This paper critically examines the use of online humor and ridicule to promote and normalize far-right exclusionary discourses. Through a critical qualitative study of the Please Explain miniseries, a series of thirty-four short web cartoons produced by Australian far-right populist party, Pauline Hanson's One Nation, we explore the strategic use of humor in the communicative arsenal of the contemporary far-right. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and thematic analysis, we examine how humor is used to soften articulations of exclusionary and supremacist ideas, including racism, misogyny, and queerphobia. Our findings suggest that the frivolity and irony of the online animated genre works to stretch the boundaries of the sayable, potentially making the content more palatable to non-far-right audiences. We argue that the strategic use of exclusionary humor forms part of a wider project of far-right discursive mainstreaming that simultaneously (re)legitimizes everyday expressions of exclusion.
Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is commonly treated with opioid analgesics despite evidence that these medicines provide minimal or no benefit for LBP and have an established profile of harms. International guidelines discourage or urge caution with the use of opioids for back pain; however, doctors and patients lack practical strategies to help them implement the guidelines. This trial will evaluate a multifaceted intervention to support general practitioners (GPs) and their patients with LBP implement the recommendations in the latest opioid prescribing guidelines. Methods and analysis This is a cluster randomised controlled trial that will evaluate the effect of educational outreach visits to GPs promoting opioid stewardship alongside non-pharmacological interventions including heat wrap and patient education about the possible harms and benefits of opioids, on GP prescribing of opioids medicines dispensed. At least 40 general practices will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to either the intervention or control (no outreach visits; GP provides usual care). A total of 410 patient–participants (205 in each arm) who have been prescribed an opioid for LBP will be enrolled via participating general practices. Follow-up of patient–participants will occur over a 1-year period. The primary outcome will be the cumulative dose of opioid dispensed that was prescribed by study GPs over 1 year from the enrolment visit (in morphine milligram equivalent dose). Secondary outcomes include prescription of opioid medicines, benzodiazepines, gabapentinoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by study GPs or any GP, health services utilisation and patient-reported outcomes such as pain, quality of life and adverse events. Analysis will be by intention to treat, with a health economics analysis also planned. Ethics and dissemination The trial received ethics approval from The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (2022/511). The results will be disseminated via publications in journals, media and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12622001505796.
Background A Phase I study showed that it is feasible to implement a home-based self-management program aimed at increasing physical activity in individuals after stroke with mild walking disability in Brazil. The next step is to test this program against a control group in order to provide a power analysis for a fully-powered Phase III clinical trial. Methods A Phase II pilot randomised clinical trial with concealed allocation, blinded measurement, and intention-to-treat analyses will be carried out. The inclusion criteria will be individuals diagnosed with stroke, in the acute or subacute phase, with mild walking disability, sedentary, and no significant language impairment. The participants will be randomly allocated to the experimental or control group. The experimental group will receive six sessions of a home-based self-management program based on behaviour change techniques through the Social-Cognitive Theory and Control Theory over 11 weeks. The control group will receive one session of education about stroke (regarding the importance of practising physical activity after a stroke) and usual care. A total of 24 participants will be recruited. The primary outcome will be physical activity, measured through steps taken per day by an activity monitor (Actigraph wGT3X-BT, Pensacola, FL, USA). The mean of daily steps will be analysed to compare groups after intervention. Secondary outcomes will be cardiovascular risk (body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure), depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), walking ability (6-Minute Walk Test and 10-Meter Walk Test), exercise self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy for Exercise scale), social participation (Stroke Impact Scale) and quality of life (EuroQual-5D). Two-way analyses of variance will be implemented for all parametric outcomes, and the Kruskal–Wallis test for non-parametric outcomes will be used to determine the statistical significance of the between-group differences and reported as mean differences between groups (95% CI). All analyses will be conducted intention-to-treat. All outcomes will be measured at baseline (Week 0), post-intervention (Week 12), and follow-up (Week 24). This pilot clinical trial was registered online at Clinical Trials under number NCT05461976 on 4th April 2022. Discussion If beneficial, this Phase II pilot randomised trial will provide data to plan a fully powered future Phase III clinical trial aimed at verifying the efficacy of this program to promote physical activity after stroke. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT05461976 on 4th April 2022.
Football (soccer), the world’s most popular sport, carries a legacy of gender exclusion. Women were banned from playing in many jurisdictions and remain largely absent from its leadership. Implicit and/or conscious biases perpetuate the under-development and under-resourcing of the women’s game, and the under-representation of women in decision-making roles, ‘the long-standing lack of women in positions of responsibility in the football community means there have been limited voices to advocate for change’ (FIFA, 2018, p. 4). In parallel, allegations of corruption have accompanied football, its officials, and its governing bodies (including the international federation, FIFA) for many years, with limited progress or accountability. In May 2015, the raids and arrest of senior FIFA officials triggered a corruption crisis, which provided the impetus for structural change. In the ensuing chaos, FIFA faced an overwhelming imperative for reform. At FIFA’s Congress in February 2016, a number of Statute amendments were approved, reflecting a growing acknowledgement and commitment to women in football. This chapter provides an insider’s view through Moya Dodd, one of the first women on FIFA's Executive Committee. During the corruption crisis of 2015, she submitted reform proposals and gave voice to the broader community of support for gender reforms in FIFA. We show the power of including lived experience through autoethnographic and reflective writing practice in formal evaluations of policy change for women in sport. Additionally, we encourage more practitioners to include creative writing practice to give voice to those driving change and highlight the process by which progress towards gender equality was, and can be, achieved.
Previous intimate partner violence research and social psychological theory have highlighted that ethnicity and level of harm are both factors that have the potential to influence bystander willingness to intervene in, as well as the acceptance of intimate partner violence between couples. Little research has been conducted on the general willingness of bystanders to intervene in, or the level of acceptance of coercive control. This is the first study to explore whether the likelihood of bystander willingness to intervene is influenced by participant gender, the ethnicity of the couple involved in a hypothetical scenario of coercive control, and by differing levels of abusive behavior. In this study, we also explored the influence of participants’ acceptance of coercive control. A semi-experimental design was used, utilizing an online community sample sourced through social media of 346 adult participants across Australia. The participants were randomly allocated to read a fictional coercive control scenario detailing either low or high harm instances of coercive control. Within the online survey the ethnicity of the couple was manipulated with participants’ randomly allocated to read a scenario about a couple with the same ethnicity as them (Australian of British or European descent) or a couple with Indian Australian ethnicity. The results showed the participants were significantly more willing to intervene in the coercive control scenario when the couple shared the same ethnicity as them. In response to the low harm scenarios, participants were significantly more accepting of coercive control if the couple were Indian Australian. However, males responding to high harm scenarios were more accepting of coercive control if the couple shared the same ethnic identity as them. The implications from these findings for theory and future bystander intervention programs are discussed.
Objective This study aimed to describe the social demographics and clinical profile of patients referred to the psychiatry service within the local Queensland metropolitan Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS). Method This was a retrospective cohort study of patients referred to the psychiatry service provided at three clinics of a metropolitan AMS, over an 18-month period. Medical records were accessed to determine demographic and diagnostic information. Results Diagnostically, 53% of patients had mood/anxiety disorders, 10% psychosis, 23% substance use and 14% with other diagnoses. There was approximately 50% non-attendance rate with no statistical difference between gender and age groups. The highest proportion of non-attenders within age groups was males 45–54 years old. The patients needed to travel an average of 20 km to attend the AMS. Conclusion The high non-attendance rates, and proportionately more males within the age group 45–54 years who were more likely to not attend their mental health appointments, suggested a target area for outreach services which have been implemented in the AMS. Some of the recommended solutions included confirming attendance the day prior and supporting with transport. This study highlighted the large distance that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people must travel to access culturally appropriate service.
Two hundred ninety-eight primary teachers (88% female) from across all Australian states and territories reported on the frequency with which they implemented instructional adaptations for struggling writers in their classrooms. They also rated their preparation and self-efficacy for teaching writing. The majority of participating teachers indicated they provided additional instruction on spelling, capitalization and punctuation, and sentence construction at least once a week or more often. Teachers further reported implementing additional minilessons and reteaching strategies and skills, as well as extra instruction on grammar, handwriting, text structure, revising, and planning on a monthly basis or more often. The majority of teachers reported never or only once a year using adaptations to support digital writing. The frequency with which teachers provided extra instruction on spelling, handwriting, text structure, revising, and computer use differed by grade. Only teachers’ perceived efficacy to teach writing made a unique and statistically significant contribution to predicting the use of instructional adaptations for writing and adaptations to support digital writing after controlling for teacher and classroom variables.
Waste management is a difficult and complicated issue. Since this waste may constitute a threat to persons and the environment, it is vital to guarantee that it is adequately collected. Therefore, new waste collection technologies that adopt modern technology and the Internet of Things (IoT) are the appropriate alternative. Determining the optimal intelligent technology for waste management and tuning its priorities is a complicated task that requires taking into account the dimensions of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. Thus, this paper introduces a hybrid methodology for multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) that assesses intelligent waste management technologies utilizing IoT, taking into account multiple criteria. First, eleven decision-making criteria are determined to give a realistic approach. Second, the researchers demonstrated the innovative decision approach established on the combination of the Measurement of Alternatives and Ranking according to the COmpromise Solution (MARCOS) method and the Indifference Threshold-based Attribute Ratio Analysis (ITARA) method, called T2NN-ITARA, under a type-2 neutrosophic numbers (T2NNs) environment. This approach has been used to define the criteria’s relative significance. Also, T2NN-MARCOS approach has been established to evaluate and classify intelligent waste management technologies based on IoT and to reveal the most sustainable solution. An illustrative case study evaluating four intelligent waste management technologies based on IoT is presented to prove the validity of the applied methodology. The findings show that the criteria of sustainability and standardization are the two most influential criteria in the evaluation and classification of intelligent waste management technologies based on IoT. It has also been determined that the RFID and GPRS blend for waste management is the most suitable intelligent technology for garbage management. Sensitivity and comparison analyzes were also accomplished to illustrate the stability, strength, and robustness of the suggested approach. The research provides significant information for government and waste practitioners.
This article discusses critical gaps in finance for loss and damage and analyses the decision on funding arrangements for loss and damage made at the Sharm el‐Sheikh climate conference (COP27) in 2022. The article first considers the history of various loss and damage finance proposals, including the loss and damage negotiations in the lead‐up to COP27. The article then considers in detail the agreed COP27 decision on loss and damage finance. The article concludes with a discussion of future directions in loss and damage finance. In particular, it discusses the importance of future loss and damage finance arrangements for addressing non‐economic loss and damage and also offers analysis of the criteria associated with ‘particularly vulnerable’ developing countries.
The piperazine-2,5-dione moiety is a useful scaffold for functionalisation to generate bioactive molecules. Synthetic methods for accessing substituted piperazine-2,5-diones involve cyclising dipeptides or building from the already established core. Utilising the latter method, we have developed procedures to condense a variety of methoxylated benzaldehydes to exclusively form (Z,Z)-(benzylidene)piperazine-2,5-diones 7. This methodology can easily be utilised to form both homo- and heterodimeric substituted piperazine-2,5-diones. Subjecting these compounds to hydrogenation affords two isomers. We detail simple NMR analyses that allow for identification of the cis or trans isomers. These analyses, combined with X-ray crystallography have shown that under the hydrogenation conditions used the cis isomer forms as the major product. The synthetic methodology combined with spectral analysis provides a valuable understanding of piperazine-2,5-dione properties.
Adaptive plasticity in thermal tolerance traits may buffer organisms against changing temperatures, making such responses of particular interest in the face of global climate change. Although population variation is integral to the evolvability of this trait, many studies inferring proxies of physiological vulnerability from thermal tolerance traits extrapolate data from one or a few populations to represent the species. Estimates of physiological vulnerability can be further complicated by methodological effects associated with experimental design. We evaluated how populations varied in their acclimation capacity (i.e., the magnitude of plasticity) for critical thermal maximum (CTmax) in two species of tailed frogs (Ascaphidae), cold‐stream specialists. We used the estimates of acclimation capacity to infer physiological vulnerability to future warming. We performed CTmax experiments on tadpoles from 14 populations using a fully factorial experimental design of two holding temperatures (8 and 15°C) and two experimental starting temperatures (8 and 15°C). This design allowed us to investigate the acute effects of transferring organisms from one holding temperature to a different experimental starting temperature, as well as fully acclimated responses by using the same holding and starting temperature. We found that most populations exhibited beneficial acclimation, where CTmax was higher in tadpoles held at a warmer temperature, but populations varied markedly in the magnitude of the response and the inferred physiological vulnerability to future warming. We also found that the response of transferring organisms to different starting temperatures varied substantially among populations, although accounting for acute effects did not greatly alter estimates of physiological vulnerability at the species level or for most populations. These results underscore the importance of sampling widely among populations when inferring physiological vulnerability, as population variation in acclimation capacity and thermal sensitivity may be critical when assessing vulnerability to future warming.
Introduction Physical inactivity is a risk factor for repeat cardiac events and all-cause mortality in coronary heart disease (CHD). Cardiac rehabilitation, a secondary prevention programme, aims to increase physical activity levels in this population from a reported low baseline. This trial will investigate the effectiveness and implementation of a very brief physical activity intervention, comparing different frequencies of physical activity measurement by cardiac rehabilitation clinicians. The Measure It! intervention (<5 min) includes a self-report and objective measure of physical activity (steps) plus very brief physical activity advice. Methods and analysis This type 1 hybrid effectiveness–implementation study will use a two-arm multicentre assessor-blind randomised trial design. Insufficiently active (<150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week) cardiac rehabilitation attendees with CHD (18+ years) will be recruited from five phase II cardiac rehabilitation centres (n=190). Patients will be randomised (1:1) to five physical activity measurements or two physical activity measurements in total over 24 weeks. The primary effectiveness outcome is accelerometer daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at 24 weeks. Secondary effectiveness outcomes include body mass index, waist circumference and quality-of-life. An understanding of multilevel contextual factors that influence implementation, and antecedent outcomes to implementation of the intervention (eg, feasibility and acceptability), will be obtained using semistructured interviews and other data sources. Linear mixed-effects models will be used to analyse effectiveness outcomes. Qualitative data will be thematically analysed inductively and deductively using framework analysis, with the framework guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and Theoretical Domains Framework. Ethics and dissemination The study has ethical approval (University of Canberra (ID 11836), Calvary Bruce Public Hospital (ID 14-2022) and the Greater Western Area (ID 2022/ETH01381) Human Research Ethics Committees). Results will be disseminated in multiple formats for consumer, public and clinical audiences. Trial registration number ACTRN12622001187730p.
Flourishing is an optimal state of wellbeing, but the mechanisms that enable flourishing are unclear. This study examined the role of emotion regulation (ER) strategies that may enable flourishing. The first aim examined differences between flourishers and non-flourishers in the use of functional/adaptive and dysfunctional/maladaptive ER strategies. A second aim specifically compared differences between flourishers and those non-flourishers who were free of psychopathology. We hypothesised that flourishers utilise greater use of functional/adaptive and lower use of dysfunctional/maladaptive strategies in comparison with non-flourishers, and those without pathology. Australian adults (N = 292) completed measures of flourishing, depression, and anxiety, and two measures of emotion regulation. Quota sampling obtained a balanced sample by age-group and gender. Regression analyses regressed ER strategies on flourishing and depression/anxiety status, adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. ER measures included the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) to assess reappraisal and suppression strategies, and the Emotion Regulation Profile – Revised (ERP-R) used vignettes to assess intentional response to situations. For the first aim, there was limited evidence that flourishers utilise higher levels of functional/adaptive, but substantive evidence that they use lower levels of dysfunctional/maladaptive ER strategies. For the second aim, flourishing was associated with these ER strategies over-and-above being free of pathology. The findings highlight a nuanced understanding of the ER of flourishers; flourishers appear to limit their use of dysfunctional/maladaptive strategies and do not necessarily report increased use of functional/adaptive strategies. Implications for wellbeing research and clinical practice are discussed.
Genomic prediction in breeding populations containing hundreds to thousands of parents and seedlings is prohibitively expensive with current high‐density genetic marker platforms designed for strawberry. We developed mid‐density panels of molecular inversion probes (MIPs) to be deployed with the “DArTag” marker platform to provide a low‐cost, high‐throughput genotyping solution for strawberry genomic prediction. In total, 7742 target single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) regions were used to generate MIP assays that were tested with a screening panel of 376 octoploid Fragaria accessions. We evaluated the performance of DArTag assays based on genotype segregation, amplicon coverage, and their ability to produce subgenome‐specific amplicon alignments to the FaRR1 assembly and subsequent alignment‐based variant calls with strong concordance to DArT's alignment‐free, count‐based genotype reports. We used a combination of marker performance metrics and physical distribution in the FaRR1 assembly to select 3K and 5K production panels for genotyping of large strawberry populations. We show that the 3K and 5K DArTag panels are able to target and amplify homologous alleles within subgenomic sequences with low‐amplification bias between reference and alternate alleles, supporting accurate genotype calling while producing marker genotypes that can be treated as functionally diploid for quantitative genetic analysis. The 3K and 5K target SNPs show high levels of polymorphism in diverse F . × ananassa germplasm and UC Davis cultivars, with mean pairwise diversity (π) estimates of 0.40 and 0.32 and mean heterozygous genotype frequencies of 0.35 and 0.33, respectively.
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