University of Cape Coast
  • Cape Coast, Ghana
Recent publications
Alternative splicing (AS) is a common and pivotal process for eukaryotic gene expression regulation, which enables a precursor RNA to produce multiple transcript variants with diverse cellular functions. Aberrant AS represents a hallmark of cancer, engaged in all stages of tumorigenesis from initiation to metastasis. Accumulating pieces of evidence have revealed the involvement of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in regulating AS in human cancers. In this review, we overview the underlying mechanisms of non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) modulated AS at diverse levels in human cancers, and summarize their regulatory functions in tumorigenesis.
Teenage motherhood is a social occurrence that presents itself in every country. This paper explored lived experiences of teenage mothers in the Adaklu District of Ghana. The study was a phenomenological qualitative study. Data for the study were obtained through narratives, and photovoices; using an in-depth interview guide. The thematic data analysis technique was employed to present the findings. The study purposively sampled 30 teenage mothers. Teenage mothers used pictures such as trees by the riverside, stacked blocks, and electrical sockets to explain their motherhood experiences. Codes from the data revolved around instruction, and communicative learning lived experiences. Teenage motherhood experiences were largely on issues such as the irresponsible attitude of a child’s father, rape, remorsefulness, engagement in apprenticeship, supportive partners, and relatives. It can be concluded that teenage mothers have different perspectives on their lived experiences which could either help or hinder how they make meaning of their lives.
The governance of pharmaceutical medicines entails complex ethical decisions that should, in theory, be the responsibility of democratically accountable government agencies. However, in many Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), regulatory and health systems constraints mean that many people still lack access to safe, appropriate and affordable medication, posing significant ethical challenges for those working on the "front line". Drawing on 18 months of fieldwork in Ghana, we present three detailed case studies of individuals in this position: an urban retail pharmacist, a rural over-the-counter medicine retailer, and a local inspector. Through these case studies, we consider the significant burden of "ethical labour" borne by those operating "on the ground", who navigate complex moral, legal and business imperatives in real time and with very real consequences for those they serve. The paper ends with a reflection on the tensions between abstract, generalised ethical frameworks based on high-level principles, and a pragmatic, contingent ethics-in-practice that foregrounds immediate individual needs - a tension rooted in the gap between the theory and the reality of pharmaceutical governance that shifts the burden of ethical labour downwards and perpetuates long-term public health risks.
Background Neonatal mortality in many low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains high despite global efforts at addressing this challenge. Tackling neonatal death in LMICs is further complicated by lack of reliable data from individual countries in the region to inform effective context specific interventions. This study investigates the probability of neonatal survival and socio-demographic risk factors of neonatal mortality in Ghana. Methods Pooled data from three population-based surveys ( N = 12,148) were analysed using multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards regression models. Results The risk of dying within the first 28 days of life was highest in the first week of life (early neonatal period), it then decreases sharply around the middle of the second week of life and remains low over the late neonatal period. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) showed that: rural residency (HR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.75); birth order 2-3 (HR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.10-2.42); birth order ≥7 (HR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.07-3.33) increased the risk of neonatal death. Additionally, children born to women who were obese had higher risk of neonatal death (HR = 1.69, CI: 1.12-2.56) compared with those of women with optimal weight. Disparities in the risk of neonatal death by geographical regions were also found. Conclusion The risk of neonatal mortality is highest during the first week of life and it is socio-demographically patterned. The findings emphasise the need to tackle socio-demographic risk factors of neonatal mortality in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal 3, which is aimed at reducing neonatal mortality to 12 per 1000 live births by the year 2030.
Background On the account of limited doses of COVID-19 available to the country, the Government of Ghana created a priority list of persons to target for its vaccination agenda. In this paper, we look at trust and how it informs willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine among persons targeted for the first phase of COVID-19 vaccination program in Ghana. Methods A sequential mixed-method investigation was conducted among the priority population - persons 60 years and above, frontline government functionaries, health workers, persons with underlying health conditions and, religious leaders and teachers. We sampled 415 respondents from the target population for a survey and 15 religious and traditional leaders from three cities; Accra, Cape Coast and Tamale for follow-up in-depth interviews based on the results of the survey data. Quantitative data is presented with descriptive proportions and multinomial logistic regression and thematic approach is applied to the interview data. Results Trust and willingness to take the vaccine are high in this priority population. Trust in the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, rather than socioeconomic characteristics of respondents better predicted acceptance. From interview narratives, mistrust in political actors - both local and foreign, believe in superior protection of God and seeming misunderstanding of vaccine development processes countermand acceptance. On the other hand, the professional influence of people in one’s social networks, and past triumphs of vaccination programmes against concerning childhood diseases embed trust and acceptance. Conclusions Attention ought to be given to trust enhancing triggers while strategic communication approaches are used to remove triggers of mistrust.
Background Cancer is a major threat to public health globally and in Ghana. Breast cancer is a serious health problem among women which affects the daily functioning of the individual and their psychological health. Aim The study examined the influence of spirituality and health beliefs on anxiety and depression among preoperative breast cancer patients in Ghana. Methodology This is a qualitative study involving 54 preoperative breast cancer patients selected from 3 referral hospitals in Accra namely: 37 Military hospital, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, and the Sweden Ghana Medical Centre all in Ghana. The study collected data via one-on-one in-depth interviews (IDI) and Focus group discussion (FGD). Result Qualitative thematic analysis techniques were employed to analyse data and the results revealed spirituality and health beliefs influenced patients’ perception and health-seeking, while spirituality in particular helped patients cope with the disease. The results also showed that participants’ levels of anxiety increased due mainly to surgery which is the most common mode of breast cancer treatment. Discussion This study generates knowledge about the relations between spirituality, health beliefs and psychological wellbeing among breast cancer patients in Ghana. The study implies that spirituality and health beliefs of the cancer experience have implications for psychological wellbeing.
Ghana's prevailing power issues have incited the government's interest in integrating renewable energy sources into the country's present energy mix for sustainable energy supply and to minimise carbon emissions. Hybridising renewable energy resources has recently gained attention due to the intermittent nature of some resources. The objective of this study is to rank the performance of ten hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) for sustainable port operations in Ghana using multicriteria decision-making algorithms. All chosen criteria for decision-making analysis emanate from technical, economic, environmental, socio-cultural, and policy pillars extensively employed in evaluating new technologies towards sustainability. Fifteen unique decision-making algorithms were tested on the decision matrix to rank the HRES. After that, the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was applied to validate the ranks obtained from the algorithms to make the final selection. The final rankings indicated that PV/wind/battery/natural gas is the optimal HRES for Takoradi port compared to the other HRES. This indicates that extensive investment in PV/wind/battery/natural gas systems has a reasonable potential to achieve sustainable energy for the Ghanaian industrial sector. The findings are vital for decision-makers, policymakers, and investors in developing Ghana's renewable energy sector.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all sectors of the economy resulting in unprecedented challenges for market participants, policymakers, and practitioners. This study envisages this issue from the perspective of real estate investment trusts (REITs), which is a relatively less analysed segment. We examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on REIT returns for 12 top REIT regimes spread across America, Asia, and Europe under the bullish, bearish, and normal market conditions over the COVID-19 period (specifically from February 02, 2020, to January 24, 2022). We employ the quantile-on-quantile regression and causality-in-quantiles approach. We document a strong (weak) predictive power of COVID-19 cases on REIT returns within the lower (upper) conditioned quantiles. Our findings are of importance to market participants, practitioners, and regulators across REIT regimes.
This study determined the effect of deep-freeze pretreatment of sorghum leaf sheath on the extraction yield of ultrasound-extracted purified polysaccharides (DFUP-1), and confirmed the physicochemical, structural and bioactive characteristics of DFUP-1. Deep-freeze pretreatment induced breaks in the cell walls and resulted in a higher yield (14.35%) of crude polysaccharide extract than without pretreatment (9.23%). The crude extract was purified using DEAE-52 cellulose ion exchange and Sephadex G-100 gel-filtration chromatography to obtain DFUP-1. The ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectra of DFUP-1 showed the presence of β-glycosidic linkages and a substitution at C6 of the sugars which may be O-methyl substitution or due to β (1−6) linkages. Peaks for α-anomeric linkages were not detected. The FTIR spectrum of DFUP-1 confirmed its carbohydrate functional groups. Periodate oxidation and formic acid analysis of DFUP-1 showed 1-, 1–6, 1–2, 1–3 and 1–4 linkages. GC-MS analysis of monosaccharide residues of DFUP-1 showed presence of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose and xylose. Congo red assay showed that DFUP-1 was not of triple-helix configuration. The ABTS⁺ and DPPH radical scavenging assay showed an IC50 of 0.10 mg/mL and 1.19 mg/mL for DFUP-1 respectively. At 0.2 mg/mL DFUP-1 showed anti-inflammatory (anti-egg denaturation) activity of 41.52%. The DFUP-1 sample showed lower inhibitory effect against proliferation of leukemia cells at an IC50 of 37.43 µg/mL compared to curcumin with IC50 of 0.98 µg/mL. Taken together, deep-freeze pretreatment coupled with ultrasound extraction increases yield of sorghum leaf sheath polysaccharides with potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.
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6,673 members
Anokye M. Adam
  • Department of Finance
Collins Adjei Mensah
  • Department of Geography & Regional Planning
Benjamin Kofi Nyarko
  • Department of Geography & Regional Planning
Ernest Ekow Abano
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering
Samuel Awuah-Nyamekye
  • Department of Religion & Human Values
Cape Coast, Ghana