University of Diyala
  • Baqubah, Diyala, Iraq
Recent publications
This research study evaluates the use of a supercapacitor module as a fast-response energy storage unit to improve energy self-consumption and self-sufficiency for renewable energy systems applications. The designed system consists of the photovoltaic component with 3.0 kWp capacity combined with (0–5) supercapacitor module with a capacity of 500F-2.7V per module to serve the desired load. The analysis was carried out using experimental data for the electrical load and solar irradiance, as well as ambient temperature at a 1-minute temporal resolution for the year 2020. The measured daily average power of the electrical load was 0.299 kW, with a daily energy consumption of 7.2 kWh/day at a maximum peak of 5.36 kW, while the yearly energy consumption was recorded 2620 kWh/year. The measured daily average solar irradiance was 3.1 kWh/m²/day, and the monthly average ambient temperature was 10.7 °C. The charge of the supercapacitor was only possible from the photovoltaic system and not from grid. The simulation results demonstrated that the use of the supercapacitor module could feed the rapid peaks of electrical load and significantly increase energy self-consumption and self-sufficiency. Using only five supercapacitor modules increases the annual self-consumption from 21.75% to 28.74% and the percentage of self-sufficiency increases from 28.09% to 40.77%. The study concluded that adding small and responsive energy storage is an excellent choice of batteries.
The Internet of medical things (IoMT) is one of the most promising fields that is expected to rapidly expand in the near future. Consequently, vast amounts of data will be generated, necessitating faster and more intensive processing capabilities. Several healthcare architectures based on Edge/Fog technologies have been created to lower healthcare expenses and provide better and more reliable services. Scalability, availability, capacity, latency, and privacy are some of the most pressing issues to consider when designing such architectures due to the critical and sensitive nature of healthcare data. To contribute to the reliability and robustness of electronic health services, this work proposes Healthcare Metropolitan Area Network (HMAN), a cooperative hierarchical Edge/Fog computing‐based architecture for the urban healthcare systems. The presented architecture suggests HMAN offloading scenarios and system response time calculation (HOSSC) algorithm which is specially designed to provide an abundance of offloading and processing scenarios within the network. The architecture also connects patients to the healthcare system by utilising the existing infrastructure in cities (e.g. medical centres and hospitals). Simulation results revealed that the designed architecture produced a ubiquitous and scalable healthcare system with promising and competitive performance, such as the computing capacity and service availability, by adopting multiple cooperative hierarchical offloading scenarios across the framework units. Moreover, the HMAN system was evaluated for latency and found to be very robust, with a short response time ranging between 6.043 and 31.45 ms in responding to 1 to 300 patients simultaneously sending. In addition to these appealing features, the proposed architecture ensures patients' privacy because the data are locally stored and processed in the most anticipated scenarios. The proposed architecture is a viable solution to providing healthcare services to a large number of patients.
The current research investigated the utilization of fuel cells as an energy storage unit in microgrid energy system applications in an effort to enhance self-consumption of renewable energy. The prototype evaluation is constructed of solar photovoltaic and fuel cell energy storage units. The study utilizes experimental weather and electrical load data for household obtained at 1-min temporal resolution. The daily average energy consumption for the evaluated household was 10.3 kWh, with a peak power output of 5.4 kW and an annual energy consumption of 3757 kWh. The Solar System under investigation has a capacity of 3.6 kWp, while the fuel cell system has a capacity of 0–3 kW, allowing for effective integration with the photovoltaic system and a maximum renewable energy fraction. The research indicates that by installing fuel cells powered by hydrogen generated from renewable energy sources, self-consumption and self-sufficiency significantly increase. The annual energy flow demonstrated that the implementation of 2.5 kW fuel cells improved renewable fraction utilization from 0.622 to 0.918, while increasing energy self-consumption by 98.4% to 3338.2 kWh/year and self-sufficiency by 94.41% to 3218.8 kWh/year.
Device-to-device D2D communication is considered one of the most important technologies in 5G networks. Throughput of the network increases when using the D2D communication, and the increase is evident in the local communication, which is done through the resources of reused cellular phone users. The cellular user (CU) resource is reused by the device-to-device pair so that they create interference between them and thus result in a decline in throughput. So, in this paper, we proposed the PSO and GA based on a scheme to allocate resources for device-to-device connections in the fifth generation networks. In this scheme, initially and based on the algorithm PSO—which is based on the RA of the 5G network, we describe the numerical results which can be performed sufficient in the obtain of this system. As for the Genetic algorithm (GA), chromosomes are generated at the beginning, so that each chromosome contains a gene. In addition, for all chromosomes that are generated the function of their fitness is measured, and then the best chromosomes are selected according to their fitness values after that, we can applying crossover and mutation to two points of the crossover chromosomes. The base station, depending on the fitness value, allocates the resource block. We performed a performance analysis through MATLAB, which proved the correctness of our scheme.
In the modern world of urbanization, the needs of any smart city are to manage the various important wheels of the city like water and electricity, urban transportation and traffic system, pragmatic approach to manage the solid waste, centralized management of information, better disaster management for the city, control over crime, an active emergency response system, renovating the heritage monuments and making the city beautiful, etc., for the people living in the city. The city authorities are engaged to make their city smart by means of implementing different solutions vide different schemes of the Central or State Government or of combined effort, integrating solutions and generated data which is huge can be utilized to discover the gap, improve operation and services for citizens of the city. This research paper highlights the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and data mining in implementing the sustainable solutions for a smart city.
The present study aimed to describe and compare the histomorphological and histochemical structures to ventriculus in Goose(Anser anser) and Guinea fowls (Numidia meleagris). The work was carried out on twenty apparently clinically healthy birds obtained from a supplier in Baghdad city. They were allocated in two equal groups of each type of bird. The two groups were utilized for histological and histochemical investigations of their ventriculus organ. After anesthesia and killing birds, their abdominal cavity was dissected, their ventriculus was identified and proper specimens from its walls were prepared. The samples designated for histochemical staining were fixed in a solution of bruin's fixative, while the others for general histological examination were fixed in (10%) neutral buffered formalin. After processing, the sections were stained with (2.5 PH) Alcian- PAS combination, periodic acid Schiff, Masson Trichrome, and Hematoxylin and Eosin stains. This study elucidates that the microscopic construct of the ventriculus was similar for the two species. The ventriculus consists of three tunicates (serosa, muscularis, and mucosa), whereas the submucosa is absent. The wall showed some significant differences in morphometric measurements. The mucosa of the ventriculus is coated with a thick layer of cuticles organized as a wavy clear pink line parallel to the mucosal surface and mucosal folds. The simple cuboidal-columnar epithelium covered the mucosa, which showed many folds. The proprial glands (simple tubular type) are lined by simple cuboidal epithelium, which opens into the crypts between the folds. A well-developed muscular comprised of smooth muscle fibers as two layers of inner circular and outer longitudinal. Serosa is composed of loose connective tissue coated by mesothelium. The Mean thickness of Cuticle, length of folds, mucosa and muscular in goose were significantly higher than that in guinea fowl; these differences may be due to variation in their diet. PAS and AB-PAS combined (2.5-PH) stains, cuticle layer, epithelium lining, and gastric glands showed a positive reaction with these stains. This study aimed to Study the normal histomorphological histochemical and structure of Gizzard in two avian species, local male guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris) and male geese (Anser anser). Also aimed to Comparative histomorphological, histomorphometric measurements and histochemical study of the Gizzard of two different local male avian species (Guinea fowl and geese). Keywords: Histomorphological, Histochemical, Ventriculus, Guinea fowls, Geese
The present study aimed to identify the topography, morphology, histochemistry and histology of lung structures, bronchial divisions and trachea in adult local Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus) as a species inhabited in Iraqi environments. This work was conducted on thirty local Squirrel of both sexes (15) males and (15) females were divided into three equal groups, first for http://wsx5customurl.comanatomical perceptions, second to resin cast technique and the third for histological study. Anatomically, in both sexes, the trachea appeared as a cartilaginous structure consisting of flexible cartilaginous rings, C-like, connected by annular ligaments. It begins at the end of the cricoid cartilage from the level of the second cervical vertebra to the fourth thoracic vertebral plane; eventually, it splits into the right and left main bronchi. Count tracheal rings, the entire weight of the lung, full length, the diameter of the trachea and right and left bronchi. The trachea in females was slightly less than in males but not significantly. The bronchial tree was detected in resin cast, which was constructed of the trachea divided into left and right primary bronchi (Main bronchi), the right one was split into four secondary bronchi to enter the right lobes and two secondary bronchi to the left one. The left lung contains one lobe, whereas four lobes were observed in the right. Histologically, the wall of the trachea consists of four layers. Epithelial cells of ciliated pseudostratified columnar and goblet cells that reacted positively with PAS were covered in the mucosa. Submucosa was devoid of the tracheal glands. The Trachealis muscle is connected from the outer aspect of rings. Similarly to the trachea, the primary bronchi are structured but smaller in diameter; they break up within the lung into primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi, then it terminates in respiratory bronchioles that contain Clara cells and open at the end in the sacs of alveoli. Two types of pneumocystis were observed lining the alveoli. The current study concluded anatomically and histologically that there were no significant differences between males and females of local squirrels. The lobulation of the lung in squirrels is different from other animals. The trachea and lung histologically resembled numerous animals, however, the wall had micro morphometric changes. But, the surface lining cells of the tracheal and bronchi mucosa secrete neutral mucin, with no submucosal glands in the tracheal wall. Keywords: Trachea, Local Squirrel, Bronchial Tree, Histochemical, Lung.
Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) seroprevalence is a significant health problem, especially among pregnant women in lower socioeconomic societies. This study aims to explore the prevalence of HCMV infections among women in Iraq. Methods: A systematic review was designed to collect and summarize articles concerning the relationship between HCMV infection and abortion in Iraq. We identified the titles and abstracts of the publications from 2008 to 2022. A pre-defined keyword was recruited to recognize the publications and filter the articles to eliminate duplication and remove irrelevant articles. In the reviewed studies, the HCMV was detected using diagnostic methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatography (rapid test) or molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction. Results: Twenty-four eligible articles have been included in this review sourced data from about 5442 patients covering 15 of 18 provinces in Iraq. The prevalence of HCMV IgG and IgM was (0%-100%) and (0%-93%), respectively. Many factors influenced the varied results, including the design of the study and sociodemographic and clinical aspects. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HCMV infection indicates a causative relationship with repeated abortion among Iraqi females.
The safe disposal of an enormous amount of waste glass (WG) in several countries has become a severe environmental issue. In contrast, concrete production consumes a large amount of natural resources and contributes to environmental greenhouse gas emissions. It is widely known that many kinds of waste may be utilized rather than raw materials in the field of construction materials. However, for the wide use of waste in building construction, it is necessary to ensure that the characteristics of the resulting building materials are appropriate. Recycled glass waste is one of the most attractive waste materials that can be used to create sustainable concrete compounds. Therefore, researchers focus on the production of concrete and cement mortar by utilizing waste glass as an aggregate or as a pozzolanic material. In this article, the literature discussing the use of recycled glass waste in concrete as a partial or complete replacement for aggregates has been reviewed by focusing on the effect of recycled glass waste on the fresh and mechanical properties of concrete.
Biochar is a carbon-based substance made by the pyrolysis of organic waste. The amount of biochar produced is determined by the type of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Biochar is frequently added to the soil for various reasons, including carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, improved crop production by boosting soil fertility, removing harmful contaminants, and drought mitigation. Biochar may also be used for waste management and wastewater treatment. Biochar’s various advantages make it a potentially appealing instrument material for current science and technology. Although biochar’s impacts on soil chemical qualities and fertility have been extensively researched, little is known about its impact on enhancing soil physical qualities. This review is intended to describe biochar’s influence on some crucial soil physical and hydrological properties, including bulk density of soil, water holding capacity, soil porosity, soil hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water repellence–available plant water, water infiltration, soil temperature, soil color, and surface albedo. Therefore, we propose that the application of biochar in soils has considerable advantages, and this is especially true for arable soils with low fertility.
The earth-air heat exchanger (EHX) has a promising potential to passively save the energy consumption of traditional air conditioning systems while maintaining a high degree of indoor comfort. The use of EHX systems for air conditioning in commercial and industrial settings offers several environmental benefits and is capable of operating in both standalone and hybrid modes. This study tests the performance and effectiveness of an EHX design in a sandy soil area in Baghdad, Iraq. The area has a climate of the subtropical semi-humid type. Ambient air temperatures and soil temperatures were recorded throughout the months of 2021. During the months of January and June, the temperatures of the inlet and outflow air at varying air velocities were monitored concurrently in 10-min increments at each location. Further numerical and thermodynamical analyses of the measurements were conducted to reveal the influencing performance parameters. The highest temperature rises of air between the input and exit sections were determined as 12.3°C (January) and 17.2°C (June). It is found that the maximum values of effectiveness are 0.80 and 0.81, while coefficients of performance are 1.6 and 1.8 for January and June, respectively. It is also found that the EHX shows good functionality and effectiveness, with potential energy savings for equipment for cooling and heating under different weather conditions.
In this work, sodium-doped copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) thin films are prepared by depositing them on glass substrates at temperature of (400±10) °C and thickness of (350±10) nm using Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) technique. 0.02 M of copper chloride dihydrate (CuCl2.2H2O), 0.01 M of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), 0.01 M of tin chloride dihydrate (SnCl2.2H2O), and 0.16 M of thiourea (SC(NH2)2) were used as sources of copper, zinc, tin, and sulphur ions respectively. Sodium chloride (NaCl) at different volumetric ratios of (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9) % was used as a dopant source. The solution is sprayed on glass substrates. XRD diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM, UV-Vis-NIR, and Hall effect techniques were used to investigate the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the produced films. The XRD diffraction results revealed that all films are polycrystalline, with a tetragonal structure and a preferential orientation along the (112) plane. The crystallite size of all films was estimated using Scherrer's method, and it was found that the crystallite size decreases as the doping ratio increases. The FESEM results revealed the existence of cauliflower-shaped nanoparticles. The optical energy band gap was demonstrated to have a value ranging from 1.6 to 1.51 eV with a high absorption coefficient (α ≥10^4 cm^-1) in the visible region of the spectrum. Hall measurements showed that the conductivity of CZTS thin films with various Na doping ratios have p-type electrical conductivity, and it increases as the Na doping ratio increases.
The low water storage capacity caused water crisis in Pakistan; therefore, the country needs both small- and large-scale reservoirs to store surplus water resources. The construction of large dams in Pakistan could not be materialized due to financial and political constraints. However, the construction of multi-purpose small dams is the next best option to store water. To this end, there is a need to identify the best feasible sites in the country. The selection of feasible sites for multi-purpose dams must take into account multiple criteria, including engineering, socioeconomic and environmental. The current study utilizes the coupled Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System techniques to identify the feasible sites for multi-purpose small dams, considering the socioeconomic and environmental criteria in addition to the established engineering criteria in district Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The suitability map considered nine engineering criteria, including rainfall distribution, slope, land use, curve number, runoff depth, soil, alluvial depth, closeness to streams, and drainage density, using the weights calculated from priority indices. The suitability map is divided into four classes, i.e., excellent, good, moderate, and unsuitable with the excellent and good classes area of 66.78 km2, and 195.75 km2. Twenty sites (based on accessibility and closeness to Swat River) from each class are selected that are situated in Kalam, Babozai, Bahrain, Madyan, Khwazakhela, Matta, Kabal, and Barikot areas of district Swat and evaluated using socioeconomic and environmental criteria, i.e., community well and no displacement cost, management ownership–private or public, biodiversity protection services, instrumental in groundwater recharge for the community, electricity generation for the local community, low maintenance cost, flood friendly, appropriate distribution of water resources, political well, and irrigation and drinking water potential. The top priority for these areas is electricity generation, flood protection, irrigation and drinking water capability, sustainable operation, low maintenance cost and political well. The current study demonstrated that socioeconomic and environmental criteria augment the engineering approach in identifying the best feasible site for multi-purpose small dams. These sites would not only store the water but would also provide important services (electricity generation, irrigation water, etc.) to the local community and economy.
ECG signals may give misleading medical information unless the accompanying noise established during the acquisition process is removed. In this work, a new algorithm is developed to significantly remove muscle artifact, electrode motion noise and additive white Gaussian noise which usually exist in ECG signals. The singular value decomposition (SVD) has been already exploited to clean the ECG noisy signals, but the denoised signals usually suffer from residual noise due to the dispute in the strategies followed to determine signal and noise eigencomponents. This paper presents a new algorithm which utilizes applying SVD in double stages. The first stage is a regular SVD whose data output is divided into overlapped groups. Each group is then arranged in a Hankel matrix to expand the processing space. Thereafter, SVD is applied again on each Hankel matrix to track the rest of the noise which becomes evident by enlarging the processing space. The efficiency of the proposed system was evaluated by calculating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), mean square error (MSE) and percent root mean square difference (PRD). Promising results were obtained during conducting the simulations with input ECG signals of 5 dB and 10 dB SNRs. Utilizing the proposed algorithm at 5 dB input SNR, the obtained results reached up to 18.31 dB, 0.331e−3 and 12.14% for SNR, MSE and PRD, respectively. Finally, the excellence performance of the proposed system was clearly dominant over other ECG signal denoising techniques.
Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis is considered a parasitic contagion resulting from the flagellated parasite belonging to the genus of Leishmania. Also, cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonotic ailment transmitted through the bloodsucking sand-flies bite (belonging to the Phlebotomus genus). The disease's reservoirs included wild or semi-domesticated animals, in general rodents and dogs. Tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is one of the extracellular matrix proteins that have a role in vessel wall degeneration and aneurysm development. In addition, it belongs to the zinc-dependent endopeptidases family that are involved in the degradation of connective tissues proteins which are included in vascular integrity maintenance. The Genetic deviations in the TIMP-1 genes might impact their expression at the transcription level or the enzyme activity. Therefore, the present study aimed to detect the impact of TIMP-1 serum level and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs41454248 and rs1043428 among the cutaneous leishmaniasis patients’ group compared to the control group. Subjects Seventy-five cutaneous leishmaniasis patients (39 males and 36 females) with the age mean 23.91 ± 13.14 years participated in this study, compared to the matched number, age, and gender of a healthy control group (75: 38 males and 37 females) with the age mean 22.84 ± 4.35 years. In the current study, the serum level of TIM-1 and rs41454248 and rs1043428 SNPs were studied among the cutaneous leishmaniasis patients’ group compared to the control group. Results The findings of the TIMP-1 level referred to a significant decrease among the cutaneous leishmaniasis patients’ group compared to the healthy control group (26339.67 ± 900.79 vs. 33480.25 ± 1098.63). Such, the rs41454248 SNPs findings referred that the GG genotype and G allele were non-significantly increased frequency percentage in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients group compared to the healthy control group (29.33 vs. 18.67%, OR: 1.81, p = 0.180; 55.0 vs. 47.0%, OR: 1.38, p = 0.204 respectively). Also, the high OR value of GG genotype and G allele referred to this genotype and allele might be a risk factor for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Likewise, the findings of rs1043428 SNPs appeared that the CC genotype and C allele were significantly increased frequency percentage in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients' group compared to the control group (37.33 vs. 4.0%, OR: 14.30, p = 3.6 × 10⁻⁷; 57.0 vs. 21.33, OR: 4.82, p = 4.5 × 10⁻¹⁰). Also, the high OR value of CC genotype and C allele referred to this genotype and allele might be risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis. In addition, the CG genotype appeared a non-significant increased frequency percentage in the patients' group compared to the control group and the value of OR referred to might be a risk factor for cutaneous leishmaniasis (33.33 vs. 25.33, OR: 1.47, p = 0.370). In addition, the serum level of TIMP-1 with the rs41454248 was significantly decreased in GA and AA genotypes of the patients’ group compared to the control. While the level was non-significantly decreased in the GG genotype of the patients' group compared to the control group. Likewise, the level of TIMP-1 with the rs1043428 was non-significantly decreased in all genotypes (except TT genotype) of the patients' group compared to the control. Whereas, a significant decrease level was appeared in the TT genotype of the patients' group compared to the healthy control group. Conclusion The current findings demonstrated a significant association between TIMP-1 serum level and genetic polymorphisms (rs1043428 and rs41454248) among cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.
Hybrid polymer compounds have become modern times, as their applications have increased, especially those reinforced with fibers and molecules due to their high performance, which allows them to be used in different applications. In this research, the dependence of the thermal conductivity and density of epoxy compounds on the volume fraction ratio of the reinforcements including carbon fibers, silicon carbide and alumina will be discussed. new hybrid epoxy compounds have been developed. The epoxy compounds reinforced with plain weave carbon fibers with different volume fractions of micro-particles of silicon carbide and alumina were prepared by hand lay-up. The physical properties including thermal conductivity and density of hybrid epoxy compounds were determined experimentally. The results showed an increase in the thermal conductivity by increasing the proportion of silicon carbide and alumina without affecting the density of the epoxy compound. This high improvement in thermal conductivity with low density in these hybrid epoxy composites have been driven them as possible nominations for electronic devices. The optimum content of hybrid epoxy composite for electronic applications is at SiC 10% and Al2O3 5% with 15 carbon fiber and 70 epoxy. Thus, a new polymer-based compound with improved thermal conductivity for electronic applications was produced.
The construction business regards as one of the most important industries in Iraq, contributing significantly to the Iraqi economy. The purpose of this research to assessing the quality of execution in engineering projects (in the public and private sectors) that based on the level of quality of execution control assessment. Construction project management is responsible for quality control in Iraqi construction projects, as well as how far the use of modern Technologies such as building information modeling (BIM) to regulate the quality of implementation. This study was carried out accreditation, and the descriptive-analytical technique was applied by distributing questionnaires via a field survey. In addition, the SPSS program was used in order to process the collected data 60 questionnaires were distributed to contractors and engineering offices. 50 useful questionnaires were received from respondents with an 83% response rate. The study found that the construction projects in Iraq still suffer from weaknesses in the quality control of construction projects as well as poor Construction Project Management Responsibilities of quality control and that BIM is still not utilized to implement quality in Iraqi construction projects.
The loads in the deep beams are transmitted diagonally from the load area to the support area by means of the strut and the tie. It is characterized by having a small span to depth ratio. which causes the distribution of stresses to be non-linear within the beam, which motivates researchers to study the effect of the placing of longitudinal hollows and the extent to which these holes affect the behavior and distribution of stresses for these types of beams. In addition to the advantages added by longitudinal hollow to the beam such as reducing weight and passing various electrical and mechanical services...etc. This study investigated the effect of making longitudinal circular holes (with a diameter of 50mm) with a slope on the structural behavior of three deep beams with a solid sample as a reference where the slope used was 0%, 4.3%, and 7.8%. The results showed that making holes reduces the load capacity of the deep beam, a decrease in the failure load was observed by 7.56%, 8.96%, and 11.2% for hollow beams with a slope of 0%, 4.3%, and 7.8%, respectively. Also, the appearance of flexural cracking increased by 2.66%, 2.66%, and 6.66%.and 2.14%, 3.52%, and 7.14%, respectively, for shear cracks. While the effect was small for the neutral axis location as well as for the vertical deflection.
Nowadays, electrically conductive polymer plays some important roles in the modern electronic devices because the crucial importance in telecommunication and biosensors. This type of materials offers an obvious decrease in the weight of the devices and it also has an environmental compatibility. A conductive polymer composite is promising alternative materials that has several advantages in the electronic applications currently. Polyester was used as a matrix, and copper –Tin /Zink inform of particulates with Copper short wires were considered electrically conductive fillers. The study prepared two groups (A and B) using different filler materials (Cu- Tin /Zink - Polyester and Cu- Tin /Zink –Cu- short wires / Polyester) with a weight fraction percentage of up to 50%. A composite processing method was slip casting to produce rectangular and cylindrical samples; after that samples were cured at room temperature for 48 hrs. Produced samples from both mixed were tested for density, ultimate tensile strength and scan electron microscope. AC conductivity test were performed for all samples using a frequency range from 50 Hz to 50 MHz to measure the dielectrically loss factor and electrical conductivity. From the study, it has been found that filler powder almost proved better ultimate strength behavior, and the peak value was determined at 30% wt., while short wires above 40 % wt. can cause a dramatic reduction in tensile strength. The results revealed that short wires filler van improves the electrical conductivity by approximately 50%; when compared with using particulate filler only. The result from the microstructure showed that short wires with metals powder could provide a connected network for improving the conductivity in the polymer matrix.
Utilizing Bubbles in the slab is a revolutionary way to get rid of the concrete in the middle of a traditional slab; since this concrete serves no structural purpose and adds a lot of dead weight to the structure, using a bubble in the slab will weaken the slab and reduce its efficiency by (10%), this research presents an experimental study of steel fiber effects on bubble slabs and checks if steel fiber covers the messing efficiency and the effect on the type of failure. The program for the experiment is to test five slabs with (1760 mm × 420 mm × 125 mm) dimensions, divided into one solid slab without bubbles and steel fiber, one bubble slab without fiber, and three bubble slabs with three different fiber percentages, the experimental results shows that the three steel fiber bubble slabs (0.5%S.F.B.S, 1%S.F.B.S, 1.5%S.F.B.S) show an increase in yield load and ultimate load by (16%,20%,26.3%) for yield load and (14.5%,20.26%,25.2%) for the ultimate load respectively compared with the solid slab (S.S), and increases yield load and ultimate load by (31.8%,36.36%,40.9%) for yield load and (26.8%,33.2%, 39.8%) for ultimate load compared with bubble slab (B.S), for first crack load in solid slab (S.S) and bubble slab (B.S) first crack appeared at (13kN, 11kN) and for steel fiber bubble slabs (0.5%S.F.B.S, 1%S.F.B.S, 1.5%S.F.B.S) first crack appeared at (18 kN, 22 kN, 24 kN) respectively and change of type of failure from brittle sudden shear failure for the bubble slabs to ductile flexural failure.
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1,792 members
Montadar Abas Taher
  • Communications Engineering
Raad Hammodi Hasson
  • College of Veterinary medicine
Mohammed Mahmood
  • Department of Civil Engineering
Tahseen Mubarak
  • college of science
Hussain Falih Mahdi
  • Computer Engineering Department
Baqubah , 32001, Baqubah, Diyala, Iraq