University of Eldoret
  • Eldoret, Kenya, Kenya
Recent publications
  • Gabriel Simiyu
    Gabriel Simiyu
  • Valentine W. Kariuki
    Valentine W. Kariuki
The current study presents a research model that elucidates the mechanism through which self-image influences green buying intentions among university students. Little is known about these mechanisms as well as the circumstances under which any such effects are strengthened or weakened. This study attempted to fill this void by investigating how environmental concern serves as an explanatory mechanism for the relationship between self-image and green buying intention, with social influence moderating this relationship. Based on survey data from 384 university students, environmental concern mediated the impact of self-image on green buying intention, and social influence had a conditional effect on self-image, environmental concern, and green buying intention. The findings also indicate that social influence moderated the indirect effect of self-image on green buying intention through environmental concern, with the indirect effect being stronger when social influence was low versus when it was high. These results add to the body of knowledge and provide new insights into theory and practice. The practical implications and future research directions are also discussed.
Many streams and rivers outside conservation areas across the Afrotropics face multiple stressors from land use change, urbanization, and excessive water withdrawals. Thus, there is a need to develop cost-effective tools for assessing and monitoring ecological changes to inform management decisions. Studies utilizing macroinvertebrate communities as indicators of the ecological condition of streams and rivers in the Afrotropics use diverse methods, including diversity, richness, biotic and multimetric indices. However, some of these indices are region-or country-specific, which limits their general use across multiple regions or countries. In this study, we address this challenge by testing and comparing the performance of diversity and richness indices (e.g., Shannon-Wiener and Simpson), regional biotic indices (the African Scoring System Version 5 [SASS5], Tanzanian River Scoring System [TARISS] and a biotic index developed for the Ethiopian highlands [ETHbios]), and a macroinvertebrate-based index of biotic integrity (M-IBI) in assessing the ecological condition of Afrotropical rivers with the transboundary Mara River, Kenya and Tanzania, as a case study. In this study, we analyzed water and habitat quality degradation caused by multiple stressors such as land use change, organic pollution and flow alteration and the corresponding responses in macroinvertebrate communities. We utilized macroinvertebrates data collected from 143 sites covering the entire gradient of the river and its major tributaries in Kenya and Tanzania. To develop the M-IBI, we used 12 metrics that describe macroinvertebrate community richness, composition, tolerance to disturbances (indicator taxa), and the composition of functional feeding groups. Although all the biotic indices were sensitive to poor water quality and human disturbance of the river, the M-IBI performed better than biotic indices (SASS5, Tanzanian River Scoring System, and Ethiopian highlands), diversity and richness indices by having a higher discriminatory ability of site categories according to different levels and types of disturbance. Diversity and richness indices performed poorly and failed to discriminate between stressor gradients in the river. This study demonstrates a need for testing and evaluating indices or protocols before adoption and use in biomonitoring streams and rivers in other countries and regions. There is an even greater need to assess the tolerance of macroinvertebrate taxa before inclusion in biotic indices for improved performance as discriminators of multiple stressors.
Soil erosion threatens the sustainable intensification of food systems among smallholder farmers in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). Intensifying adoption of soil mitigation and rehabilitation measures is thus needed urgently in these ASALs, but scaling up these measures depends on scientific evidence of their contributions to key components of sustainable intensification such as soil organic carbon. However, there is no information on how existing mitigation and rehabilitation measures influence soil carbon fractions and carbon management indices in ASALs. This study evaluated the influence of soil erosion mitigation and rehabilitation measures on soil carbon fractions and management indices in Arenic Lixisols of semi-arid environments in West Pokot County, Kenya. We evaluated dierent vegetation types (maize-beans intercrop and pastures) with and without two locally developed terrace designs for soil conservation (Fanya Juu and Fanya Chini). Combining terracing with annual cropping significantly increased total organic carbon (TOC). The highest TOC (13 g C kg−1) was recorded in pasturelands with terraces while degraded land with no intervention was found to have the lowest TOC (6.0 g C kg−1). Terraced farms with longer residence time (>4 years old) had significantly higher organic carbon than (<4 years old). Other soil properties remained stable with terrace age (1–5 years). Labile SOC and nonlabile SOC diered significantly within and across vegetation types with or without terraces (p < 0.05). Pasture and crop systems with terraces had high labile SOC content of 5.9 g C kg−1 and 7.2 g C kg−1, respectively. Labile SOC followed the TOC trend with terrace age, i.e., increasing from 1 year to 5 years old. Combined pasture and terraces had a significantly higher carbon management index (CMI) of 161.7, or 14 times the CMI found in degraded systems with no interventions and 1.5 times the combined crop system with terraces. CMI was also directly correlated with residence time terraces had stayed in the crop system, increasing from 1 year to 5 years old. Contrary to CMI and other indices, the weighted enrichment ratio was found to inversely correlate with age of terrace. Improvement of carbon content and CMI resulted from restorative measures and likely improved soil quality and ecosystem functions. Although terraces play a significant role in the restoration of degraded soils as indicated by the above-mentioned changes, they are most beneficial when used in combination with croplands because of the high level of disturbance and flows of both inputs and outputs of carbon for these croplands.
Isiolo dam is planned to be constructed along the Ewaso Nyiro River to provide water to the planned Isiolo resort city, one of the Lamu Port and Southern Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) corridor projects. This paper evaluates the factors driving land cover transitions and their effects, as a consequence of the proposed infrastructure developments with a view to providing evidence-based information for formulating policies and approaches for sustainable land management and development. Landsat images were used to assess Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change, while land degradation was evaluated based on the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification guidelines (2000–2020). Spatial overlays of land degradation, LULC change, population, and land tenure were performed to establish their interrelations. The results revealed that water, bareland, built-up, and forest increased by 2043%, 83%, 35%, and 17%, respectively, while shrubland and cropland decreased by 26% and 6%, respectively. Further, 61% of the watershed remained stable, 31% experienced degradation and 8% improved. The main drivers of LULC transitions, and land degradation are population pressure, land tenure, climate change and economic growth. With the development of the LAPSSET projects, it is projected that built-up areas, cropland, and bareland will increase mainly due to population increase, while the forest and shrubland will reduce mainly as a consequence of an increase in built-up areas and potentially poor land management. To achieve sustainable development with net zero loss of natural resources, proper planning for economic investments as well as inclusive land-use planning should be enhanced in drylands such as the Isiolo watershed and similar landscapes.
Tilapia invasion has become a significant concern to ecologists and conservationists, posing severe threat to freshwater biodiversity. Many tilapia species have been introduced to China since 1957, with some having invaded freshwater ecosystems in South China. Accordingly, the present review examined the driving factors for successful tilapia invasion and their ecological impacts, information essential for practical management purposes. This review identified aquaculture as the main pathway spreading tilapias into the wild freshwater systems through their escape and release. Their biological and life history traits, including flexible habitat requirements, environmental tolerance, and generalist feeding are essential factors facilitating their ability to inhabit varying habitats. Biodiversity loss and habitat degradation further promote tilapia invasions by creating exploitable habitats for them, noting their considerable tolerance to degraded ecosystems. Regarding ecological effects, tilapias stimulate phytoplankton growth by increasing nutrient concentrations in the water column through excretion and bioturbation. Tilapias also depress benthic algal growth by promoting sediment resuspension, deteriorating water quality, and enhancing eutrophication. Moreover, tilapias cause the decline of native fish species biomass through competition and may threaten fish biodiversity. The findings in the present review suggest direct removal of tilapias can be a useful practice for controlling them. Furthermore, imposing regulations on tilapias introductions, efficient aquaculture management, and biodiversity conservation should also be considered in controlling and preventing the invasion and spread of tilapias.
Tuberculosis (TB) infections among children (below 15 years) is a growing concern, particularly in resource-limited settings. However, the TB burden among children is relatively unknown in Kenya where two-thirds of estimated TB cases are undiagnosed annually. Very few studies have used Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and hybrid ARIMA models to model infectious diseases globally. We applied ARIMA, and hybrid ARIMA models to predict and forecast TB incidences among children in Homa Bay and Turkana Counties in Kenya. The ARIMA, and hybrid models were used to predict and forecast monthly TB cases reported in the Treatment Information from Basic Unit (TIBU) system by health facilities in Homa Bay and Turkana Counties between 2012 and 2021. The best parsimonious ARIMA model that minimizes errors was selected based on a rolling window cross-validation procedure. The hybrid ARIMA-ANN model produced better predictive and forecast accuracy compared to the Seasonal ARIMA (0,0,1,1,0,1,12) model. Furthermore, using the Diebold-Mariano (DM) test, the predictive accuracy of ARIMA-ANN versus ARIMA (0,0,1,1,0,1,12) model were significantly different, p<0.001, respectively. The forecasts showed a TB incidence of 175 TB cases per 100,000 (161 to 188 TB incidences per 100,000 population) children in Homa Bay and Turkana Counties in 2022. The hybrid (ARIMA-ANN) model produces better predictive and forecast accuracy compared to the single ARIMA model. The findings show evidence that the incidence of TB among children below 15 years in Homa Bay and Turkana Counties is significantly under-reported and is potentially higher than the national average.
During public health crises, people living with HIV (PLWH) may become disengaged from care. The goal of this study was to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and recent flooding disasters on HIV care delivery in western Kenya. We conducted ten individual in-depth interviews with HIV providers across four health facilities. We used an iterative and integrated inductive and deductive data analysis approach to generate four themes. First, increased structural interruptions created exacerbating strain on health facilities. Second, there was increased physical and psychosocial burnout among providers. Third, patient uptake of services along the HIV continuum decreased, particularly among vulnerable patients. Finally, existing community-based programs and teleconsultations could be adapted to provide differentiated HIV care. Community-centric care programs, with an emphasis on overcoming the social, economic, and structural barriers will be crucial to ensure optimal care and limit the impact of public health disruptions on HIV care globally.
Objectives: To determine COVID-19 antibody positivity rates over time and relationships to pregnancy outcomes in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Design: With COVID-19 antibody positivity at delivery as the exposure, we performed a prospective, observational cohort study in seven LMICs during the early COVID-19 pandemic. Setting: The study was conducted among women in the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry (MNHR), a prospective, population-based study in Kenya, Zambia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Bangladesh, Pakistan, India (2 sites), and Guatemala. Methods: From October 2020-October 2021, standardized COVID-19 antibody testing at delivery among women enrolled in MNHR. Trained staff masked to COVID-19 status obtained pregnancy outcomes, which were then compared to COVID-19 antibody results. Outcome measures: Antibody status, stillbirth, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality and morbidity RESULTS: At delivery, 26.0% of women were COVID-19 antibody positive. Positivity increased over the four time periods across all sites: 13.8%, 15.4%, 21.0% and 40.9%. In the final period, positivity rates were: DRC 27.0%, Kenya 33.1%, Pakistan 32.8%, Guatemala 37.0%, Zambia 37.8%, Bangladesh 47.2%, Nagpur, India 57.4%, and Belagavi, India 62.4%. Adjusting for site and maternal characteristics, stillbirth, neonatal mortality, low birthweight, and preterm birth were not significantly associated with COVID-19. The risk for stillbirth was aRR 1.27 (95% CI 0.95, 1.69). Post-partum hemorrhage was associated with antibody positivity (aRR 1.44; 95% CI 1.01, 2.07). Conclusions: In pregnant populations in LMICs, COVID-19 antibody positivity has increased. However, most adverse pregnancy outcomes were not significantly associated with antibody positivity.
Purpose of review: Patient centered care (PCC) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) may improve outcomes for persons with HIV (PWH). We review the progress the region has made in promoting PCC and highlight some of the implementation challenges and potential areas of research. Recent findings: Studies show growing interest in promoting PCC across HIV care programs in SSA. Effective implementation of PCC, however, is hampered by: (1) lack of consensus on the conceptualization of PCC, including definition, frameworks, measures, and implementation strategies; (2) limited regional studies on the adoption and sustainability of PCC interventions; and (3) healthcare structural challenges including limited capital and human resources, poor provider-patient dynamics, high provider turnover, and lack of continuity in care. Recent studies in the region have focused on identifying key PCC domains addressable in resource limited settings, understanding the PCC experiences and expectations of PWH and their providers, and testing innovative interventions. We highlight the need for additional studies to address the existing gaps. Summary: We discuss the progress and challenges of implementing PCC in HIV care settings in SSA as well as the need for additional research to ensure that proposed PCC interventions have optimal impact.
Lake Naivasha is a tropical freshwater body in Kenya, providing a source of livelihoods to the surrounding communities. The lake ecosystem, however, has become degraded over time because of increasing pollutant loads from multiple sources, including human settlements and agricultural and surface runoff in its basin. Thus, it is vital to study the lake's water quality to determine its current status to inform appropriate management measures. Accordingly, the present study analysed water quality parameters and the trophic state of Lake Naivasha on the basis of water samples collected at eight sampling sites during the dry and wet seasons from December 2019 to May 2020. The physico-chemical parameters were measured in situ, while nutrients were analysed in the laboratory. The results indicated high turbidity, total nitrogen (TN), ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 +-N), nitrate-N (NO 3-N) and total phosphorus (TP) levels during the wet season, and at the Malewa and Karati River mouths, while pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and chlorophyll-a values were relatively high during the dry season. The water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, however, did not vary between sampling sites or seasons. Cluster analysis (CA) classified the sites into three clusters based on water quality spatial and seasonal variations. Cluster 1 was comprised of the isolated region (Crescent), while clusters 2 and 3 mainly comprised sites sampled during wet and dry seasons, respectively. Similarly, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed spatial and seasonal physico-chemical variations, indicating nutrient parameters (TN, TP, NO 3-N and NH 4 +-N), pH, Secchi depth and turbidity are the major variables influencing water quality variations. Furthermore, factor analysis (FA) identified nutrients, sediment and organic sources as the main lake pollution sources. The trophic state index (TSI = 60-72) indicated the lake varied from a eutrophic to hypertrophic state during the study period. The lake was found to be more eutrophic than reported in previous studies, indicating a progressive deterioration of its water quality. The overall results demonstrated some of the sampling sites in the lake are heavily contaminated with pollutants from various sources, attributable primarily to land use patterns and anthropogenic activities. The results of the present study are useful to inform decisions regarding management of the lake water quality. K E Y W O R D S anthropogenic activities, Lake Naivasha, multivariate analysis, pollution, water quality
Background Considerable research has been dedicated to investigating fluoride (F) contaminations of water along the Eastern Africa Rift Valley System (EARS) but critical F data on the food systems is still needed for assessing the risk of human F overexposure and for informing the development of plausible strategies for ameliorating its deleterious effects among the communities. The current study investigated F levels of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and garden peas (Possum sativa) from Nakuru County, Kenya, and then assessed the risk of human F overexposure through contaminated foodstuffs. Results High F levels exceeding WHO’s recommended dietary allowance of 4 mg/kg has been reported in the three foodstuffs. Fluoride levels in the beans and in the potatoes were high and varied from with regions but F levels in peas were lower and nearly constant across the regions. Risks of F overexposure through F-contaminated foodstuffs increased with increasing body weight and physical activity levels, especially in young children and among male populations. Conclusions High F in the foodstuffs have adverse public health implications on the resident communities and the development of plausible remediation and preventive strategies for ameliorating its deleterious effects among the communities is of essence.
There is an increasing understanding that Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can protect the planet, reduce inequality and tackle poverty. However, many small business owners and entrepreneurs in Africa still see it as a misery. This study aims to determine whether the SDG's goal number five (5) is being used to motivate gender equality among small and medium-sized enterprises in Africa, particularly in Kenya and Nigeria. The study focuses on female entrepreneurs. The target population comprised 110 randomly selected businesses operating in Embakasi East constituency in the Embakasi ward in Nairobi County, Kenya, and Ikeja Local Government in Lagos Mainland of Lagos state Nigeria. The sample size was determined by relying on a prior study on women in business in Africa. The study adopted a qualitative research method, administering open-ended interviews to the respondents, and the response rate was 90.91%. Descriptive statistical analysis was adopted, and the examination of the data demonstrated that a significant number of women working in SMEs are unaware of the SDGs in the two countries despite the United Nations (UN) supporting gender equality. The research concludes that there is still a considerable difference between men and women in SMEs in Africa and the awareness of SDG goals is limited. It is recommended that the management of small businesses, regulators, and policymakers should increase the knowledge of the global goals for more awareness and sustainability adoption in African countries. This can also support sustainable business growth and close the inequality gap in small African businesses
Objectives To examine how drug shop clients’ expenditures are affected by subsidies for malaria diagnostic testing and for malaria treatment, and also to examine how expenditures vary by clients’ malaria test result and by the number of medications they purchased. Design Secondary cross-sectional analysis of survey responses from a randomised controlled trial. Setting The study was conducted in twelve private drug shops in Western Kenya. Participants We surveyed 836 clients who visited the drug shops between March 2018 and October 2019 for a malaria-like illness. This included children >1 year of age if they were physically present and accompanied by a parent or legal guardian. Interventions Subsidies for malaria diagnostic testing and for malaria treatment (conditional on a positive malaria test result). Primary and secondary outcome measures Expenditures at the drug shop in Kenya shillings (Ksh). Results Clients who were randomised to a 50% subsidy for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) spent approximately Ksh23 less than those who were randomised to no RDT subsidy (95% CI (−34.6 to −10.7), p=0.002), which corresponds approximately to the value of the subsidy (Ksh20). However, clients randomised to receive free treatment (artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs)) if they tested positive for malaria had similar spending levels as those randomised to a 67% ACT subsidy conditional on a positive test. Expenditures were also similar by test result, however, those who tested positive for malaria bought more medications than those who tested negative for malaria while spending approximately Ksh15 less per medication (95% CI (−34.7 to 3.6), p=0.102). Conclusions Our results suggest that subsidies for diagnostic health products may result in larger household savings than subsidies on curative health products. A better understanding of how people adjust their behaviours and expenditures in response to subsidies could improve the design and implementation of subsidies for health products. Trial registration number NCT03810014 .
Groundwater is a major source of water supply in Kericho County, Kenya. However, this water source is threatened by the rise in the human population and climate change. Under these conditions, it is crucial to assess the sustainability of the groundwater resource in Kericho County. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential of groundwater in Kericho County, Kenya. Groundwater Modelling System (GMS) software was used to develop a conceptual model to aid in the assessment of groundwater. Results from calibration showed hydraulic conductivity values varying from 0.279 to 1.12 m/d, while the recharge rates ranged from 0.5 to 0.00022 m/d. Also, a predictive run was conducted in the calibrated model to examine the aquifer's response to abstractions under three different scenarios. Scenario 1 assessed the impacts of population growth on groundwater resources; scenario 2 evaluated the effects of climate change on groundwater; scenario 3 assessed the effect of population growth and climate change on groundwater in the study area. The results showed that excessive pumping rates interfere with the surface water and groundwater interactions. There was slight decline in constant head for location near the river. However, the recharge rate was higher than the abstraction, indicating that groundwater will remain sustainable as the primary source of water supply for the residents. In conclusion, the volumetric budget for the three scenarios shows that the aquifer has sufficient water supply to be used by the population despite the effects of climate change and population growth. Despite the availability of adequate water supply from the aquifer, there is a need for an effective and sustainable use of water from the aquifer, especially in the face of climate change and population increase.
Indigenous peoples are the custodians of some of the world's most biologically diverse territories. Aside from being responsible for much of the world's linguistic and cultural diversity, their traditional knowledge has been, and continues to be, an invaluable resource for all of humanity. Nonetheless, their norms, belief systems, languages, and ways of life are under threat, sometimes even extinction. For example, colonization and the introduction of non-Indigenous practices suppressed traditional knowledge and cultural heritage, which was a long-term and cumulative understanding of their ecosystems' dynamics. In this study, we review the cultural and spiritual practices that have shaped Indigenous resource use and techniques in the conservation and management of aquatic ecosystems in East and West Africa, identify challenges to Indigenous knowledge systems within the current Western scientific framework, and suggest best practices in research and management that combine Indigenous and non-Indigenous approaches. We recognize that, while mainstream approaches to ecosystem management have scientific backing, with assumptions that frequently exclude Indigenous perspectives, ethics, and values from traditional natural resource governance, community understanding and perspectives in catchment resource management are critical considerations that must be incorporated into mainstream approaches to ecosystem management. Our study concludes by emphasizing the critical need to pair traditional knowledge with scientific approaches for improved aquatic resource management and by providing recommendations to bridge Indigenous and non-Indigenous knowledge systems.
Studies on parasite biogeography and host spectrum provide insights into the processes driving parasite diversification. Global geographical distribution and a multi-host spectrum make the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis a promising model for studying both the vicariant and ecological modes of speciation in parasites. To understand the relative importance of host association and biogeography in the evolutionary history of this tapeworm, we analysed mtDNA and reduced-represented genomic SNP data for a total of 139 specimens collected from 18 fish-host genera across a distribution range representing 21 countries. Our results strongly supported the existence of at least 10 evolutionary lineages and estimated the deepest divergence at approximately 4.99-5.05 Mya, which is much younger than the diversification of the fish host genera and orders. Historical biogeography analyses revealed that the ancestor of the parasite diversified following multiple vicariance events and was widespread throughout the Palearctic, Afrotropical, and Nearctic between the late Miocene and early Pliocene. Cyprinoids were inferred as the ancestral hosts for the parasite. Later, from the late Pliocene to Pleistocene, new lineages emerged following a series of biogeographic dispersal and host-switching events. Although only a few of the current Ligula lineages show narrow host-specificity (to a single host genus), almost no host genera, even those that live in sympatry, overlapped between different Ligula lineages. Our analyses uncovered the impact of historical distribution shifts on host switching and the evolution of host specificity without parallel host-parasite co-speciation. Historical biogeography reconstructions also found that the parasite colonized several areas (Afrotropical and Australasian) much earlier than was suggested by only recent faunistic data.
Small streams constitute the majority of the water courses in a catchment and have specific characteristics that distinguish them from larger streams and rivers. Despite their small size and frequently remote locations, small streams contribute to ecosystem services that are important for humans. Here, we have identified 27 ecosystem services that small streams provide: seven supporting services, eight regulating services, five provisioning services and seven cultural services. Small streams are especially important for the maintenance of biodiversity, which is the basis of many ecosystem services. Small streams also support ecosystem services provided by larger streams and rivers due to longitudinal connectivity resulting in the downstream transference of energy, water, sediments, nutrients, organic matter and organisms. Small streams are, however, highly vulnerable to disturbances, which can compromise the ecosystem services they supply. We see a global need to effectively protect small streams to safeguard biodiversity and human wellbeing.
Construction of low-volume flexible pavements on low-strength subgrade poses design, construction, and maintenance challenges. While researchers have generally acknowledged the potential for geosynthetics as reinforcement material, they mainly focused on permanent deformation. Therefore, this paper presents a numerical study of low-volume flexible pavement reinforced with geotextile material under static loading to determine the improvement due to reinforcement based on three criteria: rutting performance, geosynthetic placement location, and base course thickness reduction. Based on the Finite Element Method (FEM), three-dimensional modeling using Abaqus/CAE software was performed. From the study, a significant decrease in rutting of up to 25.2% for the unreinforced pavement system was attained with geotextile reinforcement at base–subgrade and AC–base interfaces. The deflection response behavior of the pavement system is affected by the elastic modulus of the geosynthetic material, placement location, and the number of reinforcement layers. As a result of reinforcement, a base course thickness reduction of up to 30% was achieved without sacrificing the pavement’s structural integrity.
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608 members
Frank Onderi Masese
  • Department of Fisheries & Aquatic Science
Violet Mugalavai
  • Family and Consumer Sciences
Kisilu Kitainge
  • Department of Technlogy Education
Odipo Osano
  • School of Environmental Studies
Becky Aloo
  • Department of Biological Sciences
Eldoret-Ziwa road, 30100, Eldoret, Kenya, Kenya
Head of institution
Prof. Teresa A. O. Akenga, Vice-Chancellor