University of Debrecen
  • Debrecen, Hungary
Recent publications
This study aims to evaluate the role of Jordanian veterinarians in terms of their knowledge, attitudes and common practices in combating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and summarize the registered veterinary drugs between 2017 2020. Descriptive study data were collected using a standardized questionnaire that focused on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Jordanian veterinarians. The findings were analyzed descriptively; 84% of the participants agreed with the statement on the definition of AMR. The majority (95.65%) of participants agreed that AMR is a challenge for the veterinary sector in Jordan and that it should be prioritized over other zoonotic diseases. Approximately 69% of the participants believed that the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials by unqualified, fraudulent, or unauthorized practitioners is the primary reason for the rise of cases associated with AMR and the challenges that accompany these. The most common practice among the respondents in this study was to recommend clients (e.g., farmers and owners) to practice good animal husbandry (80.00%). The study also revealed that there was a significant difference ( p = 0.015) between attendance at AMR training sessions and the professional sector (private, public, and academic) of the veterinarians. This study underscores the importance of implementing a continuous education program on AMR so as to enhance the all-round knowledge of veterinarians and improve their advisory skills. In addition, laws should be enacted to ensure that veterinarians prescribe the correct antimicrobials and to improve surveillance systems for monitoring the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine.
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) may occur as a serious complication of hematological malignancy. Delays in antifungal therapy can lead to an invasive disease resulting in high mortality. Currently, there are no well-established blood circulating microRNA biomarkers or laboratory tests which can be used to diagnose IA. Therefore, we aimed to define dysregulated miRNAs in hematology and oncology (HO) patients to identify biomarkers predisposing disease. We performed an in-depth analysis of high-throughput small transcriptome sequencing data obtained from the whole blood samples of our study cohort of 50 participants including 26 high-risk HO patients and 24 controls. By integrating in silico bioinformatic analyses of small noncoding RNA data, 57 miRNAs exhibiting significant expression differences ( P < 0.05) were identified between IA-infected patients and non-IA HO patients. Among these, we found 36 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) irrespective of HO malignancy. Of the top ranked DEMs, we found 14 significantly deregulated miRNAs, whose expression levels were successfully quantified by qRT-PCR. MiRNA target prediction revealed the involvement of IA related miRNAs in the biological pathways of tumorigenesis, the cell cycle, the immune response, cell differentiation and apoptosis.
Background The association between medically assisted reproduction and pregnancy planning on overall developmental outcomes of infants has been studied in relatively few studies. The availability of accurate tools for the early detection of developmental delays is a major issue. The purpose of this study is describing the average neurodevelopment of preterm infants and assessing the association between medically assisted reproduction, pregnancy planning and neurodevelopmental outcomes among Hungarian preterm infants. Methods Cross-sectional study of preterm infants with gestational age < 37 weeks ( N = 171) who underwent developmental assessment using Bayley-III Screening Test (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Screening Test – Third Edition) in five developmental domains (cognitive, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor) at 12 months of corrected age. We examined the developmental pattern of infants and the potential associations between medically assisted reproduction, pregnancy planning and Bayley-III Screening Test subscales. Information on the mode of conception and pregnancy planning was obtained through parental anamnesis. Results Concerning the risk for developmental delay, the language and motor subscales were the most affected. Examination of the mode of conception and developmental outcomes revealed higher neurodevelopmental skills in infants who were conceived through medically assisted reproduction. Significantly lower cognitive, receptive and expressive language skills were found to be associated with unplanned pregnancies. Multi-way analysis of variance was conducted in order to assess the impact of the mode of conception and pregnancy planning on subscales. Conclusions We cannot unambiguously conclude that MAR and pregnancy planning had a solely positive effect on the development of preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age, but our results are vital for the design and implementation of further research.
This reference covers the taxonomy, diversity, bioactivity, and nanotechnology involved in the study of Phoma. It presents the most recent molecular taxonomic approach, secondary metabolites, combating microbial threats and biohazards, and its use in nanotechnology from a basic research to an applied perspective. Expert contributors provide the latest research and applications to present thorough coverage of an important genus in human and plant pathology and bio management. • Addresses the key issues in enigmatic taxonomy of the genus Phoma, and provides the current trends in taxonomy • Discusses different secondary metabolites, their bioactivities (antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoal, cytotoxic and herbicidal, etc.) and formulations • Presents the role of different Phoma spp. in nanobiotechnology for synthesis of nanoparticles • Provides the fossil-based evolutionary trends in Phoma spp.
Applying scanning electron microscopy in transmission mode and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, we investigated the spinel-forming solid-state reaction between crystalline ZnO and amorphous Al2O3 layers prepared by atomic layer deposition. We observed two-stage phase growth of the crystalline ZnAl2O4 product layer. During the first stage, flat, pancake-like islands are formed in the nucleation process and these nuclei grow laterally without much increment in thickness. After these islands grow together to form a continuous layer, planar growth is happening in the second stage. We show that the solid-state reaction is governed by grain boundary and interface diffusion instead of interface reaction control observed between crystalline parent phases.
The appearances of significant efflux of carbon dioxide through soil surfaces is a frequent natural phenomena in the wider vicinity of relatively young volcanic fields. These mofettes are often utilised as dry carbon dioxide spas to treat patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. The carbon dioxide always carries some naturally occurring radioactive radon gas with it. On the one hand this radon gas might pose some radiation risk for the patients and staff of such carbon dioxide spas, on the other hand it may be used as a natural tracer for the study of transport of its carrier gas in the subsurface and in the pools. In this work we have measured the spatial variation of radon activity concentration in the gas phase of the carbon dioxide gas pool of the Cardiology Hospital and in the gas and water phases of the Hell-Mud, which is a wet open pit mofette in the city of Covasna. We have developed a hydro- and gas-geological conceptual and mathematical model with which we were able to describe the measured spatial and temporal behaviour of radon gas concentration. We have found that the relatively low radon concentrations at the bottom of these pools can be explained by removing the radon content of water by intense bubbling degassing of the oversaturated carbonated waters.
After the last glacial, the Carpathian Basin was repopulated from either eastward or northward colonisation routes for various species; one of these was the emblematic member of the European megafauna, the red deer, Cervus elaphus. We analysed 303 red deer individuals from the middle of the region, in seven Hungarian game reserves, at ten microsatellite loci (C01, C229, T26, T108, T123, T156, T172, T193, T501, T507), to investigate the genetic diversity of these subpopulations. We discovered high levels of genetic diversity of red deer subpopulations; allelic richness values ranging 4.99-7.01, observed heterozygosity 0.729-0.800, polymorphic information content 0.722-0.806, and Shannon's information index 1.668-2.064. Multi-locus analyses indicated population admixtures of various degrees that corresponded to geographical location, and complex genetic structures were shown by clustering. Populations in the southwestern and the northeastern parts of the region formed two highly separated groups, and the red deer from populations in between them were highly admixed (in western Pannonia/Transdanubia, where the Danube flows into the Carpathian Basin). This pattern corresponds to the distribution of mitochondrial as well as Y-chromosome lineages. Assignment tests showed that a large fraction of individuals (29.4%) are found outside of their population of origin, indicating that the dispersal of red deer is rather common, which could be expected considering the life course of the species.
Subcellular calcium variations are involved in physiological and pathological mechanisms. Whereas elementary calcium release events (CREs) have been known for almost three decades in intact muscle cells isolated from vertebrates, they remained not characterized in invertebrates until recently. Dynamic confocal imaging was used on intact skeletal muscle cells isolated enzymatically from the adult honeybee legs to characterize spatio-temporal features of subcellular CREs. The frequency of these insect CREs, measured in x–y time lapse series, was higher than frequencies usually described in vertebrates. Spatial spread at half maximum was larger than in vertebrates and had a slightly ellipsoidal shape, two characteristics that may be related to ultrastructural features specific to invertebrate cells. In line-scan experiments, the histogram of CREs’ duration followed a bimodal distribution, supporting the existence of both sparks and embers. Unlike in vertebrates, embers and sparks had similar amplitudes, a difference that could be related to genomic differences and/or excitation–contraction coupling specificities in honeybee skeletal muscle fibers. Arthropods muscle cells show strong genomic, ultrastructural and physiological differences with vertebrates and a comparative analysis may help to better understanding the roles and regulations of CREs. From a toxicological point of view, such a comparison will lead to better anticipating the myotoxicity of new insecticides targeting ryanodine receptors. Recent studies described the effects of these insecticides on macroscopic calcium homeostasis in bee neurons and muscle cells. Here, cyantraniliprole, the most recently approved anthranilic diamide in Europe, triggers calcium transients in bee muscle cell as well. Cyantraniliprole effects on Ca2+ sparks are currently under study.
Septins are considered as the fourth component of the cytoskeleton, with septin-7 isoform playing a critical role in myogenic cell division and fusion. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process that requires many steps, including proper cell division to achieve functional recovery. Here, the role of septin-7 was investigated in this complex process. To this end, muscle injury was induced in wild type BL6/C57 and septin-7–conditional (mer-Cre-mer) knock-down mice by in vivo BaCl2 injection to the left m. tibialis anterior muscle (TA) of the mice (the right m. tibialis anterior muscle was nontreated control). Mice were sacrificed 4 and 14 d later to reflect the early (monitored by PAX7 level) and late (monitored by myogenin level) phases of muscle regeneration. Western blotting was used to follow the changes of septin-7, PAX7, and myogenin expression at the protein level, while changes of mRNA were detected by qPCR. Morphological differences were visualized by HE staining. Levels of septin-7 protein increased 4 and 14 d after injury in BL6/C57 mice and mRNA expression of SEPT7 showed significant elevation both 4 and 14 d after injection in Cre+ mice only, considered to be a compensatory increase of mRNA expression of SEPT7 in order to ensure the appropriate regeneration process. Furthermore, up-regulation of septin-7 protein was more pronounced on day 14 in both Cre− and Cre+ mice, which may indicate its importance in the later phase of regeneration. Level of PAX7 and myogenin were also increased 4 and 14 d after injury in BL6/C57, Cre−, and Cre+ mice, respectively. Taken together, our data suggest the importance of septin-7 in skeletal muscle regeneration.
This paper deals with a retrial queuing system with a finite number of sources and collision of the customers, where the server is subject to random breakdowns and repairs depending on whether it is idle or busy. A significant difference of this system from the previous ones is that the service time is assumed to follow a general distribution while the server’s lifetime and repair time is supposed to be exponentially distributed. The considered system is investigated by the method of asymptotic analysis under the condition of an unlimited growing number of sources. As a result, it is proved that the limiting probability distribution of the number of customers in the system follows a Gaussian distribution with given parameters. The Gaussian approximation and the estimations obtained by stochastic simulations of the prelimit probability distribution are compared to each other and measured by the Kolmogorov distance. Several examples are treated and figures show the accuracy and area of applicability of the proposed asymptotic method.
New Radio Access Technology 3GPP New Radio has become the fundamental wireless technology in the fifth-generation networks, which allows us to achieve high data rates due to the ability to work in the millimeter-wave band. But the key feature and the main problem of 5G New Radio networks is that people themselves, cars, buildings, etc. are signal blockers, while the base stations of the fourth generation networks have widescreen broadcasting and such small obstacles do not cause loss of connection. Service providers and mobile operators are already testing the proposed technology. In this connection, the scientific community has the task of analyzing the performance of these systems and increasing it in the future. Currently, there are known studies of “basic” mathematical models of such networks. By this term, we mean models built in the simplest possible assumptions. However, due to the justified necessity of introducing new technology into the daily lives of subscribers, service providers pose the scientific community with the task of analyzing the effectiveness of the most appropriate mathematical models. For example, a technology of splitting transmitted data into two streams using as 5G and both 4G transmission technologies is considered now by 3GPP Project Coordination Group. The paper is devoted to such a problem. We consider a mathematical model of the message transmitting with the implementation of the splitting function in the communication networks of New Radio technology in the form of a resource queueing system with a renewal arrival process and non-exponential service. For this problem, an approximation of a stationary two-dimensional probability distribution of the number of occupied resources in parallel service units is obtained. It is shown that this approximation coincides with the Gaussian distribution, and its area of applicability is shown.
Soil water content (SWC) estimation is a crucial issue of agricultural production, and its mapping is an important task. We aimed to study the efficacy of UAV-based thermal (TH) and multispectral (MS) cameras in SWC mapping. Soil samples were collected and the SWC content was determined in a laboratory as reference data and four machine learning regression algorithms (Random Forest [RF], Elastic Net [ENR], General Linear Model [GLM], Robust Linear Model [RLM]) were tested for the prediction efficacy, combined with three pixel value extraction methods (single pixel, mean of 20 and 30 cm radius buffer). We found that MS cameras ensured better input data than TH cameras: R²s were 0.97 vs 0.71, mean-normalized root mean square errors (nRMSE) were 10 vs 25 %, respectively. Best models were obtained by the RF (0.97 R²) and ENR (0.88 R²) in case of MS camera. Relationship between SWC and thermal data was exponential, which was incorrectly handled by the GLM (>40 % nRMSE; furthermore, RLM and ENR was not working with only one variable), thus, TH data was acceptable only with the RF (24.4 % nRMSE). Single pixel extraction provided the best input for the estimations, mean of buffered areas did not perform better in the models. Maps provided appropriate SWC estimations according to the nRMSEs, with high spatial resolution. In spite of potential inaccuracies, visualizing the spatial heterogeneities can be a great help to farmers to increase the efficacy of planning irrigation in precision agriculture.
Today septins are considered as the fourth component of the cytoskeleton, with the Septin7 isoform playing a critical role in the formation of higher-order structures. While its importance has already been confirmed in several intracellular processes of different organs, very little is known about its role in skeletal muscle. Here, using Septin7 conditional knockdown (KD) mouse model, the C2C12 cell line, and enzymatically isolated adult muscle fibers, the organization and localization of septin filaments are revealed, and an ontogenesis-dependent expression of Septin7 is demonstrated. KD mice displayed a characteristic hunchback phenotype with skeletal deformities, reduction in in vivo and in vitro force generation, and disorganized mitochondrial networks. Furthermore, knockout of Septin7 in C2C12 cells resulted in complete loss of cell division while KD cells provided evidence that Septin7 is essential for proper myotube differentiation. These and the transient increase in Septin7 expression following muscle injury suggest that it may be involved in muscle regeneration and development.
Introduction Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent, yet heterogeneous, B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Although most FL patients respond well to treatment, few with specific traits have a poor prognosis; the latter are difficult to define. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 143 FL patients treated at the University of Debrecen since 2009 and investigated prognostic factors that may influence the survival of FL patients. Results A maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of 9.85 at the staging positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) (p = 0.0001, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.2535, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1118–0.4878) and a lymphocyte/monocyte (Ly/Mo) ratio of 3.41 (p = 0.0027, HR: 2.997, 95% CI: 1.463–6.142), drawn at diagnosis, significantly predicted FL patients’ progression-free survival (PFS). A staging SUVmax >9.85 with Ly/Mo <3.41 could delineate a high-risk group of FL patients (p<0.0001, HR: 0.0957, 95% CI: 0.03416–0.2685). Similarly, a significant difference was shown with an SUVmax cut-off of 3.15 at the interim PET/CT (p<0.0001, HR: 0.1614, 95% CI: 0.06684–0.3897). A staging SUVmax >9.85 in conjunction with interim SUVmax >3.15 predicted poor prognosis (p<0.0001, HR: 0.1037, 95% CI: 0.03811–0.2824). The PFS difference was translated into overall survival (OS) advantage (p = 0.0506, HR: 0.1187, 95% CI: 0.01401–1.005). Conclusion Biological prognostic factors, such as the Ly/Mo ratio, may improve the prognostic assessment of staging PET/CT. The survival advantage observed in PFS is translated into OS when determined using a combination of staging and interim SUVmax. We recommend investigating additional biological prognostic factors while highlighting the role of PET/CT in FL.
A bstract Motivated by ongoing new physics searches in the top-quark sector at the Large Hadron Collider we report on the calculation of NLO QCD corrections to the Standard Model pp → $$ t\overline{t}Z $$ t t ¯ Z + X process in the tetra-lepton decay channel. This calculation is based on the matrix elements for the $$ {e}^{+}{\nu}_e{\mu}^{-}{\overline{\nu}}_{\mu }b\overline{b}{\tau}^{+}{\tau}^{-} $$ e + ν e μ − ν ¯ μ b b ¯ τ + τ − final state and includes all resonant and non-resonant Feynman diagrams, interferences and off-shell effects of the top quark as well as the W and Z gauge bosons. Also incorporated are photon-induced contributions. As it is customary for such studies, we show theoretical predictions for both fixed and dynamical factorisation and renormalisation scale choices and different PDF sets. Furthermore, we study the main theoretical uncertainties that are associated with neglected higher-order terms in the perturbative expansion and with the parameterisation of the PDF sets. In order to investigate the size of off-shell effects and higher-order corrections in top-quark decays, we perform a second computation for this process, which is based on the narrow-width-approximation where the top quarks, W and Z gauge bosons are kept on-shell. Results are given for the integrated and differential fiducial cross sections for the LHC Run II center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.
Species abundance distributions (SADs) link species richness with species abundances and are an important tool in the quantitative analysis of ecological communities. Niche based and sample based SAD models predict different spatial scaling properties of SAD parameters. However, empirical research of SAD scaling properties is largely missing. Here, we extracted percentage cover values of all occurring vascular plants as proxies of their abundance in 1725 10-m² plots from the GrassPlot database, covering 47 regional data sets of 19 different grassland and other open vegetation types of the Palaearctic biogeographic realm. For each plot, we fitted the Weibull distribution, a model that is able to effectively mimic other distributions like the log-series and lognormal, to the species–log abundance rank order distribution. We calculated the skewness and kurtosis of the empirical distributions and linked these moments, along with the shape and scale parameters of the Weibull distribution, to plot climatic and soil characteristics. The Weibull distribution provided excellent fits to grassland plant communities and identified four basic types of communities characterized by different degrees of dominance. Shape and scale parameter values of local communities on poorer soils were largely in accordance with log-series distributions. Proportions of subdominant species tended to be lower than predicted by the standard lognormal SAD. Successive accumulation of plots of the same vegetation type yielded non-linear spatial scaling of SAD moments and Weibull parameters. This scaling was largely independent of environmental correlates and geographic plot position. Our findings caution against simple generalizations about the mechanisms that generate SADs. We argue that, in grasslands, lognormal type SADs tend to prevail within a wider range of environmental conditions, including more extreme habitats such as arid environments. In contrast, log-series distributions are mainly restricted to comparatively species rich communities on humid and fertile soils.
Many countries have secured larger quantities of COVID-19 vaccines than their population is willing to take. The abundance and the large variety of vaccines created not only an unprecedented intensity of vaccine related public discourse, but also a historical moment to understand vaccine hesitancy better. Yet, the heterogeneity of hesitancy by vaccine types has been neglected in the existing literature so far. We address this problem by analysing the acceptance and the assessment of five vaccine types. We use information collected with a nationally representative survey at the end of the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary. During the vaccination campaign, individuals could reject the assigned vaccine to wait for a more preferred alternative that enables us to quantify revealed preferences across vaccine types. We find that hesitancy is heterogenous by vaccine types and is driven by individuals’ trusted source of information. Believers of conspiracy theories are more likely to evaluate the mRNA vaccines (Pfizer and Moderna) unacceptable. Those who follow the advice of politicians are more likely to evaluate vector-based (AstraZeneca and Sputnik) or whole-virus vaccines (Sinopharm) acceptable. We argue that the greater selection of available vaccine types and the free choice of the individual are desirable conditions to increase the vaccination rate in societies.
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3,871 members
László Majoros
  • Department of Medical Microbiology
Balint Nagy
  • Department of Human Genetics
Egyetem tér 1., H - 4032, Debrecen, Hungary