Currently, sweet corn is considered an important crop due to its high sugar content and low starch content. Important sugars in sweet corn include sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. The purpose of the present study was to use the yield indices of the eight examined sweet corn hybrids and the correlation of the yield indices together. Concentration is important for consumers in terms of yield indices. The research site was located at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen. The small plot experiment had a strip plot design with four replications. The previous crop was sweet corn; the plant density was 64 thousand/ha. The obtained result indicates that Biplot AMMI based on IPCA1 showed that the DB, NO, GS, and GB hybrids had stability and high performance in terms of yield indices. At the same time, fructose and glucose had stable parameters for the hybrids involved in the study. IPCA1 AMMI biplot showed that the ME hybrid had stability and high performance in terms of iron and zinc as well. IPCA2 AMMI biplot showed that DE, GB, and GS hybrids had stability and the highest performance on yield parameters in the scope of the research. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose had stable parameters on hybrids based on IPCA2. The DB and SE hybrids had desirable performance in Lutein and Zeaxanthin based on the biplot. The DE hybrid had a maximum performance on iron and zinc parameters.
This study aimed to identify the best genotypes using the genotype × yield × trait (GYT) method. To investigate the relationships was performed between yield × traits in four regions of Karaj, Birjand, Shiraz and Arak in two cropping years in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The average grain yield in four regions and two years of the experiment was calculated as 5966 kg/ha, and GYT was obtained based on the multiplication of grain yield with different traits. Comparing the average effect of genotype × year in different environments showed that KSC703 and KSC707 hybrids are among the most productive hybrids among the studied genotypes in grain yield. By examining the correlation coefficients between yield × traits in the tested areas, Y × TWG with Y × GW, Y × NRE, Y × NGR and Y × EL, Y × ED with Y × NGR, Y × NRE with Y × GW and the combination of Y × GW with Y × GL had a positive and significant correlation in all regions. The correlation diagrams were drawn on the evaluated areas' data and showed the correlation of most compounds except Y × GT with each other. Based on the analysis of the main components, the first three components explained the greatest diversity in the population. They were named the component ear grain profile, grain thickness component and plant height profile component.
We define decision-making functions which arise from studying the multidimensional generalization of the weighted Bajraktarević means. It allows a nonlinear approach to optimization problems. These functions admit several interesting (from the point of view of decision-making) properties, for example, delegativity (which states that each subgroup of decision-makers can aggregate their decisions and efforts), casuativity (each decision affects the final outcome except two trivial cases) and convexity-type properties. Beyond establishing the most important properties of such means, we solve their equality problem, we introduce a notion of synergy and characterize the null-synergy decision-making functions of this type.
This paper explores (im)politeness conceptualizations and evaluations and the moral foundations of lay notions of (im)politeness in Syrian Arabic. The data were collected using an online questionnaire which was administered to 88 native speaking participants. The results show that participants consider politeness and impoliteness as polar opposites; both are viewed as (in)consideration for others, chiefly conveyed through (dis)respect, and upholding/violating appropriate behaviors, respectively. Moreover, the results show that notions of hierarchical respect, face, equity rights, reciprocity, and attending to others’ needs are central in motivating participants’ views of (im)politeness. These notions are rooted in the moral foundations of authority/respect, fairness/reciprocity, and harm/care. Additionally, interesting findings emerge in that politeness in Syrian Arabic appears to be more of a relational phenomenon, based on morality, which is in line with contemporary views on politeness, than a rational and strategic behavior, as theorized in classical approaches.
Introduction Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy in the form of heat majorly via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The activation of BAT, which is enriched in the neck area and contains brown and beige adipocytes in humans, was considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat obesity. Therefore, finding novel agents that can stimulate the differentiation and recruitment of brown or beige thermogenic adipocytes are important subjects for investigation. The current study investigated how the availability of extracellular thiamine (vitamin B1), an essential cofactor of mitochondrial enzyme complexes that catalyze key steps in the catabolism of nutrients, affects the expression of thermogenic marker genes and proteins and subsequent functional parameters during ex vivo adipocyte differentiation. Methods We differentiated primary human adipogenic progenitors that were cultivated from subcutaneous (SC) or deep neck (DN) adipose tissues in the presence of gradually increasing thiamine concentrations during their 14-day differentiation program. mRNA and protein expression of thermogenic genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. Cellular respiration including stimulated maximal and proton-leak respiration was measured by Seahorse analysis. Results Higher thiamine levels resulted in increased expression of thiamine transporter 1 and 2 both at mRNA and protein levels in human neck area-derived adipocytes. Gradually increasing concentrations of thiamine led to increased basal, cAMP-stimulated, and proton-leak respiration along with elevated mitochondrial biogenesis of the differentiated adipocytes. The extracellular thiamine availability during adipogenesis determined the expression levels of UCP1, PGC1a, CKMT2, and other browning-related genes and proteins in primary SC and DN-derived adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Providing abundant amounts of thiamine further increased the thermogenic competency of the adipocytes. Discussion Case studies in humans reported that thiamine deficiency was found in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Our study raises the possibility of a novel strategy with long-term thiamine supplementation, which can enhance the thermogenic competency of differentiating neck area-derived adipocytes for preventing or combating obesity.
Integrating diverse techniques and datasets, significantly enhances the accurate identification of various mineral deposits. This work aims to determine different types of mineral deposits in the Hamash district (Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt) by combining structural features (derived from ALOS PALSAR DEM), alteration zones (detected using ASTER and Sentinel-2), and ore mineralogy. Multispectral imaging, such as ASTER and Sentinel-2 satellite data, provides a cost-effective and efficient tool for lithological and hydrothermal alteration mapping utilizing selective band ratios (SBR), directed principal component analysis (DPCA), feature-oriented false-color composites (FFCC), and constrained energy minimization (CEM). The deductions drawn from the analysis of ASTER and Sentinel 2 satellite data are solidly corroborated through meticulous investigations of pre-existing lithological maps in the study area, on-site validation via fieldwork, and robust laboratory analysis, attesting to reliable results. Validation of remote sensing results was performed through field observations, petrographic investigations, X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), and SEM–EDX analyses. Based on ore mineralogy derived from XRD and SEM results the quartz-vein-associated ore minerals in the Hamash district include chalcopyrite, pyrite, hematite, goethite, bornite, covellite, and gold. According to the present paragenesis, the mineralization in the study area is classified into three types: sulfide mineralized zone, transitional zone, and supergene zone. Using an ore microscope, our studies identified that the alteration zones include gold-bearing sulfide minerals as well as the minerals goethite and malachite. In gold-bearing quartz samples, the concentrations of Cu, As, Ag, and Sb are positively correlated with Au at the degree of shear deformation. According to data gathered from the fire assay results, Au content varied from 0.027 to 57.20 ppm, along with Cu (10–6484 ppm), Ag (0.5–20.5 ppm), As (5–2046 ppm), Zn (3–1095 ppm), Pb (2–1383 ppm), and Sb (5–23). Our results confirmed that the Hamash region is one of the most important gold-bearing sites, with gold concentrations ranging from 0.027 up to 57.20 ppm. Furthermore, the current contribution highlighted four stages in the paragenetic sequence of the recorded ores, including magmatic, metamorphic, hydrothermal, and supergene by origin, indicating a considered similarity with the known Egyptian gold sites regarding host rocks, mineralization style, alteration assemblage, and several ore mineral conditions.
Abstract Aims Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) was designed to measure mental health stigma-related behaviors in the general public. We aimed to examine its psychometric properties and validate the scale in a Hungarian non-clinical community sample. The secondary aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the current scoring recommendations of ‘Don’t know’ responses being coded as neutral, which had never been investigated before. In addition, we provide an overview of the results of already existing studies on the scale. Methods Hungarian participants completed the RIBS within this cross-sectional online survey study and were considered non-clinical individuals based on a cut-off point of the Global Severity Index T score of 63 on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability measures, and comparative analyses were performed. Results Of the n = 5,701, n = 5,141 participants were included in the analysis. The mean age was 27.8 ± 11.1 years, and 89.2% (n = 4,587) of the sample were female. The unidimensional structure was supported by good model fit indices (RMSEA = 0.031, CFI = 0.999, TLI = 0.996, and WRMR = 0.006). Internal consistency of the RIBS and its test–retest reliability with a 5-month follow-up period were found to be good (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88 and ICC = 0.838). We found statistically significant differences between the total scores when the ‘Don’t know’ responders were excluded from the sample or when they were coded as neutral as recommended by the scale authors (16 (IQR:13–18) vs. 15 (IQR:13–18) p
In phytoplankton ecology the shape of microalgae appears predominantly as a categorical variable. Using shape-realistic 3D models of 220 microalgae we proposed and calculated six shape metrics and tested how these relate to each other and to the size of the microalgae. We found that some of the metrics are more sensitive to elongation, while others are related to multicellularity. We found a linear relationship between shape measures and the greatest axial linear dimensions of the microalgae. Our findings suggest that there is an evolutionary trade-off between the shape and size of the microalgae. It is important to stress that we found that surface area to volume ratio of the microalgae are hyperbolic functions of the length and volume for each shape. In our study, we demonstrated that the proposed shape metrics serve as suitable quantitative traits, and help to understand better how simple shapes evolved to more complex outlines.
Polyomaviruses are widely distributed viruses of birds that may induce developmental deformities and internal organ disorders primarily in nestlings. In this study, polyomavirus sequence was detected in kidney and liver samples of a common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) that succumbed at a rescue station in Hungary. The amplified 5025 nucleotide (nt) long genome contained the early (large and small T antigen, LTA and STA) and late (viral proteins, VP1, VP2, VP3) open reading frames (ORFs) typical for polyomaviruses. One of the additional putative ORFs (named VP4) showed identical localization with the VP4 and ORF-X of gammapolyomaviruses, but putative splicing sites could not be found in its sequence. Interestingly, the predicted 123 amino acid (aa) long protein sequence showed the highest similarity with human papillomavirus E4 early proteins in respect of the aa distribution and motif arrangement implying similar functions. The LTA of the kestrel polyomavirus shared <59.2% nt and aa pairwise identity with the LTA sequence of other polyomaviruses and formed a separated branch in the phylogenetic tree among gammapolyomaviruses. Accordingly, the kestrel polyomavirus may be the first member of a novel species within the Gammapolyomavirus genus, tentatively named Gammapolyomavirus faltin.
Several P 1B -type ATPases are important Cd ²⁺ /Cu ²⁺ pumps in Aspergillus species, and they are tightly associated with the heavy metal stress tolerance of these ascomycetous fungi. To better understand the roles of the two P 1B -type ATPases, Aspergillus nidulans CrpA Cd ²⁺ /Cu ²⁺ pump (orthologue of the Candida albicans Crp1 Cd ²⁺ /Cu ²⁺ pump) and Aspergillus fumigatus PcaA Cd ²⁺ pump (orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pca1 Cd ²⁺ pump), we have generated individual mutants and characterized their heavy metal susceptibilities. The deletion of CrpA in A. nidulans has led to the increased sensitivity of the fungus to stresses induced by Zn ²⁺ , Fe ²⁺ , or the combination of oxidative-stress-inducing menadione sodium bisulfite and Fe ³⁺ . Heterologous expression of A. fumigatus PcaA in the S. cerevisiae pca1 deletion mutant has resulted in enhanced tolerance of the yeast to stresses elicited by Cd ²⁺ or Zn ²⁺ but not by Fe ²⁺ /Fe ³⁺ or Cu ²⁺ . Mammalian host immune defense can attack microbes by secreting Zn ²⁺ or Cu ²⁺ , and the oxidative stress induced by host immune systems can also disturb metal (Cu ²⁺ , Fe ²⁺ , and Zn ²⁺ ) homeostasis in microbes. In summary, PcaA and CrpA can protect fungal cells from these complex stresses that contribute to the virulence of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. Moreover, due to their presence on the fungal cell surface, these P 1B -type ATPases may serve as a novel drug target in the future. IMPORTANCE Mammalian host immune defense disrupts heavy metal homeostasis of fungal pathogens. P1B-type ATPase of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus nidulans may help to cope with this stress and serve as virulence traits. In our experiments, both A. nidulans Cd2+/Cu2+ pump CrpA and A. fumigatus Cd2+ pump PcaA protected fungal cells from toxic Zn2+, and CrpA also decreased Fe2+ susceptibility most likely indirectly. In addition, CrpA protected cells against the combined stress induced by the oxidative stressor menadione and Fe3+. Since P1B-type ATPases are present on the fungal cell surface, these proteins may serve as a novel drug target in the future.
Background Life expectancy (LE) is an indicator of societal progress among rapidly aging populations. In recent decades, the displacement of deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer have been key drivers in further extending LE on the continent, though improvements vary markedly by country, sex, and over time. This study provides a comparative overview of the age-specific contributions of CVD and cancer to increasing LE in the 27 European Union member states, plus the U.K. Methods Cause-by-age decompositions of national changes in LE were conducted for the years 1995–1999 and 2015–2019 based on the standard approach of multiple decrement life tables to quantify the relative impact over time. The contributions of CVD and cancer mortality changes to differences in LE were computed by sex and age for each of the 28 countries. We examine the difference between the member states before 2004 (“founding countries”) and those which accessed the EU after 2004 (“A10 countries”). Results Among men, declines in CVD mortality in the founding countries of the EU were larger contributors to increasing LE over the last decades than malignant neoplasms: 2.26 years were gained by CVD declines versus 1.07 years for cancer, with 2.23 and 0.84 years gained in A10 countries, respectively. Among women in founding countries, 1.81 and 0.54 additional life years were attributable to CVD and cancer mortality declines, respectively, while in A10 countries, the corresponding values were 2.33 and 0.37 years. Lung and stomach cancer in men, and breast cancer in women were key drivers of gains in LE due to cancer overall, though rising mortality rates from lung cancer diminished the potential impact of increasing female LE in both EU founding (e.g., France, Spain, and Sweden) and A10 countries (e.g., Croatia, Hungary, and Slovenia), notably among cohorts aged 55–70 years. Over the 25 years, the LE gap between the two sets of countries narrowed from 6.22 to 5.59 years in men, and from 4.03 to 3.12 years for women, with diminishing female mortality from CVD as a determinative contributor. Conclusion This study underscores the continued existence of an East-West divide in life expectancy across the EU27 + 1, evident on benchmarking the founding vs. A10 countries. In EU founding countries, continuous economic growth alongside improved health care, health promotion and protection policies have contributed to steady declines in mortality from chronic diseases, leading to increases in life expectancy. In contrast, less favourable mortality trends in the EU A10 countries indicate greater economic and health care challenges, and a failure to implement effective health policies.
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a subtype of ovarian carcinoma characterized by unique biological features and highly malignant characteristics including low chemosensitivity. Therefore, new therapeutic targets are needed. These could include the downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases, especially the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Our main objective was to characterize the HER2 status using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH on 118 OCCCs, also considering the novel paradigm of HER2-zero and HER2-low status. Other aims included determination of the association between HER2 status and survival, HER2 gene DNA and RNA NGS analysis, HER2 gene expression analysis, and correlation between IHC and gene expression in HER2-zero and HER2-low cases. Cases with HER2 overexpression/amplification accounted for 5.1% (6/118), with additional 3% harbouring HER2 gene mutation. The remaining 112 (94.9%) cases were HER2-negative. Of these, 75% were classified as HER2-zero and 25% as HER2-low. This percentage of HER2 aberrations is significant concerning their possible therapeutic influence. Cases from the HER2-zero group showed significantly better survival. Although this relationship lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis, the results have potential therapeutic significance. HER2 gene expression analysis showed a significant correlation with HER2 IHC status in the entire cohort (HER2-positive vs. HER2-negative), while in the cohort of only HER2-negative cases, the results did not reach statistical significance, suggesting that gene expression analysis would not be suitable to confirm the subdivision into HER2-low and HER2-zero. Our results also emphasize the need for standardized HER2 testing in OCCC to determine the best predictor of clinical response.
Growth trajectories of young animals are intimately connected to their fitness prospects, but we have little knowledge of growth regulation mechanisms, particularly in the wild. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a central hormone in regulating resource allocation, with higher IGF-1 levels resulting in more growth. IGF-1 levels generally increase in conjunction with nutritional state, but whether IGF-1 levels are adjusted in response to current nutrient availability or to the nutrient availability integrated over a longer term is not well known. We tested for such effects by supplementary feeding the jackdaw (Corvus monedula) nestlings in experimentally reduced or enlarged broods with either water (control) or a food solution; these manipulations have long- and short-term effects on the nutritional state, respectively. Baseline plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in reduced broods. Food supplementation induced an increase in plasma IGF-1 levels measured one hour later, and this effect was significantly more substantial in nestlings in reduced broods. Changes in plasma IGF-1 levels increased with increased retention of the supplementary food, which was higher in reduced broods, explaining the stronger IGF-1 response. Thus, IGF-1 levels respond to short-term variations in the nutritional state, but this effect is amplified by longer-term variations in the nutritional state. We discuss our findings using a graphical model that integrates the results of the two treatments.
The preparation of linear polyacrylamide (LPA)-coated capillary is a multistep, laborious process. In this study, five different LPA-coating procedures were compared regarding the capillary pretreatment (incubation time and temperature), the formation of the intermediate silyl layer and the attachment of the polymer top layer. LPA coatings were examined by the analysis of a standard mixture solution of insulin, rituximab and hemoglobin using a background electrolyte (BGE) of 50 mM HCOOH (pH 2.6). The results were contrasted with those that were obtained using the bare fused-silica capillary. The reproducibility of the simplest LPA-coating preparation was tested. The long-term stability of the capillary coating was evaluated through inter-day precision data using a large number of injections of the three-protein test mixture solution. The implementation of a short-term procedure at elevated temperature, guided by a comprehensive review of various conditions documented in the literature, yielded an efficiently functional LPA coating.
Male ornamentation is usually costly and may show trades-offs with other life-history traits such as paternal care, which can subsequently affect female preference. Studies on female mate choice have mostly examined how mate-choice cues differ in their expression or ability to be detected in different environmental contexts. However, less focus has been placed on examining how external forces affect female preferences. The purpose of this study was to explore how parental investment strategy and mate choice were mediated by ambient temperature. Specifically, we examined how male ornamentation characteristics and subsequent female incubation investment were impacted by ambient temperature in four plover populations that were breeding across an environmental gradient. We discovered that larger males had more ornamented plumage in warmer conditions, and they were favored by larger females who invested an elevated time into incubation. In contrast, in cooler conditions, males’ body size and the color of their ornaments were inversely associated, and females showed weak preference for males with more colorful ornaments. These results imply that female preference for male ornament can change in response to ambient temperature and demonstrate that female preference for male ornamentation may be limited in harsher conditions with higher parental care expenses.
Background Traditionally, X-rays have remained the standard modality for bone fracture diagnosis. However, other diagnostic modalities most notably ultrasound have emerged as a simple, radiation-safe, effective imaging tool to diagnose bone fractures. Despite the advantages, there is a prevalent scarcity of literature recognizing its significance in bone trauma management. This review investigates the effectiveness of ultrasound in the diagnosis of various bone fractures when compared to conventional radiography such as X-rays. Methodology Electronic databases such as PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, and Web of Science (WOS) were reviewed for observational studies and review articles from the years 2017-2022 utilizing MESH terminology in a broad term search strategy. The search returned a total of 248 articles. After removal of duplicates, abstract, and full-text screening this systematic review ultimately utilized data from 31 articles. All searches were performed and analyzed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) methodology (Figure 1) and were conducted during August 2022. In accordance with the guidelines for assessing the quality of included systematic reviews, we used the AMSTAR 2020, Supplemental Digital Content 2, http://links.lww.com/MS9/A241 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) tool to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. A data extraction form based on the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review group’s extraction template for quality assessment and evidence synthesis was used for data extraction. The information extracted included details such as author information, database, journal details, type of study, etc. Studies included will be classified into long bones, short bones, pneumatic bones, irregular bones, ankle and knee, stress fractures, hip fractures, POCUS, and others. All included studies considered bias and ethical criteria and provided valuable evidence to answer the research question. Results The search returned a total of 248 articles, with 192 articles remaining after the removal of duplicates. Primary screening of the title and abstract articles from the database search and additional sources identified 68 relevant articles for full-text screening. This systematic review ultimately used data from 33 articles of the remaining articles we included all of them because they had more than 70% certainty, using the STROBE tool for observational articles, narrative reviews with the ENTREQ guide, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses with the PRISMA guide; however, 2 articles were excluded at the eligibility stage because of risk of bias. Conclusion This systematic review provides insightful evidence on safety and effectiveness of ultrasound in diagnosing fractures when compared to the conventional imaging modalities such as X-rays. This shall promote further large-scale, multicenter research that can eventually guide clinic practice in diagnosing and managing various bone fractures.
In this paper, a computer program developed in the computer algebra system Maple is presented, which investigates alienness and strong alienness of linear functional equations.
Physiological muscle contraction requires an intact ligand gating mechanism of the ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), the Ca²⁺-release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Some mutations impair the gating and thus cause muscle disease. The RyR1 mutation T4706M is linked to a myopathy characterized by muscle weakness. Although, low expression of the T4706M RyR1 protein can explain in part the symptoms, little is known about the function RyR1 channels with this mutation. In order to learn whether this mutation alters channel function in a manner that can account for the observed symptoms, we examined RyR1 channels isolated from mice homozygous for the T4709M (TM) mutation at the single channel level. Ligands, including Ca²⁺, ATP, Mg²⁺ and the RyR inhibitor dantrolene were tested. The full conductance of the TM channel was the same as that of wild type (wt) channels and a population of partial open (subconductive) states were not observed. However, two unique sub-populations of TM RyRs were identified. One half of the TM channels exhibited high open probability at low (100 nM) and high (50 μM) cytoplasmic [Ca²⁺], resulting in Ca²⁺-insensitive, constitutively high Po channels. The rest of the TM channels exhibited significantly lower activity within the physiologically relevant range of cytoplasmic [Ca²⁺], compared to wt. TM channels retained normal Mg²⁺ block, modulation by ATP, and inhibition by dantrolene. Together, these results suggest that the TM mutation results in a combination of primary and secondary RyR1 dysfunctions that contribute to disease pathogenesis.
Studying animal societies needs detailed observation of many individuals, but technological advances offer new opportunities in this field. Here, we present a state-of-the-art drone observation of a multilevel herd of Przewalski’s horses, consisting of harems (one-male, multifemale groups). We track, in high spatio-temporal resolution, the movements of 238 individually identified horses on drone videos, and combine movement analyses with demographic data from two decades of population monitoring. Analysis of collective movements reveals how the structure of the herd’s social network is related to kinship and familiarity of individuals. The network centrality of harems is related to their age and how long the harem stallions have kept harems previously. Harems of genetically related stallions are closer to each other in the network, and female exchange is more frequent between closer harems. High movement similarity of females from different harems predicts becoming harem mates in the future. Our results show that only a few minutes of fine-scale movement tracking combined with high throughput data driven analysis can reveal the structure of a society, reconstruct past group dynamics and predict future ones.
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