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Article: A Subcutaneous Raman Needle Probe[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the biochemical composition of tissues and cells in the human body. We describe the initial results of a feasibility study to design and build a miniature, fiber optic probe incorporated into a standard hypodermic needle. This probe is intended for use in optical biopsies of solid tissues to provide valuable information of disease type, such as in the lymphatic system, breast, or prostate, or of such tissue types as muscle, fat, or spinal, when identifying a critical injection site. The optical design and fabrication of this probe is described, and example spectra of various ex vivo samples are shown.
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ABSTRACT: Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are used widely on a range of components that operate at high temperatures. We report measurement of the factor that is required to convert the Raman shift to stress for air plasma sprayed yttria (7 wt %) stabilized tetragonal zirconia (ZrO(2)) (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings. The factor is evaluated for the as-coated condition and also following a heat treatment at 1000 °C for 1050 h. Two Raman bands at 608 cm(-1) and 640 cm(-1) have been investigated in a diamond anvil cell under hydrostatic pressure up to ∼24 GPa. In the range of zero to ∼1.6 GPa, a linear behavior was observed in terms of the shifts of these two Raman bands with a gradient similar to dense bulk tetragonal ZrO(2). From these measurements the factors to convert wavenumber shift to stress have been derived. The application of these conversion factors to stress measurement in TBC coated test specimens and components is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Ferritic steels used for the construction of welded pressure vessels may contain trace concentrations of impurity elements that can influence their overall mechanical properties. Often, the C-Mn ferritic steels and weld metals used for welded nuclear pressure vessels contain trace concentrations of boron (<10 ppm), and the role of this impurity element could be significantly different depending upon whether it is present as the free atomic species or incorporated into specific microstructural features, such as inclusions or precipitates, of these materials. In this article, the results of work designed to characterize the microstructure of C-Mn steels and weld metals used for the construction of Magnox nuclear pressure vessels are described. In particular, the type, size, distribution, and chemical composition of inclusions present are considered. A range of techniques are used to characterize the microstructure, but, in particular, two surface sensitive analytical techniques, namely, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), are used to detect and quantitatively analyze impurity boron. The results are discussed with respect to the relationship of the boron to the stable silicate inclusions and the potential influence this may have on mechanical properties of these materials.
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