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- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice systems provide a major source of calories for more than half of the world’s population; however, they also use more water than other major crops. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) is an irrigation practice (introduction of unsaturated soil conditions during the growing season) that can reduce water inputs in rice, yet it has not been widely adopted, in part, due to the potential for reduced yields. We conducted a meta-analysis to: 1) quantify the effect of AWD on rice yields and water use; and 2) to identify soil properties and management practices that favor AWD yields and promote low water use relative to continuous flooding (CF- control). We analyzed 56 studies with 528 side-by-side comparisons of AWD with CF. Overall, AWD decreased yields by 5.4%; however under Mild AWD (i.e. when soil water potential was ≥ −20kPa or field water level did not drop below 15cm from the soil surface), yields were not significantly reduced in most circumstances. In contrast, Severe AWD (when soils dried beyond −20kPa) resulted in yield losses of 22.6% relative to CF. These yield losses were most pronounced in soils with pH≥7 or carbon<1% or when AWD was imposed throughout the season. While water use was lowest under Severe AWD, under Mild AWD water use was reduced by 23.4% relative to CF. Our findings both highlight the potential of AWD to reduce water inputs without jeopardizing yield as well as the conditions under which these results can be realized.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are one of the most widely used therapeutics in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory disorders. However, it is known that there are variable patient responses to glucocorticoid treatment; there are responders and non-responders, or those that need higher dosages. Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) have been implicated in this variability. In this study, ninety-seven volunteers were surveyed for polymorphisms in the human GR-alpha (hGRα), the accepted biologically active reference isoform. One isoform identified in our survey, named hGR DL-2, had four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one synonymous and three non-synonymous, and a four base pair deletion resulting in a frame shift and early termination to produce a 743 amino acid putative protein. hGR DL-2 had a decrease in transactivation potential of more than 90%. Upon further analysis of the individual SNPs and deletion, one SNP, A829G, which results in a lysine to glutamic acid amino acid change at position 277, was found to increase the transactivation potential of hGR more than eight times the full-length reference. Furthermore, the hGRα-A829G isoform had a differential hyperactive response to various exogenous steroids. Increasing our knowledge as to how various SNPs affect hGR activity may help in understanding the unpredictable patient response to steroid treatment, and is a step towards personalizing patient care.
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