University of Education, Lahore
  • Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Recent publications
Social and organizational innovations are one of the most effective ways to gain social collaboration for effective, rapid, and coordinated interventions. An analysis of the relationship among organizational performance (OP), social innovations (SI) and organizational innovation (OI) in social organizations (SOs) is little discussed in the literature and much less with main component analysis. This paper is an effort to provide some empirical evidences about social and organizational innovations that social organizations in China have implemented to address the social issues of the society. A survey of Chinese SO's is conducted during beginning two months of 2022 in provinces of Jiangsu, Guangdong and Zhejiang to attain the statistics and assessing the insights of the executives of the SOs participating in this study with respect to organizational performance, social and organizational innovations. The technique used to select the sample is a non-probabilistic sampling and multiple linear regression model is applied to determine the partial impact of organizational innovations and social innovations on the organizational performance. The grouping of the variables is carried out through main components analysis. The empirical findings of the study highlight that Chinese SOs are innovative because they adopt management strategies to address the social issues associated with their institutional mission. There are four groups of derived components from organizational and social innovations based on the empirical evidence: SO's innovative activities to modify the environment; inside innovative measures to enhance SO's performance; innovative activities of SO's to enhance their relationships with outside actors; innovative measures to improve the management of SOs related to their mission and institutional projects. The findings of this study offer an efficient solution to government and policy makers for involving SOs in terms of planning of social development in China. The social and organizational innovations are very necessary to overcome the social issues so government should encourage the establishment and sustainability of social organizations.
The current study highlights the occurrence, spatial distribution, and risk assessment of 16 endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) including their transformation products (TPs) in the wastewater and surface water of Lahore, Pakistan, using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The parent EDCs include bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), 4-n-octylphenol (4n-OP), and 4-n-nonylphenol (4n-NP). The TPs include two TPs each of BPA, TCC, and estrogens along with a TP of TCS. Most EDCs showed 100% detection frequency in the wastewater with highest median concentration of 1310 ng/L for E3. In the surface water, the highest median concentration was, however, observed for BPA (54.6 ng/L). Spatial variations in terms of sum of concentration due to all EDCs and their TPs were observed at different sampling points which suggest contamination due to industrial waste from nearby industrial estate. Risk evaluation in terms of risk quotient (RQ) and estradiol equivalent factor (EEQ) showed that most of EDCs and their TPs could pose high risk and estrogenicity to the surrounding environment. From the results of the current study, it is observed that the environment of Pakistan is deteriorating and is potential risk for endocrine disruption. It is, therefore, recommended to take stringent measures to make it sustainable for current as well as for future generations.
Many real-world decision-making issues frequently involve competing sets of criteria, uncertainty, and inaccurate information. Some of these require the involvement of a group of decision-makers, where it is necessary to reduce the various available individual preferences to a single collective preference. To enhance the effectiveness of multi-criteria decisions, multi-criteria decision-making is a popular decision-making technique that makes the procedure more precise, reasonable, and efficient. The "Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)" and "Elimination and Choice Transforming Reality (ELECTRE)" are prominent ranking methods and widely used in the multi-criteria decision-making to solve complicated decision-making problems. In this study, two m-polar fuzzy set-based ranking methods are proposed by extending the ELECTRE-I and TOPSIS approaches equipped with cubic m-polar fuzzy (CmPF) sets, where the experts provide assessment results on feasible alternatives through a CmPF decision matrix. The first proposed method, CmPF-TOPSIS, focuses on the alternative that is closest to a CmPF positive ideal solution and farthest away from the CmPF negative ideal solution. The Euclidean and normalized Euclidean distances are used to determine the proximity of an alternative to ideal solutions. In contrast, the second developed method is CmPF-ELECTRE-I which uses an outranking directed decision graph to determine the optimal alternative, which entirely depends on the CmPF concordance and discordance sets. Furthermore, a practical case study is carried out in the diagnosis of impulse 11876 control disorders to illustrate the feasibility and applicability of the proposed methods. Finally, a comparative analysis is performed to demonstrate the veracity, superiority, and effectiveness of the proposed methods.
The component of human life that has been most significantly altered by the COVID-19 epidemic is travel. Due to the upheaval produced by the pandemic breakout, countries are becoming increasingly avaricious and are scrambling to stockpile vaccines. The world has been locked down to reduce/control the pandemic outbreak, driving countries to shut their doors to other people from countries. The recent pandemic has had a short-term, positive effect on the environment, but travel restrictions have caused problems for the common person and are expected to deteriorate more soon, necessitating longer quarantines, vaccination requirements, vaccine passports, and immunization certificates required by countries for safe travel. Thus, this study has three objectives. First, we investigate the impact of COVID-19 on travel and the environment, as well as the role that tourists play in the transmission of the virus. Second, we examine how countries are handling COVID-19 vaccines. Finally, we pinpoint differences in vaccination coverage.
Globally, industrial farming endangers crucial ecological mechanisms upon which food production relies, while 815 million people are undernourished and a significant number are malnourished. Zero Hunger aims to concurrently solve global ecological sustainability and food security concerns. Recent breakthroughs in molecular tools and approaches have allowed scientists to detect and comprehend the nature and structure of agro-biodiversity at the molecular and genetic levels, providing us an advantage over traditional methods of crop breeding. These bioinformatics techniques let us optimize our target plants for our soil-less medium and vice versa. Most of the soil-borne and seed-borne diseases are the outcomes of non-treated seed and growth media, which are important factors in low productivity. The farmers do not consider these issues, thereby facing problems growing healthy crops and suffering economic losses. This study is going to help the farmers increase their eco-friendly, chemical residue-free, quality yield of crops and their economic returns. The present invention discloses a synergistic soil-less medium that consists of only four ingredients mixed in optimal ratios by weight: vermicompost (70–80%), vermiculite (10–15%), coco peat (10–15%), and Rhizobium (0–1%). The medium exhibits better physical and chemical characteristics than existing conventional media. The vermiculite to coco peat ratio is reduced, while the vermicompost ratio is increased, with the goals of lowering toxicity, increasing plant and water holding capacity, avoiding drying of the media, and conserving water. The medium provides balanced nutrition and proper ventilation for seed germination and the growth of seedlings. Rhizobium is also used to treat the plastic bags and seeds. The results clearly show that the current synergistic soil-less environment is best for complete plant growth. Securing genetic advantages via sexual recombination, induced random mutations, and transgenic techniques have been essential for the development of improved agricultural varieties. The recent availability of targeted genome-editing technology provides a new path for integrating beneficial genetic modifications into the most significant agricultural species on the planet. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has evolved into a potent genome-editing tool for imparting genetic modifications to crop species. In addition, the integration of analytical methods like population genomics, phylogenomics, and metagenomics addresses conservation problems, while whole genome sequencing has opened up a new dimension for explaining the genome architecture and its interactions with other species. The in silico genomic and proteomic investigation was also conducted to forecast future investigations for the growth of French beans on a synergistic soil-less medium with the purpose of studying how a blend of vermicompost, vermiculite, cocopeat, and Rhizobium secrete metal ions, and other chemical compounds into the soil-less medium and affect the development of our target plant as well as several other plants. This interaction was studied using functional and conserved region analysis, phylogenetic analysis, and docking tools.
Methylene blue (MB) is a most commonly used synthetic dye in the textile industry. It is an extremely carcinogenic phenothiazine derivative and therefore needs to be removed from the water bodies. In the present study, a single-step hydrothermal novel synthesis of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) extracted from biomass of chicken feathers has been performed, and the synthesized CQDs were applied to remove MB present in the aqueous samples. A number of techniques such as ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples for the conformity purposes. SEM and XRD analysis showed that CQDs are highly crystalline and have spherical structures with an average particle diameter of 35 nm. In the presence of 0.2 g of synthesized CQDs, MB dye degraded drastically under the sunlight. The rate of degradation was studied by determining the absorbance of the degraded sample with time relevant to untreated sample. The % degradation achieved during first 60 min of time was approximately 92% which increased minimally to a value of only 95% after 100 min of time. The ease of synthesis of carbon dots at low cost contributes hugely to their utilizations as an efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of aqueous pollutants. The opted approach to synthesize CQDs is cost-effective and eco-friendly and demonstrates excellent potential to remove MB from the aqueous samples.
Modern block ciphers deal with the development of security mechanisms to meet the security needs in several fields of application. The substitution box, which is an important constituent in block ciphers, necessarily has sufficient cryptographic robustness to counter different attacks. The basic problem with S-box design is that there is no evident pattern in its cryptographic properties. This study introduces a new mathematical algorithm for developing S-box based on the modular group coset graphs and a newly invented mathematical notion "matrix transformer". The proficiency of the proposed S-box is assessed through modern performance evaluation tools, and it has been observed that the constructed S-box has almost optimal features, indicating the effectiveness of the invented technique.
Low temperature storage of citrus generally extends the storage potential but leads to chilling injury appearance on the rind of fruits. The said physiological disorder has been found associated with changes in the metabolism of cell walls and other attributes. In this work, the influence of Arabic gum [AG (10 %)] and γ-amminobutyric acid [GABA (10 mmol L-1)] either alone or in combined form was studied on fruits of 'Kinnow' mandarin during storage at 5 ± 1 °C for 60 days. The results exhibited that the combined AG + GABA treatment significantly suppressed weight loss (5.13 %), chilling injury (CI) symptoms (2.41 score), incidence of disease (13.33 %), respiration rate [(4.81 μmol kg-1 h-1) RPR] and ethylene production [(0.86 nmol kg-1 h-1) EPR]. In addition, AG + GABA application reduced relative electrolyte (37.89 %) leakage (REL), malondialdehyde [(25.99 nmol kg-1) MDA], superoxide anion [(15.23 nmol min-1 kg-1) O2•-] and hydrogen peroxide [(27.08 nmol kg-1) H2O2] along with lower lipoxygenase [(23.81 U mg-1 protein) LOX] and phospholipase D [(14.07 U mg-1 protein) PLD] enzyme activities compared with control. The AG + GABA treated 'Kinnow' group showed higher glutamate decarboxylase [(43.18 U mg-1 protein) GAD] and lower GABA transaminase [(15.93 U mg-1 protein) GABA-T] having higher endogenous GABA (42.02 mg kg-1) content. The fruits treated with AG + GABA exhibited higher cell walls (CW) components such as Na2CO3-soluble pectin [(6.55 g kg-1) NCSP], chelate-soluble pectin [(7.13 g kg-1) CSP] and protopectin [(11.03 g kg-1) PRP] concentrations along with lower water-soluble pectin [(10.64 g kg-1) WSP] compared to control. In addition, 'Kinnow' fruits treated with AG + GABA showed higher firmness (8.63 N) and lower activities of CW degrading such as cellulase [(11.23 U mg-1 protein) CX], polygalacturonase [(22.59 U mg-1 protein) PG], pectin methylesterase [(15.61 U mg-1 protein) PME] and β-galactosidase [(20.64 U mg-1 protein) β-Gal] enzymes. The activity of catalase [(41.56 U mg-1 protein) CAT], ascorbate peroxidase [(55.57 U mg-1 protein) APX], superoxide dismutase [(52.93 U mg-1 protein) SOD] and peroxidase [(31.02 U mg-1 protein) POD] was also higher in combined treatment. In addition, AG + GABA treated fruits showed better biochemical and sensory attributes than the control. So, combined AG + GABA could be used for CI mitigation and storage life prolongation of 'Kinnow' fruits.
Non-fused ring-based OSCs are an excellent choice, which is attributed to their low cost and flexibility in applications. However, developing efficient and stable non-fused ring-based OSCs is still a big challenge. In this work, with the intent to increase V oc for enhanced performance, seven new molecules derived from a pre-existing A-D-A type A3T-5 molecule are proposed. Different important optical, electronic and efficiency-related attributes of molecules are studied using the DFT approach. It is discovered that newly devised molecules possess the optimum features required to construct proficient OSCs. They possess a small band gap ranging from 2.22-2.29 eV and planar geometries. Six of seven newly proposed molecules have less excitation energy, a higher absorption coefficient and higher dipole moment than A3T-5 in both gaseous and solvent phases. The A3T-7 molecule exhibited the maximum improvement in optoelectronic properties showing the highest λ max at 697 nm and the lowest E x of 1.77 eV. The proposed molecules have lower ionization potential values, reorganization energies of electrons and interaction coefficients than the A3T-5 molecule. The V oc of six newly developed molecules is higher (V oc ranging from 1.46-1.72 eV) than that of A3T-5 (V oc = 1.55 eV). Similarly, almost all the proposed molecules except W6 exhibited improvement in fill factor compared to the A3T-5 reference. This remarkable improvement in efficiency-associated parameters (V oc and FF) proves that these molecules can be successfully used as an advanced version of terthiophene-based OSCs in the future.
Defect fluorite structure with A 2 B 2O7 composition exhibits an intense potential for utilization in modern smart electrical devices. Efficient energy storage with low loss factors like leakage current makes them a prominent candidate for energy storage applications. Here we report a series of the form Nd2-2x La2x Ce2O7 with x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, synthesized via a sol-gel auto-combustion route. The fluorite structure of Nd2Ce2O7 is slightly expanded with the incorporation of La without any phase transformation. A gradual replacement of Nd with La causes a decrease in grain size, which increases the surface energy and thus leads to grain agglomeration. The formation of exact composition without any impurity element is confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectra. The polarization versus electric field loops, energy storage efficiency, leakage current, switching charge density, and normalized capacitance, which are considered key features of any ferroelectric material, are comprehensively examined. The highest energy storage efficiency, low leakage current, small switching charge density, and large value of normalized capacitance are observed for pure Nd2Ce2O7. This reveals the enormous potential of the fluorite family for efficient energy storage devices. The temperature-dependent magnetic analysis exhibited very low transition temperatures throughout the series.
Solar energy being a non-depleting energy resource, has attracted scientists' attention to develop efficient solar cells to meet energy demands. Herein, a series of hydrazinylthiazole-4-carbohydrazide organic photovoltaic compounds (BDTC1-BDTC7) with an A1-D1-A2-D2 framework was synthesized with 48-62% yields, and their spectroscopic characterization was accomplished using FT-IR, HRMS, 1 H and 13 C-NMR techniques. Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT analyses were performed utilizing the M06/6-31G(d,p) functional to calculate the photovoltaic and optoelectronic properties of BDTC1-BDTC7 via numerous simulations of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), transition density matrix (TDM), open circuit voltage (V oc) and density of states (DOS). Moreover, the conducted analysis on the FMOs revealed efficient transference of charge from the highest occupied to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO / LUMO), further supported by TDM and DOS analyses. Furthermore, the values of binding energy (E b = 0.295 to 1.150 eV), as well as reorganization energy of the holes (−0.038-0.025 eV) and electrons (−0.023-0.00 eV), were found to be smaller for all the studied compounds, which suggests a higher exciton dissociation rate with greater hole mobility in BDTC1-BDTC7. V oc analysis was accomplished with respect to HOMO PBDB-T-LUMO ACCEPTOR. Among all the synthesized molecules, BDTC7 was found to have a reduced band gap (3.583 eV), with a bathochromic shift and absorption maximum at 448.990 nm, and a promising V oc (1.97 V), thus it is regarded as a potential candidate for high performance photovoltaic applications.
This study investigates the impact of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on foreign remittances and whether it affects them symmetrically or asymmetrically. The ARDL model is employed to examine the short-run and long-run symmetric impact of EPU on foreign remittances, while the NARDL model is utilized to examine the short-run and long-run asymmetric impact of EPU on foreign remittances, using monthly data for the BRIC economies (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). The results indicate that in the short-run, EPU has a positive and significant impact only on the inflows of foreign remittances received in Russia. Additionally, the short-run asymmetric impact of EPU on foreign remittances is found in Russia and India. Meanwhile, the long-run asymmetric impact of EPU on foreign remittances is observed in the BRIC economies. In particular, the results show that the non-linear response of EPU varies among the sampled countries. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of the role of policy uncertainty in overseas remittances. This information would be beneficial for policymakers, migrants, and recipients, as they are directly involved in making decisions about policies and the transfer of remittances, respectively.
Rice is a staple food for more than half of the world's population, and rice fragrance is a key quality attribute which is 6 highly desired by consumers and attracts premium prices in the international market. There are around 200 volatile compounds 7 involved in rice fragrance, but 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) has been considered a master regulator of aroma in fragrant rice. 8 Consequently, efforts were made to increase the 2-AP contents in the grain by managing agronomical practices or by using modern 9 functional genomic tools, which successfully converted nonfragrant cultivars to fragrant rice. Furthermore, environmental factors 10 were also reported to influence the 2-AP contents. However, a comprehensive analysis of 2-AP biosynthesis in response to agro-11 management practices, environmental factors, and the application of functional genomic tools for fragrant rice production was 12 missing. In this Review, we summarize how micro/macronutrients, cultivation practices, amino acid precursors, growth regulators, 13 and environmental factors, such as drought, salinity, light, and temperature, influence the 2-AP biosynthesis to modulate the aroma 14 of fragrant rice. Furthermore, we also summarized the successful conversion of nonfragrant rice cultivars to fragrant rice using 15 modern gene editing tools, such as CRISPR-Cas9, TALENS, and RNAi. Finally, we discussed and highlighted the future perspective 16 and challenges related to the aroma of fragrant rice. 17
The study focused on the fabrication of nickel, cobalt, and their bimetallic oxide via a facile electrodeposition approach over the surface of conducting glass has been reported here. Fabricated electrodes have been employed as binder-free and effective anode materials toward oxygen evolution reactions (OER) in electrochemical water splitting at high pH. Nickel and cobalt oxides showed overpotential values of 520 mV and 536 mV at the current density of 10 mAcm-2 with charge transfer resistances of 170 and 195 Ω. For bimetallic oxides (NiCoO@FTO), the overpotential depressed up to 460 mV and lower charge transfer value of 80 Ω. Additionally, double-layer capacitance also boosted for the bimetallic oxide with a value of 199 μF as compared to monometallic nickel oxide (106 μF) and cobalt oxide (120 μF). Multimetal oxides of Ni-Co showed the best performance, which was further supported with larger electrochemical surface area. This facile approach toward the electrode fabrication could be a charming alternate to replace the Ru- and Ir-based expensive materials for OER in electrochemical water splitting.
In recent years, fossil fuel resources have become increasingly rare and caused a variety of problems, with a global impact on economy, society and environment. To tackle this challenge, we must promote the development and diffusion of alternative fuel technologies. The use of cleaner fuels can reduce not only economic cost but also the emission of gaseous pollutants that deplete the ozone layer and accelerate global warming. To select an optimal alternative fuel, different fuzzy decision analysis methodologies can be utilized. In comparison to other extensions of fuzzy sets, the T-spherical fuzzy set is an emerging tool to cope with uncertainty by quantifying acceptance, abstention and rejection jointly. It provides a general framework to unify various fuzzy models including fuzzy sets, picture fuzzy sets, spherical fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, Pythagorean fuzzy sets and generalized orthopair fuzzy sets. Meanwhile, decision makers prefer to employ linguistic terms when expressing qualitative evaluation in real-life applications. In view of these facts, we develop an extended multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC) method for solving multiple attribute group decision-making problems in this study. Firstly, the combination of T-spherical fuzzy sets with 2-tuple linguistic representation is presented, which provides a general framework for expressing and computing qualitative evaluation. Secondly, we put forward four kinds of 2-tuple linguistic T-spherical fuzzy aggregation operators by considering the Heronian mean operator. We investigate some fundamental properties of the proposed 2-tuple linguistic T-spherical fuzzy aggregation operators. Lastly, an extended MABAC method based on the 2-tuple linguistic T-spherical fuzzy generalized weighted Heronian mean and the 2-tuple linguistic T-spherical fuzzy weighted geometric Heronian mean operators is developed. For illustration, a case study on fuel technology selection with 2-tuple linguistic T-spherical fuzzy information is also conducted. Moreover, we show the validity and feasibility of our approach by comparing it with several existing approaches.
Hexavalent chromium induces oxidative stress in the liver and kidney. Therefore an in vivo study was designed to investigate the modulatory effect of biosynthesized AgNP against Cr (VI) induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The organs index, serum level of ALT, AST, ALP, MDA, total protein and creatinine were measured. The histopathology and micrometry of the liver and kidney were examined. The liver index was significantly increased (0.098 ± 0.13 g) with slight increase in kidney index in Cr exposed group. The serum level of ALT (163.0 ± 5.5 U/L), AST (484.0 ± 10.7 U/L), ALP (337.6 ± 9.6 U/L), MDA (641.2 ± 29.2 U/L), and creatinine (2.9 ± 0.2 mg/dL) were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) with significant decrease in total protein level (2.9 ± 0.2 g/dL) (P ≤ 0.05) in chromium treated group. In histopathology, distorted hepatic cords, necrosis, damaged glomerulus and Bowman's capsule were observed. Micrometric studies of the liver and kidney showed significant increase in size of hepatocytes (1188.2 ± 467.7 µ2) and their nuclei (456.4 ± 206.7 µ2), ACSA of Bowman's capsule (11835.5 ± 336.7 µ2) and glomerulus (9051.8 ± 249.8 µ2) in Cr (VI) treated group. The size of brush border (10.1 ± 3.0 µ) was significantly reduced in Cr (VI) treated group however the ACSA of lumen was not significantly changed. With the administration of NSSE and Nigella sativa AgNPs, decreased the oxidative damage caused by Cr (V).
In this paper, we study quantum gravity effect on the symmergent black hole which is derived from quadratic-curvature gravity. To do so, we use the Klein-Gordon equation which is modified by generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). After solving the field equations, we examine the symmergent black hole's tunneling and Hawking temperature. We explore the graphs of the temperature through the outer horizon to check the GUP influenced conditions of symmergent black hole stability. We also explain how symmergent black holes behave physically when influenced by quantum gravity. The impacts of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a symmergent black holes spacetime are examined. We first evaluate the model under consideration's thermodynamic properties, such as its Hawking temperature, angular velocity, entropy, and electric potential. We evaluate the logarithmic correction terms for entropy around the equilibrium state in order to examine the impacts of thermal fluctuations. In the presence of these correction terms, we also examine the viability of the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we evaluate the system's stability using the Hessian matrix and heat capacity. It is determined that a stable model is generated by logarithmic corrections arising from thermal fluctuations.
The present study aims to perform computational simulations of two-dimensional (2D) hemodynamics of unsteady blood flow via an inclined overlapping stenosed artery employing the Casson fluid model to discuss the hemorheological properties in the arterial region. A uniform magnetic field is applied to the blood flow in the radial direction as the magneto-hemodynamics effect is considered. The entropy generation is discussed using the second law of thermodynamics. The influence of different shape parameters is explored, which are assumed to have varied shapes (spherical, brick, cylindrical, platelet, and blade). The Crank-Nicolson scheme solves the equations and boundary conditions governing the flow. For a given critical height of the stenosis, the key hemodynamic variables such as velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), temperature, flow rate, and heat transfer coefficient are computed.
Casson–Williamson (CW) nanofluid flows and mass transfer characteristics are explored in this study. Furthermore, the velocity slip condition and viscous dissipation affect or are taken to examine the changes in mass and heat transfer caused by a stretching surface integrated into permeable media with heat conversion beneath the effect of a magnetic field and consistent thermal radiation. All the physicochemical characteristics of the non-linear fluids are regarded massive. Whether or not the concentration of nanofluids remains stable is investigated. When particles of a nanofluid are in motion, chemical reactions can occur, and this motion can be used to study the concentration of the nanofluid. One must first examine a set of non-linear partial differential equations with boundary conditions as a base equation to obtain the necessary BVP mathematical model. The approximate solution for differential equations was found using the finite difference method, which also considered the necessary boundary conditions. The numerical analysis results are then represented visually to demonstrate how different governing parameters affect velocity, temperature, and concentration. Although the heat transmission exhibits a reverse manner, the non-Newtonian nanofluid moves more quickly in the non-appearance of a magnetic domain than it does in one. Additionally, as the porosity parameter increased, the heat transmission rate decreased, whereas the skin friction coefficient increased. The novel parts of this study come from the simulation findings of a non-Newtonian CW nanofluid model in porous media subjected to a magnetic field, heat radiation, and slip velocity phenomena.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
1,218 members
Zahid Usman
  • Division of Science and Technology
Muhammad Yaseen
  • Department of Chemistry
Muhammad Azam
  • Department of Mathematics Division of Science and Technology
Faheem K. Butt
  • Division of Science and Technology
Mian HR Mahmood
  • Inorganic Chemistry
College Road, 54770, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Head of institution
Prof Dr Talat Naseer Pasha, SI