer, diabetes, leukemia, and most alloys, with an accuracy of 0.001. The proposed sensor can sense urine concentration with a maximum S of 8500 nm/RIU and cancers with high S in the 6000 nm/RIU range to 7000 nm/RIU. Also, four viruses, such as M13 bacteriophage, HIV type one, Herpes simplex type 1, and influenza, have been investigated, showing Maximum S (for second resonance mode of λR(M2) of 8000 nm/RIU (λR(M2) = 11.2 µm), 12,000 nm/RIU (λR(M2) = 10.73 µm), 38,000 nm/RIU (λR(M2) = 11.78 µm), and 12,000 nm/RIU (λR(M2) = 10.6 µm), respectively, and the obtained S for first resonance mode (λR(M1)) for mentioned viruses are 4740 nm/RIU (λR(M1) = 8.7 µm), 8010 nm/RIU (λR(M1) = 8.44 µm), 8100 nm/RIU (λR(M1) = 10.15 µm), and 9000 (λR(M1) = 8.36 µm), respectively.
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