University of Cape Coast
  • Cape Coast, Ghana
Recent publications
Global health efforts such as malarial control require efficient pharmaceutical supply chains to ensure effective delivery of quality-assured medicines to those who need them. However, very little is currently known about decision-making processes within antimalarial supply chains and potential vulnerabilities to substandard and falsified medicines. Addressing this gap, we report on a study that investigated decision-making around the stocking of antimalarial products among private-sector medicine retailers in Ghana. Licensed retail pharmacies and over-the-counter (OTC) medicine retail outlets were sampled across six regions of Ghana using a two-stage stratified sampling procedure, with antimalarial medicines categorised as ‘expensive,’ ‘mid-range,’ and ‘cheaper,’ relative to other products in the shop. Retailers were asked about their motivations for choosing to stock particular products over others. The reasons were grouped into three categories: financial, reputation/experience and professional recommendation. Reputation/experience (76%, 95% CI 72.0% to 80.7%) were the drivers of antimalarial stocking decisions, followed by financial reasons (53.2%, 95% CI 48.1% to 58.3%) and recommendation by certified health professionals (24.7%, 95% CI 20.3% to 29.1%). Financial considerations were particularly influential in stocking decisions of cheaper medicines. Moreover, pharmacies and OTCs without a qualified pharmacist were significantly more likely to indicate financial reasons as a motivation for stocking decisions. No significant differences in stocking decisions were found by geographical location (zone and urban/rural) or outlet (pharmacy/OTC). These findings have implications for the management of antimalarial quality across supply chains in Ghana, with potentially important consequences for malaria control, particularly in lower-income areas where people rely on low-cost medication.
Background: The lack of clarity about the factors that motivate service providers to take a career in palliative care presents a significant knowledge gap that must be filled. This is because gaining knowledge about the motivations for taking a career in palliative care would provide valuable insights that can potentially increase buy-in and interest among prospective healthcare professionals. By elucidating the motivations of service providers, the study aims to contribute to the broader field of palliative care research and inform the development of tailored interventions and training programmes to increase the pool of specialized palliative care providers. Objective: To explore palliative care service providers’ motivations to practice palliative care. Design: Exploratory descriptive design. Methods: In all, seven in-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Data were managed using NVivo-12. Inductive thematic analysis was performed by following Hasse’s adaptation of Colaizzi’s approach to qualitative thematic analysis. Results: Two main factors motivated service providers to take a career in palliative care. The first was the influence of professional training while the second motivation was from their personal experiences regarding providing care to a family member with palliative care needs. Conclusion: The study concludes that personal experiences with caring for a loved one with palliative care needs play a pivotal role in shaping the decision of service providers to pursue a career in palliative care. Also, investment in palliative care education and training is crucial to ensure a skilled workforce capable of meeting the growing needs of patients and families facing serious illnesses.
The study was conducted on universities in Ghana because of the challenges of the increase in talent shortfalls, reduction in their aptitude to forecast future talent needs and a surge in the risk of being overstaffed or understaffed, and the presence of an inappropriate mix of the skills they need to develop the human capital. It enjoins universities to develop effective human capital planning systems. However, it is yet known how universities in Ghana in particular plan their human capital requirements. Particularly, the status of the present human capital in universities in Ghana based on differences among universities for achieving the objectives of human capital planning has not been researched. Hence, the study investigated the status of human capital planning (HCP) at the University of Cape Coast (UCC) and the University of Education, Winneba (UEW), both in the Central Region of Ghana. A descriptive design and quantitative approach with a stratified sampling technique were employed for a sample of 138 senior members in both academic and non-academic fields for the study out of which 106 responded to a structured questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney U test was used as the estimation technique. We revealed that there are no significant differences between the two institutions as the emphasis placed on the various factors of the HCP process was similar in both institutions. We recommend that more concerted efforts should be made towards HCP in UCC and UEW to enhance productivity and institutional growth.
In this qualitative study, we share the musical experiences of seven Ghanaian university music students who primarily play a brass instrument in a university band. The purpose of this study is to illuminate these students’ musical experiences during their pre-tertiary years to better understand what those experiences were and how they impacted their current musical abilities and understandings. The research questions for this study are: What were the formal musical experiences of Ghanaian university music majors who play Western-style brass instruments before entering university? What music teaching and learning methods did they experience prior to entering university? Who were the people who taught them music prior to entering university? Findings indicate that musical spaces were mostly outside of the regular school curriculum, including extra-curricular school regimental bands, church brigades, and town bands. Music learning was non-sequential throughout students’ pre-tertiary experiences. Lack of access to instruments outside of rehearsals was a barrier to individual practice. Participants showed a lack of clarity about their music teachers’ credentials, experience, and backgrounds but their answers suggest that professional development and training programs for teachers would be beneficial. It is recommended that Ghanaian brass band music education is restructured in places where it already exists and where pre-tertiary students choose to play, to include more comprehensive and sequential instrumental music education.
With cohabitation increasingly becoming a relationship option for many young adults, understanding the attitudes and intentions that fuel the decision to cohabit is important. Using a generic qualitative research design, we set out to explore this among emerging adults in a Ghanaian university. Our sample included 44 students who participated in a discussion focused on determining what cohabitation means to them, the significance they attach to cohabitation, their evaluations and whether they intend to cohabit. Regarding participants’ attitudes, four themes were generated from analyses of the data including ‘Meaning of Cohabitation’, ‘Cohabitation before Marriage is Crucial to Marital Success’, ‘Cohabitation is a Gateway to Moral and Institutional Transgressions’, and ‘As Long as We Marry’. Findings also showed significant gender differences in intention to cohabit although the consensus among participants was that one’s intention to cohabit is dependent on the individual’s personal and vicarious experiences within their environment. Based on these findings, we recommend that counsellors and guardians be equipped with the knowledge base and skills required to help young adults navigate cohabitation relationships and advocate for strengthening policy and education on cohabitation.
Understanding the factors associated with women’s autonomy to refuse risky sex is imperative to inform the development of policies and interventions to reduce the risk of unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, unsafe abortion, and maternal mortality. This study sought to examine the prevalence and factors associated with women’s autonomy to refuse risky sex in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Data for the study were extracted from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of thirty countries in SSA conducted from 2010 to 2020. We included a weighted sample of 260,025 women who were married or cohabiting in the final analysis. Percentages were used to present the results of the prevalence of women’s ability to refuse risky sex. We used a multilevel logistic regression analysis to examine the factors associated with women’s ability to refuse risky sex. Stata software version 16.0 was used for the analysis. We found that 61.69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.22–67.15) of the women were autonomous to refuse sex if their partners have other women, and this was highest in Namibia (91.44% [95% CI: 90.77–92.18]) and lowest in Mali (22.25% [95% CI: 21.24–23.26]). The odds of autonomy in refusing risky sex was higher among women with higher education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.78–1.46) compared to those with no formal education. Employment status was also a significant predictor, with working women having higher odds of sex refusal compared to non-working women (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.13–1.18). Advocacy to improve women’s autonomy to refuse risky sex must leverage the mass media as it emerged as a significant factor. Policies and intervention to enhance women’s autonomy must also target high-risk sub-populations which constitutes adolescent girls, those with no formal education, and those without employment.
Curtailing COVID-19 outbreaks has been the major focus for many countries following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nigeria expanded its effort with the commencement of its vaccination program against COVID-19 in March 2021 after several less effective interventions as vaccine introduction was implemented. Following the introduction of the vaccines, Nigeria is expected to meet the worldwide COVID-19 eradication target of vaccinating 40% and 70% of the population, respectively, by the end of 2021 and 2022. Nigeria was unable to meet the target at the commencement of the program. The low vaccination rate, attributed to a low acceptance rate of vaccines, a lack of access to vaccines, poor communication, a weak cold-chain system, and inadequate infrastructure in the country, resulted in the complete vaccination of only 15% of the Nigerian populace as of September 21, 2022. To improve the vaccination rate, the COVID-19 Crisis Communication Centre was launched. Also, the implementation of delivery of service, logistics, accountability, supportive supervision, communication, and electronic management of immunization data scaled the vaccination rate to more than 54% of the target populace as of December 2022. Since the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine, a substantial change in the prevalence and mortality rate has been perceived owing to the country’s progress toward achieving herd immunity against COVID-19. The country ascertained the percentage of cumulative deaths before the vaccination process to be 60.4%, which was reduced to 39.6% post-vaccination. In comparison, the percentage of confirmed COVID-19 cases was reduced from 58.3% to 41.7% post-vaccination. We recommend that the government and relevant public health authorities ensure meticulous documentation of the outcomes resulting from vaccination initiatives and facilitate the accessibility of this information to the general public to boost the vaccination rate.
This study explored workplace barriers, psychosocial resources, and experiences of combining work and family roles among persons with disabilities in Ghana. Using a qualitative description approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 individuals with physical disabilities who are engaged in paid work. Thematic analysis of the data showed that discrimination was a common experience among participants in the study. Challenges with transport and infrastructure undermined the capacity of persons with disabilities to thrive in the workplace. In addition, limited time and financial resources were major sources of stress for persons with disabilities who combine work and family roles. Participants found social support important for juggling work and family roles. Participants also experienced satisfaction characterized by a strong sense of self-efficacy in fulfilling personal and family needs and meeting workplace expectations. The findings underscore the need for initiatives that foster positive attitudes toward persons with disabilities. In particular, employers should be sensitized to both the individual and organizational benefits of engaging persons with disabilities in the labor market.
Background: Because of the essential nature of the work of medical laboratory professionals, continuing development in knowledge and skills is indispensable. The study aimed at identifying and prioritizing the development and training needs of medical laboratory professionals in Ghana. This is expected to help in developing focused continuing professional development (CPD) that meets the needs of practitioners as well as the changing medical trends. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey in February 2022 using a structured questionnaire was conducted. Respondents were asked questions that collected demographic and work-related data about them, their participation , preference, and challenges in being part of CPDs. Finally, a list of topics based on (i) quality management systems, (ii) technical competence, (iii) laboratory management, leadership, and coaching, (iv) pathophysiology, and (iv) data interpretation and research were asked with the option to rate them on a 3-point scale (most, moderate, and least) in order of importance. Results: A total of 316 medical laboratory professionals participated in the study. Overall, the most frequently selected topics for training based on domains for CPD training and ranking as most important were (i) quality management systems, (mean = 80.59 ± 9.024; 95% CI = 73.04-88.13); (ii) pathophysiology, data interpretation, and research (mean = 78.0 ± 6.973; 95% CI = 73.97-82.03); (iii) technical competence (mean = 73.97 ± 10.65; 95% CI = 66.35-81.59); and (iv) laboratory management, leadership, and coaching (mean = 72.82 ± 9.719; 95% CI = 67.44-78.2). The factors affecting the choice of training needs included the medical laboratory professionals' current place of work, years in service, the reason for attending CPD activities, the period for attending the last CPD, being in a supervisory role, and the number of staff being supervised. Face-to-face presentations, training workshops, and hands-on workshops were the most preferred modes of CPD delivery with financial implications and workload/time constraints being the main challenges impeding CPD participation. Conclusion: The identified needs will help in developing CPD programs that address what medical laboratory professionals prioritize as training needs. Stakeholders should incorporate these training needs into future programs and address the challenges highlighted in this study to have more relevant training for medical laboratory professionals.
Objective Physical inactivity is linked to chronic illnesses and disabilities among workers, especially those in high demanding jobs like teachers. Despite the global prominence of sedentary behavior research, studies drawing the relationships between physical inactivity and multimorbidity among working teacher populations in low-and middle-countries remain untapped. This study assessed the sedentariness and health status of primary school teachers in Cape Coast Metropolis in Ghana. Method This cross-sectional survey employed 1109 primary school teachers from the Cape Coast Metropolis in the Central Region of Ghana, targeting the entire population. Results Generally, the teachers were highly sedentary and reported poor health status. Other results showed no difference in sedentariness across gender, (n = 1107, t= -0.32, p > 0.05). However, female teachers suffer more pain and discomfort, (n = 1103.51), t = − 3.07, p < 0.05), anxiety and depression, (n = 1099.56), t = − 2.85, p < 0.000), and poor health status (n = 1107), t = 2.14, p < 0.05), than their male counterparts. Also, pain and discomfort, anxiety and depression, health status and years of work significantly predicted sedentariness among the teachers, F (4, 1104) = 5.966, p = 0.00, R = 0.145, R² = 0.029, adjusted R² = 0.018. Conclusion The findings suggest that individualized or personalized interventions are urgently needed to promote regular physical activity to improve the health status and reduce associated complications on the health and well-being, especially among the female primary school teachers. Given the health risks of sedentary lifestyle, behavioral interventions at the person-level (i.e., individualized- routine weekly physical activity programs) and built environmental restructuring (e.g., creation of walkways to encourage regular walking) could be done to improve physical activity behavior among teachers within the Cape Coast Metropolis, and perhaps beyond.
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDPs) are no longer seen as "transitory diseases cured by delivery." It accounts for up to 50% of maternal deaths. Information concerning HDPs is less in developing countries like Ghana. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence, awareness, risk factors, control, and the birth outcomes of HDPs. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted among pregnant women seeking care in selected health facilities in the Ashanti Region. Data on demographics, HDPs, and its associated birth outcomes were collected. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association of the independent variables with HDPs. The burden of HDPs was 37.2% among the 500 mothers enrolled with chronic hypertension superimposed with preeclampsia accounting for 17.6%, chronic hypertension, 10.2%, and preeclampsia 6.8% whilst gestational hypertension was 2.6%. It was observed that 44% (220) of the mothers had excellent knowledge on HDPs. Oral nifedipine and methyldopa were frequently used for HDP management, and it resulted in a significant reduction in HDP burden from 37.2% to 26.6%. Factors that influenced the increased risk of HDPs were grand multigravida (AOR = 4 53; CI = 1 42-14.42), family history of hypertension (AOR = 3 61; CI = 1 89-6.90), and the consumption of herbal preparations (AOR = 2 92; CI = 1 15-7.41) and alcohol (AOR = 4 10; CI = 1 34-12.62) during pregnancy. HDPs increased the risk of preterm delivery (AOR = 2 66; CI = 1 29-5.89), stillbirth (AOR = 12 47; CI = 2 72-57.24), and undergoing caesarean section (AOR = 1 70; CI = 1 10-2.61) amongst mothers during delivery. The burden of HDPs is high amongst pregnant mothers seeking care in selected facilities. There is the need for intensified campaign on HDPs in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.
In the field of nanomedicine, biogenic metal nanoparticles are commonly synthesized using edible plant products as bio-reducing or stabilizing agents. In this study, discarded shell of velvet tamarind fruit is explored as a potent reducing agent for biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (VeV-AgNPs). Silver nanoparticles were formed in minutes under sunlight exposure, which was considerably fast compared to under ambient conditions. The optical, structural and morphological studies revealed that the nanoparticle colloidal solution consisted of particles with quasi-spherical and rodlike morphologies. To investigate antimicrobial properties, eight microorganisms were exposed to the VeV-AgNPs. The results indicated that VeV-AgNPs had enhanced antimicrobial activity, with a recorded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.9 µg/mL against E. coli. Further studies were conducted to examine the biofilm inhibition properties and synergistic effect of the VeV-AgNPs. The findings showed a biofilm inhibition potential of around 98% against E. coli, and the particles were also found to increase the efficacy of standard antimicrobial agents. The combinatory effect with standard antifungal and antibacterial agents ranged from synergistic to antagonistic effects against the tested microorganisms. These results suggest that silver nanoparticles produced from discarded shells of velvet tamarind are potent and could be used as a potential drug candidate to combat antimicrobial resistance.
Using COSMIC-2 and METOP radio occultation measurements during the years 2020 and 2021, the study presents the first direct and independent relationship between the potential energy (E p ) in the stratosphere, precipitable water vapour (PWV), tropopause heights (TPH), and cold-point heights (CPH) over South America. The South American continent comprises the tropical region, the Andes Mountain range, and mid-latitude climates. The seasonal mean of the potential energy (E p ), the PWV, and the tropopause parameters height (TPH and CPH) were obtained to investigate the relationship between the stratospheric gravity wave (SGW) E p and the tropospheric parameters (PWV, TPH, and CPH). Around the Andes Mountains to the east, there is significantly less water vapour (PWV < 10 mm) and a relatively high gravity wave E p (E p > 8 kJ kg − 1 ). A good correlation of variability was found between the PWV and the lower SGW E p in summer over the tropical region (± 20 ◦ ). Generally, good and strong correlations were observed in the summer and spring, with negative/no correlations in the winter in 2020 and 2021. Also, good and strong correlations between SGW, PWV, and TPH were observed in the summer at $${20}^{o}N - {10}^{o}N$$ 20 o N - 10 o N in 2020 and 2021. Our result demonstrated the possibility that convective activity was a major driver of the tropical gravity waves over South America. In the subtropical (30 $$^\circ$$ ∘ –40 $$^\circ$$ ∘ ) region, especially in the winter, the tropospheric parameters make little or no contribution to gravity wave activity in the region. The CPH generally showed a no/negative with SGW over the South American tropics. The SGW activities in the tropical region showed an impact on the structure of the tropopause parameters, which could be a result of the convective activity in this region. Graphical Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the extent to which work-related burnout and psychosocial environment predicted intention to leave employment. This cross-sectional survey sampled 1 222 Ghanaian university employees (females = 37.1%; age range = 18 to above 60 years; mean years of work experience = 5 years, SD = 3.1 years). The employees completed Demand-Control-Support, Work Burnout, Chronic Work Discrimination and Harassment, and Turnover Intention Measures. Using structural equation modelling (SEM), results indicate that work factors like job demand, job decision latitude and harassment predict turnover intention. Personal factors of depersonalisation and diminished personal accomplishment (but not emotional exhaustion) significantly influenced the turnover intention of the workers. Both female and male academic and non-academic employees reported experiencing significantly higher levels of work factors and personal factors and a moderate level of turnover intention. There is a need for university administration to create a workplace climate team to support employees in performing their roles.
The study investigates the conditioning effect of institutions in the relationship between trade openness and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan African economies. Employing generalized method of moments, it was revealed that institutions influence the relationship between trade openness and poverty reduction in SSA. Thus, to reduce poverty in the region, SSA economies must first start by opening their economies to international trade. This could be achieved by reducing import and export taxes, focusing more on exporting value-added products and providing relevant training and information for importers and exporters. However, such attempts will be more fruitful in the presence of sound institutions.
With a focus on oceans, we collaborated across ecological, social and legal disciplines to respond to the United Nations call for transformation in the ‘2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’. We developed a set of 13 principles that strategically and critically connect transformative ocean research to transformative ocean governance (complementing the UN Decade for Ocean Science). We used a rigorous, iterative and transparent consensus-building approach to define the principles, which can interact in supporting, neutral or sometimes conflicting ways. We recommend that the principles could be applied as a comprehensive set and discuss how to learn from their interactions, particularly those that reveal hidden tensions. The principles can bring and keep together partnerships for innovative ocean action. This action must respond to the many calls to reform current ocean-use practices which are based on economic growth models that have perpetuated inequities and fuelled conflict and environmental decline.
Artisanal fisheries in Ghana account for more than two-thirds of the country’s food fish production and employ or support up to 2 million people. However, many fish stocks are close to collapse through overexploitation, especially stocks such as sardinella that are a staple food for Ghanaians. Climate change is expected to affect the fish themselves as well as fishing activities, increasing the already high risk to fishers’ livelihoods and Ghana’s food security. Here, we use a climate change risk assessment framework to assess vulnerability of Ghanaian fisheries, considering climate hazards, fish species sensitivity and socio-economic vulnerability of different fisheries sectors and regions. The results show that some of the species that constitute the highest catches in Ghana are highly sensitive to climate change, such as snappers, Congo dentex and groupers. Some species assessed as having low sensitivity to climate change in the region are migratory pelagic fish, including tuna. Species caught by artisanal fleets are typically more sensitive than those captured by semi-industrial and industrial fleets. Regionally, the highest climate risk is found for Volta in the east, and the lowest for the Greater Accra region, along the central part of the coastline. This information can be used to identify, with stakeholders, the climate adaptation actions that are most suitable for the different regions and fisheries sectors. Actions can be tailored to the different aspects of climate risk, helping the country to achieve its aims of restoring fish stocks, safeguarding livelihoods and improving climate resilience for Ghana’s artisanal fishers.
Background While Ghana has a good track record in the Expanded Programme on Immunization, there are substantial challenges with regards to subsequent vaccinations, particularly after the first year of life of the child. Given that the last dose of the RTS, S/AS01E vaccine against malaria is administered at 24 months, there is a high likelihood of default. Hence, it is imperative to understand the dynamics and reasons for the defaults to enable the development of effective implementation strategies. This study explored why caregivers default on the RTS, S/AS01E vaccine from the perspective of health service providers and caregivers. Methods This study employed an exploratory, descriptive approach. Using a purposive sampling technique, caregivers who defaulted and health service providers directly involved in the planning and delivery of the RTS, S/AS01E vaccine at the district level were recruited. A total of five health service providers and 30 mothers (six per FGD) participated in this study. Data analysis was done using NVivo-12 following Collaizi’s thematic framework for qualitative analysis. The study relies on the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research. Results Reasons for defaulting included the overlap of timing of the last dose and the child starting school, disrespectful attitudes of some health service providers, concerns about adverse side effects and discomforts, travel out of the implementing district, the perception that the vaccines are too many, and lack of support from partners. Conclusion To reduce the occurrence of defaulting on the RTS, S/AS01E vaccine programme, stakeholders must reconsider the timing of the last dose of the vaccine. The schedule of the RTS, S/AS01E vaccine should be aligned with the established EPI schedule of Ghana. This will significantly limit the potential of defaults, particularly for the last dose. Also, the findings from this study underscore a need to encourage male partner involvement in the RTS, S/AS01E vaccine programme. Health promotion programmes could be implemented to raise caregivers’ awareness of potential adverse reactions and discomforts—this is necessary to prepare the caregiver for the vaccine process psychologically.
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8,287 members
Anokye M. Adam
  • Department of Finance
Collins Adjei Mensah
  • Department of Geography & Regional Planning
Benjamin Kofi Nyarko
  • Department of Geography & Regional Planning
Ernest Ekow Abano
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering
Samuel Awuah-Nyamekye
  • Department of Religion & Human Values
Cape Coast, Ghana