University of Canberra
  • Canberra, Australia
Recent publications
In this chapter, we overview historical pandemic events that are closely associated with the evolution of transportation through case studies. The selected case studies are: (a) plague (14th, 17th, and 19th centuries), (b) Spanish flu (20th century), and (c) SARS (21st century). Historical pandemics reveal the connection between the spread of pandemics and development of transportation. Much faster and reliable means of mass transportation provide a greater capacity for people to travel across the world efficiently, but this advancement of transportation also carry infectious diseases to anywhere in the world. Transportation hubs (land, river, marine, and air) across the world should also play a large role in preventing and controlling the outbreak once the disease arrives. In this chapter, lessons from history that can be utilized to cope with the current global COVID-19 pandemic are illustrated and implications for transport policies and public health are discussed.
Background The primary aim of our systematic scoping review was to explore the factors influencing team function and performance across various industries and discuss findings in the context of the high-performance sport support team setting. These outcomes may also be used to inform future research into high-performance teamwork in sport. Methods A systematic scoping review of literature published in English since 2000 reporting team-based performance outcomes and included a performance metric that was ‘team outcome based’ was conducted using search of the Academic Search Ultimate, Medline, Business Source Ultimate, APA PsycInfo, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Military database (ProQuest) using the terms: ‘team’, ‘function’ OR ‘dysfunction’, ‘Perform*’ OR ‘outcome’. Results Application of the search strategy identified a total of 11,735 articles for title and abstract review. Seventy-three articles were selected for full-text assessment with the aim to extract data for either quantitative or qualitative analysis. Forty-six of the 73 articles met our inclusion criteria; 27 articles were excluded as they did not report a performance metric. Eleven studies explored leadership roles and styles on team performance, three studies associated performance feedback to team performance, and 12 studies explored the relationship between supportive behaviour and performance. Team orientation and adaptability as key figures of team performance outcomes were explored in 20 studies. Conclusions Our findings identified 4 key variables that were associated with team function and performance across a variety of industries; (i) leadership styles, (ii) supportive team behaviour, (iii) communication, and (iv) performance feedback. High-performance teams wishing to improve performance should examine these factors within their team and its environment. It is widely acknowledged that the dynamics of team function is important for outcomes in high-performance sport, yet there is little evidence to provide guidance. This inequality between real-world need and the available evidence should be addressed in future research.
Background Carp gudgeons (genus Hypseleotris ) are a prominent part of the Australian freshwater fish fauna, with species distributed around the western, northern, and eastern reaches of the continent. We infer a calibrated phylogeny of the genus based on nuclear ultraconserved element (UCE) sequences and using Bayesian estimation of divergence times, and use this phylogeny to investigate geographic patterns of diversification with GeoSSE. The southeastern species have hybridized to form hemiclonal lineages, and we also resolve relationships of hemiclones and compare their phylogenetic placement in the UCE phylogeny with a hypothesis based on complete mitochondrial genomes. We then use phased SNPs extracted from the UCE sequences for population structure analysis among the southeastern species and hemiclones. Results Hypseleotris cyprinoides , a widespread euryhaline species known from throughout the Indo-Pacific, is resolved outside the remainder of the species. Two Australian radiations comprise the bulk of Hypseleotris , one primarily in the northwestern coastal rivers and a second inhabiting the southeastern region including the Murray–Darling, Bulloo-Bancannia and Lake Eyre basins, plus coastal rivers east of the Great Dividing Range. Our phylogenetic results reveal cytonuclear discordance between the UCE and mitochondrial hypotheses, place hemiclone hybrids among their parental taxa, and indicate that the genus Kimberleyeleotris is nested within the northwestern Hypseleotris radiation along with three undescribed species. We infer a crown age for Hypseleotris of 17.3 Ma, date the radiation of Australian species at roughly 10.1 Ma, and recover the crown ages of the northwestern (excluding H. compressa ) and southeastern radiations at 5.9 and 7.2 Ma, respectively. Range-dependent diversification analyses using GeoSSE indicate that speciation and extinction rates have been steady between the northwestern and southeastern Australian radiations and between smaller radiations of species in the Kimberley region and the Arnhem Plateau. Analysis of phased SNPs confirms inheritance patterns and reveals high levels of heterozygosity among the hemiclones. Conclusions The northwestern species have restricted ranges and likely speciated in allopatry, while the southeastern species are known from much larger areas, consistent with peripatric speciation or allopatric speciation followed by secondary contact. Species in the northwestern Kimberley region differ in shape from those in the southeast, with the Kimberley species notably more elongate and slender than the stocky southeastern species, likely due to the different topographies and flow regimes of the rivers they inhabit.
Background Understanding how species biology may facilitate resilience to climate change remains a critical factor in detecting and protecting species at risk of extinction. Many studies have focused on the role of particular ecological traits in driving species responses, but less so on demographic history and levels of standing genetic variation. Additionally, spatial variation in the interaction of demographic and adaptive factors may further complicate prediction of species responses to environmental change. We used environmental and genomic datasets to reconstruct the phylogeographic histories of two ecologically similar and largely co-distributed freshwater fishes, the southern ( Nannoperca australis ) and Yarra ( N. obscura ) pygmy perches, to assess the degree of concordance in their responses to Plio-Pleistocene climatic changes. We described contemporary genetic diversity, phylogenetic histories, demographic histories, and historical species distributions across both species, and statistically evaluated the degree of concordance in co-occurring populations. Results Marked differences in contemporary genetic diversity, historical distribution changes and historical migration were observed across the species, with a distinct lack of genetic diversity and historical range expansion suggested for N. obscura . Although several co-occurring populations within a shared climatic refugium demonstrated concordant demographic histories, idiosyncratic population size changes were found at the range edges of the more spatially restricted species. Discordant responses between species were associated with low standing genetic variation in peripheral populations. This might have hindered adaptive potential, as documented in recent demographic declines and population extinctions for the two species. Conclusion Our results highlight both the role of spatial scale in the degree of concordance in species responses to climate change, and the importance of standing genetic variation in facilitating range shifts. Even when ecological traits are similar between species, long-term genetic diversity and historical population demography may lead to discordant responses to ongoing and future climate change.
Background Reverse periodization is commonly touted as a salient planning strategy to improve sport performance in athletes, but benefits have not been clearly described. Objectives We sought to identify the main characteristics of reverse periodization, and the influence of training volume and periodization models on enhancing physiological measures and sports performance. Design Systematic review. Methods The electronic databases Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science were searched using a comprehensive list of relevant terms. Results A total of 925 studies were identified, and after removal of duplicates and studies based on title and abstract screening, 17 studies remained, and 11 finally included in the systematic review. There was a total of 200 athletes in the included studies. Reverse periodization does not provide superior performance improvements in swimming, running, muscular endurance, maximum strength, or maximal oxygen uptake, compared to traditional or block periodization. The quality of evidence levels for the reverse periodization studies was 1b (individual randomized controlled trial) for two investigations, 2b (individual cohort study) for the remaining studies and a mean of 4.9 points in the PEDro scale (range 0–7). Conclusions It appears that reverse periodization is no more effective than other forms of periodization in improving sports performance. More comparative studies on this alternative version of periodization are required to verify its effectiveness and utility across a range of endurance sports.
Background In some vertebrate species, gene-environment interactions can determine sex, driving bipotential gonads to differentiate into either ovaries or testes. In the central bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps ), the genetic influence of sex chromosomes (ZZ/ZW) can be overridden by high incubation temperatures, causing ZZ male to female sex reversal. Previous research showed ovotestes, a rare gonadal phenotype with traits of both sexes, develop during sex reversal, leading to the hypothesis that sex reversal relies on high temperature feminisation to outcompete the male genetic cue. To test this, we conducted temperature switching experiments at key developmental stages, and analysed the effect on gonadal phenotypes using histology and transcriptomics. Results We found sexual fate is more strongly influenced by the ZZ genotype than temperature. Any exposure to low temperatures (28 °C) caused testes differentiation, whereas sex reversal required longer exposure to high temperatures. We revealed ovotestes exist along a spectrum of femaleness to male-ness at the transcriptional level. We found inter-individual variation in gene expression changes following temperature switches, suggesting both genetic sensitivity to, and the timing and duration of the temperature cue influences sex reversal. Conclusions These findings bring new insights to the mechanisms underlying sex reversal, improving our understanding of thermosensitive sex systems in vertebrates.
Worldwide, information technology now plays a substantial role in the daily life of most people, whether in the developed world or in developing countries, such as Indonesia. In this fourth most populated country in the world, information technology is widely used for everyday communications and entertainment purposes, as well as for supporting education. Using a survey of 496 students enrolled in a university in Jakarta, this paper reports on a study aimed at assessing the experiences of young Indonesian students undertaking online learning and the potential of this platform for English learning. The findings show that online activities, skills, and perceived usefulness were positively correlated with positive experiences of learning English online. In particular, the perceived usefulness of the Internet and the ability to use different functions of digital devices and applications had a stronger correlation with increased benefits of online English learning. The study generates implications for Indonesian education suggesting a review of the roles of English instructors in promoting English learning through technology, improvement in English instructors’ skills in utilizing technology in their teaching, and support of relevant stakeholders as well as the preparation of English teacher preparation programme to support pre-service teachers for teaching with technology.
Deep neural network models can achieve greater performance in numerous machine learning tasks by raising the depth of the model and the amount of training data samples. However, these essential procedures will proportionally raise the cost of training deep neural network models. Accelerating the training process of deep neural network models in a distributed computing environment has become the most often utilized strategy for developers in order to better cope with a huge quantity of training overhead. The current deep neural network model is the stochastic gradient descent (SGD) technique. It is one of the most widely used training techniques in network models, although it is prone to gradient obsolescence during parallelization, which impacts the overall convergence. The majority of present solutions are geared at high-performance nodes with minor performance changes. Few studies have taken into account the cluster environment in high-performance computing (HPC), where the performance of each node varies substantially. A dynamic batch size stochastic gradient descent approach based on performance-aware technology is suggested to address the aforesaid difficulties (DBS-SGD). By assessing the processing capacity of each node, this method dynamically allocates the minibatch of each node, guaranteeing that the update time of each iteration between nodes is essentially the same, lowering the average gradient of the node. The suggested approach may successfully solve the asynchronous update strategy’s gradient outdated problem. The Mnist and cifar10 are two widely used image classification benchmarks, that are employed as training data sets, and the approach is compared with the asynchronous stochastic gradient descent (ASGD) technique. The experimental findings demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has better performance as compared with existing algorithms.
Background Military populations, including fast jet aircrew (FJA - aka fighter aircrew/pilots), commonly suffer from musculoskeletal complaints, which reduce performance and operational capability. Valid surveillance tools and agreed recordable injury definitions are lacking. Our objective was to develop and then evaluate the validity of a musculoskeletal complaints surveillance and monitoring tool for FJA. Methods A Delphi study with international experts sought consensus on recordable injury definitions and important content for use in a surveillance and monitoring tool for FJA. Using these results and feedback from end-users (FJA), the University of Canberra Fast Jet Aircrew Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (UC-FJAMQ) was developed. Following its use with 306 Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) FJA over 4 × five-month reporting periods, validity of the UC-FJAMQ was evaluated via multi-level factor analysis (MFA) and compared with routine methods of injury surveillance. Results Consensus was achieved for: eight words/descriptors for defining a musculoskeletal complaint; six definitions of recordable injury; and 14 domains important for determining overall severity. The UC-FJAMQ was developed and refined. MFA identified three distinct dimensions within the 11 items used to determine severity: operational capability, symptoms, and care-seeking. MFA further highlighted that symptom severity and seeking medical attention were poor indicators of the impact musculoskeletal complaints have upon operational capability. One hundred and fifty-two episodes of time loss were identified, with the UC-FJAMQ identifying 79% of these, while routine methods identified 49%. Despite modest weekly reporting rates (61%), the UC-FJAMQ outperformed routine surveillance methods. Conclusions The UC-FJAMQ was developed to specifically address the complexities of injury surveillance with FJA, which are similar to those noted in other military and sporting populations. The results demonstrated the UC-FJAMQ to be sensitive and valid within a large group of FJA over 4 × five-month reporting periods. Adoption of consistent, sensitive, and valid surveillance methods will strengthen the FJA injury prevention literature, ultimately enhancing their health, performance, and operational capability.
Over the past decade, the architecture and construction (AC) industries have been evolving from traditional practices into more current, interdisciplinary and technology integrated methods. Complex and intricate digital technologies and mobile computing such as simulation, computational design and immersive technologies, have been exploited for different purposes such as reducing cost and time, improving design and enhancing overall project efficiency. Immersive technologies and augmented reality (AR), in particular, have proven to be extremely beneficial in this field. However, the application and usage of these technologies and devices in higher education teaching and learning environments are yet to be fully explored and still scarce. More importantly, there is still a significant gap in developing pedagogies and teaching methods that embrace the usage of such technologies in the AC curricula. This study, therefore, aims to critically analyse the current state-of-the-art and present the developed and improved AR approaches in teaching and learning methods of AC, addressing the identified gap in the extant literature, while developing transformational frameworks to link the gaps to their future research agenda. The conducted analysis incorporates the critical role of the AR implications on the AC students’ skillsets, pedagogical philosophies in AC curricula, techno-educational aspects and content domains in the design and implementation of AR environments for AC learning. The outcomes of this comprehensive study prepare trainers, instructors, and the future generation of AC workers for the rapid advancements in this industry.
Introduction We explored the footwear profiles and foot-related problems reported by netball players and whether these differed between males and females. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and twenty-five amateur, sub-elite and elite netball players (men n = 279; women n = 2646; age 26.4 ± 10.0 years) completed a custom-designed online survey with questions related to netball experience, current netball footwear habits and history of foot-related problems. Footwear profiles and foot-related problems were considered in logistic regressions against sex and competition level to ascertain significant relationships ( p < 0.05) and predictive values (odds ratio). Results Although 80.4% of respondents reported wearing netball-specific shoes, females were 13.2 times more likely to wear netball-specific shoes than males. Foot-related problems and foot pain were reported by 84.3% and 56.8% of netball players, respectively; with blisters, ankle sprain/strains and calluses being most common. Although women were significantly more likely to suffer from foot-related problems than men, males were significantly more likely to believe their foot pain was caused by the footwear they wore for netball. Conclusion The high prevalence of foot-related problems and pain reported by all netball players suggests that the shoes players are currently wearing for netball are not meeting the requirements of players, particularly regarding fit, comfort and functionality. As male netball players have significantly different footwear profiles to female players, men are likely to require netball-specific footwear that differs to the netball-specific shoes designed for female players.
A variety of density-dependent and -independent processes have been proposed to influence natural mortality rates, potentially leading to variation through time. Processes of natural mortalities are rarely directly observed, making estimation of natural mortality rates difficult. Mark-recapture data allow estimation of total mortality rates, which can be separated into natural and fishing mortality with information on rates of tag reporting, tag shedding and tag-induced mortality. We fitted attrition models and length-based Brownie models to four decades of mark-recapture data from skipjack and yellowfin tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, a period representing a sustained expansion of associated fisheries in the region as well as rapid changes to the marine environment. The modelled dataset included c. 250,000 skipjack and 100,000 yellowfin tag releases, with 45,000 and 17,000 recoveries of skipjack and yellowfin respectively, released from 1977 to 2017. Increases in fishing mortality were detected over this time for both skipjack and yellowfin, with evidence of temporal changes in selectivity for yellowfin. Estimates of natural mortality were highest for the smallest size class and generally lower for larger sizes, though there was large uncertainty in the largest size groups due to lower sample sizes of tagged fish. There was no clear evidence of temporal changes in natural mortality rates for either species, though there was some evidence of changes in natural mortality for the smaller yellowfin size classes (< 61 cm). However, there was likely insufficient statistical power to test for plausible changes in natural mortality rates for yellowfin due to low precision of estimates during the earlier years of the tag dataset.
Background and objective Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a vascular compression affecting young people. PAES can cause claudication and lead to distal blood flow reduction. Ultrasound could provide a direct and indirect diagnosis approach using different provocative maneuvers. However, the reliability and accuracy of Duplex ultrasound alone to diagnose PAES are uncertain. This study hypothesizes that Duplex ultrasound could lead to false-positive results. Therefore, the study aims to assess the popliteal artery diameter and velocity profile in asymptomatic young people at different provocative maneuvers. Methods A prospective study of twenty-three limbs of asymptomatic young individuals aged between 21 and 24 was conducted. All individuals were offered a Duplex ultrasound scan of the popliteal and distal runoff arteries at the vascular ultrasound laboratory. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), spectral waveform, the diameter of the popliteal artery, and distal runoff flow velocities were measured at three positions (neutral, active plantarflexion, and erect on top of toes above and below the knee level. These diagnostic parameters were recorded and analyzed. Results The data was collected over two months; the examined individuals were men with an average age of 23 years and a body mass index of 23.16 kg/m. Popliteal artery diameter above the knee at the neutral position was 5.57 mm, active plantarflexion 5.48 mm, and erect on the top of toes 5.69 mm, (p = 0.624). PSV means above-knee at neutral, active plantarflexion, and erect on the top of toes positions were 50.80, 56.17, and 61.61, respectively, with a p-value of 0.225. There was a significant difference in the diameter and velocity of the popliteal artery below the knee at active plantarflexion and erect on top of toes positions; the mean diameter at neutral was 4.61, at active plantarflexion 4.57, and at erect on top of toes 3.47 (p = 0.018). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the PSV between measurements, mean at neutral, active plantarflexion, and erect on top of toes, (56.67, 69.43, 93.04) respectively, with a p-value of 0.006. Conclusion Duplex ultrasound diagnosis is a valuable imaging technique and can provide important information about the diameter and velocity profile of the popliteal artery at different provocative maneuvers. However, our findings suggest that Duplex ultrasound alone would lead to false-positive results and cannot be elusive in determining the asymptomatic from symptomatic patients with PAES.
This study discusses the role of the socio-cognitive setting of the village in the development of effective DRR on the Island of Simeulue, Aceh, Indonesia. Simeulue was the first place struck by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but suffered less than 10 casualties. A wider program of qualitative research focusing on narrative interviews examined the cultural drivers of the island's DRR found that a traditional story related in and about local villages provided local people with intimate spatial knowledge and self-efficacy to take appropriate action at the sign of onset of a tsunami. A diverse literature relating to the influence of local places on individual and community identity indicates that the integration of social and place orientation can contribute to effective DRR. A review of the alignment of investment in integrating place, community empowerment and resilience is discussed. It is proposed that investment in ‘villaging’ is not only warranted, it has the potential to generate transformative change in resilience and DRR.
Recently, more attention has been devoted to Prefabricated Buildings (PBs) as an alternative technique for developing building sustainability. Due to a great deal of discussion about the link between environmental and economic performance and a lack of critical review relating the PBs to these two aspects, the main focus of this research is on the environmental and economic performance of PBs. Using a systematic search and critical literature review, this paper reviews the significant studies in this area and discusses corresponding assessment methods, systems boundaries, recommended methods, and research gaps. It is concluded that, on average, environmental dimensions of PBs have been studied more than economic ones and with more certainty. It was also recommended to assess the economic profitability of PBs in a long-term period utilizing various measurements. The contribution of this study can be summarized by 1) providing a deeper insight into both the environmental and economic performance of PBs, and 2) identifying the research gaps and future research directions.
Introduction Forensic imaging plays a pivotal role regarding medico-legal issues by investigating the cause(s) of injuries to living or deceased individuals. There is currently a gap in the literature on forensic imaging due to limited national and international guidelines, protocols and scope of duties and responsibilities of radiographers undertaking forensic imaging. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the gap by exploring the experiences and perspectives of radiographers on forensic imaging in Australia. Methods A qualitative approach collected data from fifteen purposively sampled qualified Australian radiographers through individual in-depth interviews. The verbatim transcribed data were thematically analysed. Results Two themes were identified: 1) Radiographers' experiences of forensic imaging; 2) Radiographers' perceptions of forensic imaging within the job scope of a qualified radiographer. Conclusions Participants' experiences of forensic imaging ranged from anxiety to a positive experience, and others posed ethical and situational dilemmas heightened by the lack of dedicated forensic imaging protocols. While some radiographers expressed that every radiographer should conduct forensic imaging, others felt it was not mandatory. Implications for practice Radiographers' shared subjective experiences, thoughts and feelings provided insight into forensic imaging and the need for more significant support from educational and governing bodies.
In this paper, airflow around 16 cylindrical lithium-ion cells placed in a square battery pack (BTP) is numerically examined. Laminar airflow enters the BTP from the top of the battery cells (BTC) and exits from the bottom of the BTP. In this three-dimensional analysis, the effect of the air inlet and outlet cross-sections on the temperature of the battery (T-BT) cells and the maximum and average T-BT pack is evaluated. The finite element method is used to solve the equations of battery and airflow. The results show that the upper part of the BTCs is at a lower temperature than the lower parts. The BTCs located in the middle of the BTP have a higher temperature than the ones located around the BTP. An increment in the air inlet cross-section reduces the average and the maximum T-BT pack. Enhancing the air outlet cross-section has little effect on the T-BT cells. The T-BT cells is enhanced until 1500 s, after which it is reduced because the airflow is diminished due to that the battery charging stops.
Previous research has found that individuals with autism spectrum disorder experience difficulties when visually processing face stimuli compared to developmentally typical individuals. Whether, in the typically-developing population, face detection depends on autism-like traits (ALTs) is less clear. In this report, we aimed to develop an experimental design that is more sensitive to any individual differences in face detection than previous reports. We employed pareidolia, that is, cases where non-face stimuli are perceived to be faces, assuming this is more difficult than detection of ‘real’ faces, decreasing changes of ceiling performance. We also show multiple faces per trial, allowing for a more graded assessment of face detection ability. Participants were 263 individuals aged between 18 and 82 years of age. Pareidolia was investigated in two online experiments, with different types of stimuli: objects that could be perceived as faces (i.e., embedded faces task) and Mooney faces (Mooney face task). In the latter condition, we also investigated the face inversion effect. We found that neither detection ability or the inversion effect depended on ALTs. We did find a dependence of age for both measures, and a complex dependence on gender for Mooney faces. Our data suggest that face detection (and specifically pareidolia) does not depend on ALTs, but does depend on the age of the observer. The dependence on age appears to be different between the two experiments, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms necessary for face detection in our two experiments mature and decline at different rates.
Numerical simulation and artificial neural network modeling of turbulent flow inside a pipe equipped with two spring turbulator samples with two different scales and a segmental cross-section have been investigated. Increased heat transfer rate (HTR) due to the use of a spring turbulator is predicted for the TiO2Cu-Water hybrid nanofluid based on the single-phase model, feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) and fitting method. The role of Reynolds number (Re), scale and volume fraction (ϕ) on Nusselt number (Nu), pressure drop (ΔP), performance evaluation coefficient (PEC), solar collector efficiency (η), and the field synergy principle (FSP), compared to simple pipe, is considered using the finite volume method. The results show that increasing the spring turbulator scale increased the contact surface of the working fluid and the spring turbulator. As a result, the flow turbulence is increased, which leads to better mixing of the nanofluid as the operating fluid of the solar collector absorber pipe. Finally, ANN outputs and fitting results are compared, and it has been observed that the obtained ANN could predict the targets accurately.
The effects of using hybrid nanofluids and of helical coil pitch (λ) in a 3D shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) are investigated. The algorithm used in this study is Phase Coupled SIMPLE and the method used is Eulerian. Nanofluid flow with Reynolds (Re) numbers of 10,000, 15,000, and 20,000, nanoparticles with volume fractions (ϕ) of 2 and 4%, and λ = 20, 25, 40, and 50 mm are investigated. The highest numbers related to the thermal index (Nu) and effectiveness occurred in the λ = 20 mm and the maximum ϕ and Re. In the case of λ = 20 mm, the maximum Nusselt number is 15.8%, 26%, and 45.3% more than that of 25, 40, and 50 mm, respectively. However, in the same case, in comparison between the ϕ = 4% and ϕ = 0, the Nu increases by 45.7%, 61.7%, and 76%. The present study shows that combining using hybrid nanofluids and changing the geometry of STHE, as an innovative approach can positively increase efficiency. Finally, the results are used for training an artificial neural network (ANN). In this regard, for finding the optimum neuron numbers in the hidden layer, the optimum feed-forward network is obtained to predict the efficiency of the material.
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Phil Kavanagh
  • Discipline of Psychology
Ben Rattray
  • Discipline of Sport and Exercise Sciences
Jennifer Loh
  • Faculty of Business, Government and Law
Canberra, Australia