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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to investigate the use of microtopographies in providing physical cues to modulate the cellular response of human mesenchymal stem cells on ceramics. Two microgrooved patterns (100 μm/50 μm, 10 μm/10 μm groove/pitch) were transcribed reversely onto alumina green ceramic tapes via an embossing technique followed by sintering. Characterization of the micropatterned alumina surfaces and their cellular response was carried out. Spread and polygonal cell morphologies were observed on the wider groove (50 μm/100 μm) surface. Cells seeded onto the narrow groove (10 μm/10 μm) surface aligned themselves alongside the grooves, resulting in more elongated cell morphology. More osteoid matrix nodules shown by osteopontin and osteocalcin biomarkers were detected on the larger grooved surfaces after cell culture of 21 days, indicating a greater level of osteogenicity. This study has shown that micropatterned wider groove (50 μm) topographies are more suitable surfaces for improving osseointegration of ceramic implants. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify the relationships between buffering properties and acid erosion and hence improve models of erosive potential of acidic drinks, a pH-stat was used to measure the rate of enamel dissolution in solutions of citric, malic and lactic acids, with pH 2.4-3.6 and with acid concentrations adjusted to give buffer capacities (β) of 2-40 (mmol·l(-1))·pH(-1) for each pH. The corresponding undissociated acid concentrations, [HA], and titratable acidity to pH 5.5 (TA5.5) were calculated. In relation to β, the dissolution rate and the strength of response to β varied with acid type (lactic > malic ≥ citric) and decreased as pH increased. The patterns of variation of the dissolution rate with TA5.5 were qualitatively similar to those for β, except that increasing pH above 2.8 had less effect on dissolution in citric and malic acids and none on dissolution in lactic acid. Variations of the dissolution rate with [HA] showed no systematic dependence on acid type but some dependence on pH. The results suggest that [HA], rather than buffering per se, is a major rate-controlling factor, probably owing to the importance of undissociated acid as a readily diffusible source of H(+) ions in maintaining near-surface dissolution within the softened layer of enamel. TA5.5 was more closely correlated with [HA] than was β, and seems to be the preferred practical measure of buffering. The relationship between [HA] and TA5.5 differs between mono- and polybasic acids, so a separate analysis of products according to predominant acid type could improve multivariate models of erosive potential. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Caries Research
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is an antimicrobial agent that is efficacious against gram-negative and -positive bacteria and yeasts. Its mechanism of action is based on cell membrane disruption and, as such, it does not promote the development of bacterial resistance, which is associated with the widespread use of antibiotics. In this manuscript, we report the development of novel antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs) based on a hexametaphosphate salt of CHX. These are synthesized by instantaneous reaction between equimolar aqueous solutions of CHX digluconate and sodium hexametaphosphate, under room temperature and pressure. The reaction results in a stable colloid composed of highly negatively charged NPs (-50 mV), of size 20-160 nm. The NPs adhere rapidly to specimens of glass, titanium, and an elastomeric wound dressing, in a dose-dependent manner. The functionalized materials exhibit a gradual leaching of soluble CHX over a period of at least 50 days. The NP colloid is efficacious against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both planktonic and biofilm conditions. These NPs may find application in a range of biomedical and consumer materials.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · International Journal of Nanomedicine
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Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 10/2013; 41(1). DOI:10.1111/jcpe.12181
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