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    ABSTRACT: The relationship of objectively measured sedentary time (ST), frequency of breaks in ST, with lower extremity function (LEF) was investigated in a diverse sample aged ≥ 70 years (n=217). Physical activity (PA) was assessed by accelerometry deriving moderate-vigorous PA minutes per registered hour (MVPA min·h-1), registered ST (ST min·h-1), and breaks in ST min·h-1 (breaks·h-1). LEF was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery. Univariate associations with overall LEF were MVPA (r=.523), ST (r=-.499) and breaks (r=.389). Adjusted linear regression including MVPA min·h-1, ST min·h-1 and breaks·h-1 explained 41.5% of LEF variance. Each additional break·h-1 was associated with 0.58 point increase in LEF. Breaks and MVPA had strongest independent associations with LEF. Promoting regular breaks might be useful in maintaining or increasing LEF and later life independence. This novel finding is important for the design of effective lifestyle interventions targeting older adults.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
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    ABSTRACT: There is a lack of published data about the food intake of patients with type 2 diabetes and the changes that they make in response to patient-centred dietary advice. The present study describes the changes reported in response to a nonprescriptive dietary intervention based upon UK dietary guidelines. Two hundred and sixty-two patients (87 women and 175 men) from the Early ACTivity in Diabetes (ACTID) trial who received the dietary intervention returned 4 days food diaries at baseline and 6 months. Nonparametric tests were used to examine changes in meal patterns, total energy intake and energy from food groups between baseline and 6 months. Mean (SD) number of reported meals day(-1) was 3.0 (0.3) and mean (SD) number of snacks was 1.1 (0.6) at both baseline and 6 months for men and women. Men reported decreasing energy intake by a mean (SD) of 912 (1389) KJ/day [218 (332) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001) and women by 515 (1130) KJ/day [123 (270) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001). Men reported reducing energy from alcoholic drinks [-234 (527) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001], white bread [-113 (402) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001], biscuits [i.e. cookies -67 (205) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001] and cakes [-50 (410) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.0012]. Women reported reducing energy from mixed main meals [-134 (456) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.036], pasta and rice [-79 (326) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.019], high-energy drinks [-59 (159) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001] and white bread [-59 (368) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.042]. Men and women in the Early ACTID study reported small changes in higher-energy and lower-fibre foods and drinks in response to patient-centred dietary advice.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity rates in children are particularly high in European countries. Based on self-report data in the Health Behaviour in School-age Children study, obesity in 11-year-old Maltese children is second only to children in the United States. This is the first study on obesity in 10-11-year-old Maltese children using objective measures with a nationally representative sample that confirms very high levels of overweight and obesity. Prevalence appears to be high with no strong social or geographical patterning. The objective of this study was to establish, through measured height and weight, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a representative sample of Maltese children aged 10-11 years. Height and weight were measured in a sample, stratified by sex, region and type of school, of 874 year 6 children and their body mass index classified as normal weight, overweight, and obese using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), World Health Organization (WHO), US Centre for Disease Control and UK Department of Health standards. IOTF standards indicated 20.4% overweight and 14.2% obese, while WHO standards indicated 23.1% overweight and 20.9% obese. All four standards reported significant sex differences, classifying more boys in the overweight and obesity categories. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among 10-11-year-old Maltese children are higher than previously estimated through self-reported height and weight and all other countries in the world except Greece. These high rates confirm the urgent need to identify causes and tackle childhood obesity in Malta.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Pediatric Obesity
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