9,223.03
5.62
2,044

Recent PublicationsView all

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The idea of synthesising theory is receiving attention within public health as part of a drive to design theoretically informed interventions. Theory synthesis is not a new idea, however, having been debated by sociologists for several decades. We consider the various methodological approaches to theory syn-thesis and test the feasibility of one such approach by synthesising a small number of sociological theories relevant to health related risk-taking. The synthesis consisted of three stages: (i) synthesis preparation, wherein parts of relevant theories were extracted and summarised; (ii) synthesis which involved comparing theories for points of convergence and divergence and bringing together those points that converge; and (iii) synthesis refinement whereby the synthesis was interrogated for further theoretical insights. Our synthesis suggests that serious and sustained risk-taking is associated with social isolation, liminality and a person's position in relation to the dominant social group. We reflect upon the methodological and philosophical issues raised by the practice of theory synthesis, concluding that it has the potential to reinvigorate theory and make it more robust and accessible for practical application. article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Social Science & Medicine (1967)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing emphasis in medical research on modelling growth across the life course and identifying factors associated with growth. Here, we demonstrate multilevel models for childhood growth either as a smooth function (using fractional polynomials) or a set of connected linear phases (using linear splines). We related parental social class to height from birth to 10 years of age in 5,588 girls from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Multilevel fractional polynomial modelling identified the best-fitting model as being of degree 2 with powers of the square root of age, and the square root of age multiplied by the log of age. The multilevel linear spline model identified knot points at 3, 12 and 36 months of age. Both the fractional polynomial and linear spline models show an initially fast rate of growth, which slowed over time. Both models also showed that there was a disparity in length between manual and non-manual social class infants at birth, which decreased in magnitude until approximately 1 year of age and then increased. Multilevel fractional polynomials give a more realistic smooth function, and linear spline models are easily interpretable. Each can be used to summarise individual growth trajectories and their relationships with individual-level exposures. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For the last decade, stringent monitoring of waiting time performance targets provided English hospitals with incentives to reduce official waiting times for elective surgery. It is less clear whether the total amount of time patients waited in secondary care, from first referral to outpatient clinic until treatment, has also fallen. We used Hospital Episode Statistics inpatient data for patients undergoing total joint replacement during a period of active monitoring of targets (between 2006/7 and 2008/9) and linked it to outpatient data to reconstruct patients' pathway in the 3 years before surgery and provide alternative measurements of waiting times. Our findings suggest that although official waiting times decreased drastically in our study period, total waiting time in secondary care has not declined. Patients with shorter official waits spent a longer time in a 'work-up' period prior to inclusion in the official waiting list, and socio-economic inequities persisted in waiting times for joint replacement. We found no evidence that target policies achieved efficiency gains during our study period. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Health Economics
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.