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    ABSTRACT: This research investigates the effects of adjusting control handle values on greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, and reveals critical control handles and sensitive emission sources for control through the combined use of local and global sensitivity analysis methods. The direction of change in emissions, effluent quality and operational cost resulting from variation of control handles individually is determined using one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, and corresponding trade-offs are identified. The contribution of each control handle to variance in model outputs, taking into account the effects of interactions, is then explored using a variance-based sensitivity analysis method, i.e., Sobol's method, and significant second order interactions are discovered. This knowledge will assist future control strategy development and aid an efficient design and optimisation process, as it provides a better understanding of the effects of control handles on key performance indicators and identifies those for which dynamic control has the greatest potential benefits. Sources with the greatest variance in emissions, and therefore the greatest need to monitor, are also identified. It is found that variance in total emissions is predominantly due to changes in direct N2O emissions and selection of suitable values for wastage flow rate and aeration intensity in the final activated sludge reactor is of key importance. To improve effluent quality, costs and/or emissions, it is necessary to consider the effects of adjusting multiple control handles simultaneously and determine the optimum trade-off.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Water Research
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    ABSTRACT: In an attempt to expand the range of engineering polymers used for laser sintering, this paper examines the morphology, flowability and interparticle interactions of two commercially available poly (ether ether) ketone (PEEK) powders, not yet optimised for the LS process, by comparison with the LS optimised Polyamide (PA) and Polyetherketone (PEK) powdered polymers. The effect of incorporating fillers and additives on the flow behaviour is also analysed. The Particle Size Distribution (PSD) results alone do not allow ranking the powder materials in relation to the flow behaviour. The particle morphology has a stronger influence on the flow characteristics for materials with similar PSDs. The work also provides additional characterization parameters to be considered when analysing LS powders.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · European Polymer Journal
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    ABSTRACT: When analysing packed beds using CFD approaches, producing an accurate geometry is often challenging. Often a computational model is produced from non-invasive imaging of the packed bed using 3d MRI or μ-CT. This work pioneers the exact reverse of this, by creating a physical bed from the computational model using additive layer manufacturing (ALM). The paper focuses on both experimental and computational analysis of packed columns of spheres. A STL file is generated of a packed column formed using a Monte-Carlo packing algorithm, and this is meshed and analysed using computational fluid dynamics. In addition to this, a physical model is created using ALM on a 3d printer. This allows us to analyse the identical bed geometry both computationally and experimentally and compare the two. Pressure drop and flow patterns are analysed within the bed in detail.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Computers & Chemical Engineering
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