Editorial on the Research Topic Inflammation and aging in chronic and degenerative diseases: Current and future therapeutic strategies Inflammation and aging represent the most common risk factors for several chronic and degenerative disorders (Furman et al., 2019). In the last decades, it was widely demonstrated how these two pivotal determinants of human pathologies are strongly associated with each other in a dual relationship where aging induces a pro-inflammatory state in the organism and inflammation, in turn, leads to the activation of cellular and molecular pathways involved in cell senescence and aging (Chung et al., 2019; Zhu et al., 2021). Of note, inflammation and aging are both pathophysiological processes that have been associated with an increased risk of different chronic-degenerative diseases, including tumors, neurological and cardiovascular disorders (Gupta et al., 2018). Due to the strict relationship existing between inflammation and aging, the new term “inflammaging” has been coined to describe a condition characterized by chronic and systemic low-grade inflammation occurring during aging and potentially associated with the alteration of several cellular and molecular pathways and the development of different pathologies (Franceschi et al., 2000). In the last decades, the main pathogenetic mechanisms driven by both inflammation and aging have been widely described. More in detail, both conditions have been widely associated with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations responsible for the alteration of cell proliferation and apoptosis responsible for the neoplastic transformation of cells and the development of tumors (Candido et al., 2021; Zhu et al., 2021). Similarly, cell senescence due to aging has been widely associated with the impairment of mitochondrial as well as proteosome and lysosome functions responsible for the accumulation of aberrant or misfolded proteins often observed in different neurodegenerative disorders (Sikora et al., 2021). Besides these well-known pathogenetic mechanisms related to inflammaging, other processes are involved in age-related and inflammatory-related diseases including enzyme dysfunctions, cell death, impaired tissue renewal and tissue degeneration (Li, 2013). Despite the long-term effects of inflammation and aging are well established, there is still a debate on potential therapeutic interventions aimed at limiting both processes. If anti-inflammatory therapeutic interventions are currently available, antiaging strategies are still ineffective and mainly based on the adoption of antioxidant and cytoprotective agents (Flatt et al., 2013). Therefore, it is evident how a better knowledge of inflammaging and novel therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing inflammation during aging are mandatory to effectively manage age- and inflammatory-related diseases. On these bases, the aim of the Research Topic entitled “Inflammation and Aging in Chronic and Degenerative Diseases: Current and Future Therapeutic Strategies” was to collect the latest update on the molecular and cellular determinants responsible for inflammatory processes during aging as well as the role of aging in the onset of chronic-degenerative diseases. Particular attention was paid to approved and under-developing therapeutic strategies for the treatment of pathologies associated with inflammaging as well as to the epigenetic factors associated with these processes. Overall, a total of 14 tentative papers were submitted to the Research Topic, of which seven were published and are gaining great interest in the scientific community. More in detail, one review article and six original research articles were accepted for publication. Noteworthy, the majority of the papers published within the Research Topic (four out of seven) were interested in unveiling the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and in evaluating the therapeutic potential of novel drugs for the treatment of this pathology suggesting how osteoarthritis represents a severe threat in public health and the need for novel and effective therapeutic strategies. Specifically, Zeng et al. published a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of HIF-1α in the regulation of autophagy and apoptosis of chondrocytes as well as in the decrease of inflammatory cytokines and in chondrocyte survival. They also elegantly described the role of HIF-1α as a crucial therapeutic target for the protection of chondrocytes and the prevention of osteoarthritis. As regards novel therapeutic interventions in osteoarthritis, Xian et al. evaluated the protective effects of the natural molecule Evodiamine (EV) extracted from Evodia rutaecarpa in osteoarthritis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The authors demonstrated that EV is effective in reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including NO, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE2, while EV is effective in reducing cartilage degeneration in vivo. These data suggest how EV could reduce the risk of cartilage degradation by modulating several inflammatory pathways like the NF-κB signaling pathway. Similarly, the group of Lin et al. evaluated the protective effects of another phytochemical alkaloid extracted from natural herbs, Nitidine Chloride (NitC), which exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative action in osteoarthritis. More in detail, the authors treated IL-1β-induced osteoarthritis in vitro models with NitC demonstrating the inhibition of COX2, iNOS, MAPK, and NF-κB pathways responsible for the degradation of cartilage. Another original research by Zheng et al., tested the efficacy of the MAPK/MEK selective inhibitor selumetinib in osteoarthritis. Through in vitro and in vivo experiments, the authors demonstrated that selumetinib reduces the degradation of extracellular matrix and induces the synthesis of cartilage by inhibiting the RIP1/RIP3/MLKL and the RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK pathways in chondrocytes. The data obtained strongly supported the adoption of selumetinib to protect chondrocytes from degradation and improve the activity of both chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Besides these novel therapeutic interventions for the treatment of osteoarthritis, also the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for inflammatory- and aging-mediated neurodegeneration were investigated. In particular, Wei et al. investigated the role of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) as a novel therapeutic target in aging-related neurocognitive disorders. In detail, the authors demonstrated that α7nAChR agonist reduces the levels of IL-1β and activate the BDNF pathway after surgery alleviating neurodegeneration and exerting neuroprotective effects suggesting how α7nAChR may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of surgery-related neurodegeneration. Similarly, Zhou et al. unveiled the protective role of glutamine as a regulator of mTOR signaling and autophagy. The authors demonstrated that chronic glutamine deprivation induces senescence through the activation of the Akt-mTOR pathway and the impairment of lysosome functions suggesting how glutamine supplementation in the elderly can be used as a nutritional therapy to reduce the detrimental effects of aging. Finally, Fang et al., investigated the neuroprotective effects of the anticancer drug RRx-001 in cellular and in vivo models of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In particular, they demonstrated that RRx-001 suppresses the activation of microglia and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting TAK1, proposing RRx-001 as a candidate drug for the treatment of neuroinflammation-related brain diseases. Overall, the papers in this Research Topic unveiled some novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammatory- and aging-related disorders, however, further studies are needed to effectively validate the therapeutic potential of natural extracts or selective inhibitors as modulators of inflammaging and effective treatments for neurodegenerative and chronic disorders.
Purpose/background: Based on a population-pharmacokinetic model, the European Medicines Agency has recently approved a simplified starting strategy of aripiprazole once a month (AOM), injectable and long-acting antipsychotic, with two 400 mg injections and a single oral 20 mg dose of aripiprazole, administered on the same day, instead of 1 injection and 14 daily administrations of concurrent oral aripiprazole. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has reported the safety and tolerability of this regimen in real-world patients. Methods/procedures: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 133 patients who received the newly approved 2-injection start regimen as part of their standard care in 10 Italian clinical centers. Findings/results: Adverse effects were mild or moderate, with no clinically evident difference from the adverse effects observed in previous trials where AOM was started with a single injection followed by 14 days of orally administered aripiprazole. None of the patients who started AOM after the 2-injection start regimen experienced severe adverse effects or severe adverse effects. Implications/conclusions: The coadministration of 2 injections of 400 mg aripiprazole and 20 mg oral aripiprazole was not associated with safety concerns beyond those reported after a single injection followed by 14 days of orally administered aripiprazole. Our results should be interpreted with caution, due to the limited sample size and to the retrospective design of the study.
Purpose: Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) has been associated with male infertility and poor outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The purpose of this study was to investigate global practices related to the management of elevated SDF in infertile men, summarize the relevant professional society recommendations, and provide expert recommendations for managing this condition. Materials and methods: An online global survey on clinical practices related to SDF was disseminated to reproductive clinicians, according to the CHERRIES checklist criteria. Management protocols for various conditions associated with SDF were captured and compared to the relevant recommendations in professional society guidelines and the appropriate available evidence. Expert recommendations and consensus on the management of infertile men with elevated SDF were then formulated and adapted using the Delphi method. Results: A total of 436 experts from 55 different countries submitted responses. As an initial approach, 79.1% of reproductive experts recommend lifestyle modifications for infertile men with elevated SDF, and 76.9% prescribe empiric antioxidants. Regarding antioxidant duration, 39.3% recommend 4-6 months and 38.1% recommend 3 months. For men with unexplained or idiopathic infertility, and couples experiencing recurrent miscarriages associated with elevated SDF, most respondents refer to ART 6 months after failure of conservative and empiric medical management. Infertile men with clinical varicocele, normal conventional semen parameters, and elevated SDF are offered varicocele repair immediately after diagnosis by 31.4%, and after failure of antioxidants and conservative measures by 40.9%. Sperm selection techniques and testicular sperm extraction are also management options for couples undergoing ART. For most questions, heterogenous practices were demonstrated. Conclusions: This paper presents the results of a large global survey on the management of infertile men with elevated SDF and reveals a lack of consensus among clinicians. Furthermore, it demonstrates the scarcity of professional society guidelines in this regard and attempts to highlight the relevant evidence. Expert recommendations are proposed to help guide clinicians.
Face-to-face interactions are fundamental to the human social system, and, as such, they are a key ingredient in understanding how processes such as opinion dynamics, news and rumor diffusion, and epidemic spreading may occur. In this paper, we leverage the theoretical understanding provided by mathematical models based on complex networks of face-to-face interaction dynamics to propose a multi-robot system that facilitates experimental investigations of these dynamics in settings where the parameters are controllable. Specifically, we consider a team of Elisa-3 robots and implement a distributed and decentralized control law that enables the key mechanisms of interaction giving rise to face-to-face dynamics. We find that the multi-robot system reproduces the main features of the face-to-face dynamics such as long-tailed power-law distributions of contact durations and time intervals between successive contacts. Remarkably, these features prove to be robust, as they emerge in various experimental settings, as well as under challenging operating conditions of the system.
In the INBUILD trial in patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), nintedanib slowed the rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC; mL/year) over 52 weeks compared with placebo. We assessed the efficacy of nintedanib across subgroups in the INBUILD trial by baseline characteristics. We assessed the rate of decline in FVC over 52 weeks and time to progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (absolute decline from baseline in FVC % predicted > 10%) or death over the whole trial in subgroups based on sex, age, race, body mass index (BMI), time since diagnosis of ILD, FVC % predicted, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLco) % predicted, composite physiologic index (CPI), GAP (gender, age, lung physiology) stage, use of anti-acid therapy and use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at baseline. The effect of nintedanib versus placebo on reducing the rate of decline in FVC over 52 weeks was consistent across the subgroups by baseline characteristics analysed. Interaction p values did not indicate heterogeneity in the treatment effect between these subgroups (p > 0.05). Over the whole trial (median follow-up time ∼19 months), progression of ILD or death occurred in similar or lower proportions of patients treated with nintedanib than placebo across the subgroups analysed, with no heterogeneity detected between the subgroups. In the INBUILD trial, no heterogeneity was detected in the effect of nintedanib on reducing the rate of ILD progression across subgroups based on demographics, ILD severity or use of anti-acid therapy or DMARDs. These data support the use of nintedanib as a treatment for progressive pulmonary fibrosis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02999178.
In this work, we analyse the thermal aging effects on the thermo-mechanical properties of bio-based specimens realized using fused deposition modelling technology. For the investigations, three commercial filaments made of polylactide acid (PLA) were used. The first filament was a pure virgin PLA (B-PLA); the second one was made from recycled waste production, PLA (R-PLA), and the third one was wood-filled PLA (W-PLA). Such materials were extruded under pre-optimized conditions and thermally aged in an oven at 70 °C. The as-prepared specimens were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The experimental results are presented in terms of storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E"), tan delta, and absorption spectra at different aging periods (0, 50, 70, 130, 175 days). For B-PLA and R-PLA, the thermal aging results in a decrease in both storage and loss moduli and in an increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg). On the contrary, for the W-PLA the storage modulus increases with the aging time, while the Tg remains constant. The IR spectra support the hypothesis of a degradation mechanism involving hydrolysis and/or hydrogen atom transfer. Based on these observations, we conclude that heat treatments always lead, through polymer degradation and structural changes, to more stable structures. The presence of wood particles slows down the aging process and makes the final products more durable.
Background Gaucher disease (GD) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by the lysosomal enzyme acid β‐glucosidase deficiency. Many patients experience a critical delay in the diagnosis of up to 8–10 years due to its rarity and variability in signs and symptoms, with the consultation of several specialists. Patients and Methods This prospective observational study analyzed the prevalence of GD in 600 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) from January 2018 until February 2022. Results The mean age of participants was 66 years, with a mean monoclonal component of 0.58 g/dL. In 433 MGUS patients with available data, anemia (hemoglobin level < 10 g/dL) was present in 31 patients (7%), and thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100.000/mm ³ ) in 24 (5.5%). Of 600 MGUS patients tested for acid β‐glucosidase enzyme activity, 7 patients (1.2%) had activity below 2.5 nmol/h/mL. In comparison, GBA gene analysis was executed in 110 patients. It revealed 4 patients (0.7%) affected by GD (3 patients with compound heterozygous mutation and 1 with homozygous mutation), with a prevalence of 1 every 150 MGUS patients. Furthermore, 12 out of the remaining 106 evaluated patients (11%) were carriers of a single heterozygous mutation while having regular enzyme activity. Conclusions The clinical heterogeneity of GD and frequent lack of awareness among physicians often lead to diagnostic delays and severe clinical manifestations. The role of MGUS in the presence of at least one clinical sign, such as low platelet count, organomegaly, bone pain, or bleeding tendency, could aid in initiating GD screening with DBS, thus reducing the period between symptom onset and the diagnosis of this rare disease.
In linguistics, various proposals (coming primarily from ‘Californian’ cognitive linguistics) have been made to support a general analogy between the 'construction of the perceptual field’ and the ‘construction of meaning’. Or, to put it more radically: occurring through an expressive form from which it cannot be separated, meaning must be perceived before being (if ever) logically and conceptually elaborated. However, it was thought this could be accomplished by relying on a pre-semiotic concept of perception, with the result that the links to effective perception and practice, both culturally and semiotically marked, become very tenuous. Nothing in the proposed linguistic apparatus makes it possible to account for a certain form of continuity and cohesion—primarily practical, figural, habitual, expressive—that subtends texts and practices of speech. So the question remains : in what sense are we to understand this ‘perceiving’? According to what perceptual praxis, what specific perceptual montages? This chapter intends to propose some éléments for an answer, while also presenting a general theoretical and descriptive linguistic canvas (a Theory of Semantic Forms), inseparable from the singularities of expression as well as from the objectives of a discursive and textual semantics ; a ‘perceptivist’ canvas that can fit into the broader perspective of a semiotic anthropology that would respond, in various fields of study, to the phenomenological principle of the primacy of perception, this latter itself being semiotically refounded.
The concept of form has been an epistemological obsession for the sciences of language. Defining the status of a linguistic form, as it presents itself to the eyes and ears of speakers, would first have allowed us to describe the phenomenon of language meaning and our experience of it in our everyday, ordinary communicative commerce.
The question to which semiolinguistics—understood as the set of disciplines dealing with signs and meaning—is always ultimately referred, and beyond all the theoretical systems it elaborates and the descriptions it accomplishes, is indeed that of the modalities of a legitimate recognition of its object, and more specifically, that of the form of intelligibility to which the phenomena it is interested in rightfully belong. In other words, and quickly put, what is always at issue in the final instance is how to think about this set of factualities that are called symbolic. This chapter attempts to provide some answers to this fundamental question, drawing on epistemological requirements, phenomenological perspectives and a morphodynamical approach of the Saussurean sign.
Studies on languaging in the field of enactive linguistics and contemporary biosemiotics have made it possible to pose in a novel way some problems of a philosophical nature, problems to which the more classical approaches in the sciences of language (structuralist, generative, enunciative, and cognitive) have failed to give satisfactory answers.
The present work proposes a spatial analysis of the residential segregation and settlement models of Sri Lankans in the eight main Italian municipalities. Hosting more than half of the total Sri Lankan population residing in Italy, the selected urban areas allow Sri Lankans’ residential model to be globally framed across the country. The purpose of this work is threefold. First, it provides a general assessment of the allocation pattern of a foreign community that has seldom been studied and yet is characterized by peculiar settlement choices. Second, it attempts to compare the settlement patterns of Sri Lankans across different urban contexts. Third, it aims to detect the possible spatial polarization of Sri Lankans in specific neighbourhoods and to verify its spatial correlation with other key variables that constitute proxies of urban neighbourhoods’ socioeconomic inequalities. The study runs multiple aspatial linear models to assess the global variation in concentrations of Sri Lankans related to several socioeconomic predictors. Furthermore, it implements geographically weighted regressions to explicitly model the spatial dependence between Sri Lankans’ location quotients and several predictors. It refers all the considered variables to a single geographic reference grid, enabling the homogenization of different areal unit arrangements and comparisons across space. Except for Milan and Rome, the findings suggest that Sri Lankans tend to reside in central neighbourhoods characterized by a high foreign presence and a decreased trend of Italian population. Conversely, the impact of the cost of living and the state of the built environment is heterogeneous across space, with a sort of centre-periphery duality in Southern cities and more fragmented situations in the other urban contexts. This evidence proves the relevance of local scale analysis and the need to build up urban observatories on spatial inequalities and segregation processes.
The use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in poultry diets beneficially stimulates the gut microbiome thus promoting the health and welfare of the animals. In this study, we analyzed 7 poultry probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum – B1 and B4, Lactobacillus rhamnosus – B3, Bifidobacterium lactis – B2, Carnobacterium divergens – B5, Propionibacterium thoenii – B6, Clostridium butyricum – B7) and 12 prebiotics, differing in chemical composition and source of origin (fungi, algae, animal, etc.). The main goal of our research was to select the most promising candidates to develop synbiotic combinations. We determined the growth kinetics of all probiotics in the presence of prebiotics in a series of in vitro studies to select optimal combinations. Five out of seven investigated probiotics were significantly stimulated by astragalus polysaccharide, and this prebiotic was characterized in our work as the most effective. Moreover, in the case of three probiotics, B2, B3 and B4, significant growth stimulation has been found when beta-glucan, vegetable protein hydrolysate and liquid seaweed extract were supplied. Strain B1 (L. plantarum) was stimulated by 6 out of 12 prebiotics. The growth of B4 (L. plantarum) and B2 (B. lactis) was enhanced by prebiotics after 2 h of incubation. A high growth rate of 3.13% was observed in the case of L. plantarum (B4) and a 3.37% higher rate for B. lactis (B3), compared to the growth of probiotics in the control medium with glucose but no prebiotics. The best candidates for synbiotic combinations based on this in vitro work are the strains belonging to L. plantarum (B4), L. rhamnosus (B3) and B. lactis (B2), consistent with prebiotics such as astragalus polysaccharides and vegetable protein hydrolysate. These combinations will be subject to future in vivo poultry trials involving the in ovo microbiome modulation.
Background Some of the noise-intensive processes in dental laboratories include the finishing of crowns, bridges, and removable partial dentures; blowing out workpieces with steam and compressed air; and deflating casting rings. High sound pressure levels are also present in dental vibrators, polishing equipment, and sandblasters. The aim of this study was to Evaluation of the effect of noise production in dental technology laboratory on dental technician hearing capacity. Methods For this cross-sectional study, a total of 120 dental technicians were chosen. Otoscopic evaluation and the Weber test were used to establish if they had sensorineural or transmission hearing loss at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, and 4000 Hz, respectively. Then an OAER (objective auditory evoked response) and PTA (clinical aurimeter) test were administered (Neurosoft, Russia). The whole procedure was carried out by an audiologist and an ENT specialist. Results The PTA results showed that the patient had mild hearing impairment overall, with the loss being more severe in the left ear than in the right. The OAE test results revealed that in-ear of the left side, 84.5% of subjects passed and 15.5% of subjects struggled and were referred to an ear specialist, whereas in the right ear, 82.7% of subjects passed and 17.3% struggled and were referred to an ear specialist. According to this study, in a right-handed study participant, the ear on the left side is more vulnerable than the right side. Differences in the mean hearing threshold at 4000 and 6000 Hz in the left ear were statistically significant in the groups of workers with eleven to fifteen years of practical experience and twenty-one to twenty-five years of practical experience, respectively (Minervini, et al. J Clin Med 12:2652, 2023). Conclusions A statistically meaningful threshold shift from 4000 to 6000 Hz is observed as the working experience grows, and this is suggestive of sensorineural hearing impairment brought on by the noisy dental environment.
Optical genome mapping (OGM), which allows analysis of ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) DNA molecules, represents a response to the restriction created by short-read next-generation-sequencing, even in cases where the causative variant is a neutral copy-number-variant insensitive to quantitative investigations. This study aimed to provide a molecular diagnosis to a boy with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and intellectual disability (ID) carrying a de novo translocation involving chromosomes 3, 4, and 13 and a 1.7 Mb deletion at the breakpoint of chromosome 3. No FBN1 alteration explaining his Marfan phenotype was highlighted. UHMW gDNA was isolated from both the patient and his parents and processed using OGM. Genome assembly was followed by variant calling and annotation. Multiple strategies confirmed the results. The 3p deletion, which disrupted ROBO2, (MIM*602431) included three copy-neutral insertions. Two came from chromosome 13; the third contained 15q21.1, including the FBN1 from intron- 45 onwards, thus explaining the MFS phenotype. We could not attribute the ID to a specific gene variant nor to the reshuffling of topologically associating domains (TADs). Our patient did not have vesicular reflux-2, as reported by missense alterations of ROBO2 (VUR2, MIM#610878), implying that reduced expression of all or some isoforms has a different effect than some of the point mutations. Indeed, the ROBO2 expression pattern and its role as an axon-guide suggests that its partial deletion is responsible for the patient’s neurological phenotype. Conclusion: OGM testing 1) highlights copy-neutral variants that could remain invisible if no loss of heterozygosity is observed and 2) is mandatory before other molecular studies in the presence of any chromosomal rearrangement for an accurate genotype-phenotype relationship.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a long-known complex neurodevelopmental disorder, and over the past decades, with the enhancement of the research genomic techniques, has been the object of intensive research activity, and many genes involved in the development and functioning of the central nervous system have been related to ASD genesis. Herein, we report a patient with severe ASD carrying a G > A de novo variant in the FGFR2 gene, determining a missense mutation. FGFR2 encodes for the ubiquitous fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) type 2, a tyrosine kinase receptor implicated in several biological processes. The mutated version of this protein is known to be responsible for several variable overlapping syndromes. Even if there still is only sparse and anecdotal data, recent research highlighted a potential role of FGFR2 on neurodevelopment. Our findings provide new insights into the potential causative role of FGFR2 gene in complex neurodevelopmental disorders.
The gender gap is a current topical issue. Sexist assumptions that manifest as gender stereotypes are partially responsible for these inequalities. The ambivalent sexism theory argues that hostile sexism refers to explicitly antagonistic sexist attitudes, while benevolent sexism refers to apparently positive but implicitly malevolent attitudes. There has been evidence reported that benevolent sexism is detrimental to women’s personal and professional well-being, implies lower levels of career aspiration and impacts task performance. This study is aimed at examining the impact that the experience of benevolent and hostile sexism could have on performance and job satisfaction. A total of 402 female workers were enrolled. The results showed that an experience with benevolent sexism significantly decreased the positive relationship between work engagement, psychological capital and organisational support and outcomes. Conversely, hostile sexism only reduces job satisfaction in its interaction with work engagement and organisational support. Moreover, through a multi-group analysis, possible differences across age were examined in the theorised model. Here, the younger generation seems to be more affected and experience more benevolent sexism than the older generation, which is seen both in individual moderators and in their interactions with predictors. This study is helpful for a deeper comprehension of contemporary sexism, offering also suggestions for equality policies’ design.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.