Microbial colonisations of gypsum from Eastern Poland (Badenian, Middle Miocene age) were investigated by Raman microspectrometry with a rarely used excitation 445 nm excitation. Zones of microbial colonisation in selenitic gypsum endolithic outcrops comprise algae and cyanobacteria, which commonly contain the photosynthetic and protective pigments carotenoids, scytonemin and gloeocapsin. Diagnostic bands differing from those of scytonemin have been identified in black colonies in gypsum outcrops at Chotel Czierwony (Poland). Raman spectral signatures of scytonin are reported here for the first time in two endolithic specimens identified by the band wavenumbers predicted from DFT calculations. The strong or medium strong intensity Raman bands observed at 1603, 1585, 1559, 1435, and 1424 cm-1. Other weaker bands were located at 1676 (sh), 1660 (sh), 1649, 1399, 1362, 1342, 1320, 1294, 1272, 1259, and 1052 cm-1. The first observation of the Raman spectrum of scytonin in the cyanobacterial colonisation of gypsum facilitates the inclusion of this new biomolecular signature in the library of unique Raman spectra of biological pigments invaluable for detection of traces of life in frame of the planetary missions.
Since the publication of the Christ Church Spitalfields crypt, London, in 1993, archaeologists and paleopathologists have increasingly recognized the importance of post-medieval burial assemblages. Increasingly paleopathologists have explored the impact industrialization and urbanization had on disease. This virtual special issue focuses upon a global examination of the transition to industry commencing in the mid-18th century. The objectives are to identify commonalities and disparities in general health during the development of industry within a global context, and to examine, and in some cases challenge, long-held assumptions about health during this period of dramatic social change. It gathers together papers from international scholars in order to examine patterns in health experience throughout the transition to industry. The individual papers address this transition in terms of the unique chronological, political, economic, and social parameters of their specific region. This introduction identifies long held assumptions about the impact the industrial revolution had on health and outlines the specific environmental and social conditions of industry that influenced human disease.
EMNEs from Africa are missing in global places and spaces, and Africapitalism is also meagrely represented within the capillaries of international investments, relative to the opportunities offered by globalisation and Africa’s rich natural resource endowment. Using the Penrosian MNE growth theory, we investigate how African firms' managerial competence and entrepreneurial behaviours can be enhanced by engaging foreign executive directors during pre, early and post-internationalisation. We conduct our analysis by using data from 157 companies domiciled in 17 African countries. Our results show that whilst access to liquidity, foreign managerial know-how, and experience are key drivers of early foreign listing of African EMNEs, these factors have less effect on corporate outcomes during the 3rd and 5th year without the moderating effect of foreign executive directors. We contribute to the international business and international entrepreneurship literature by showing that African EMNEs can succeed in global spaces if they leverage the expertise of foreign executive directors as they bring idiosyncratic industry and market knowledge during early internationalisation. EMNEs intending to internationalise must use a polycentric governing board structure to reflect the intended destination country. Our results imply that early listing on the international stock markets is among the key strategies latecomers use to enter a global game they are just learning to play.
Principles and applications of open science (also referred to as open research or open scholarship) in psychology have emerged in response to growing concerns about the replicability, transparency, reproducibility, and robustness of psychological research alongside global moves to open science in many fields. Our objective in this paper is to inform ways of collectively constructing open science practices and systems that are appropriate to, and get the best out of, the full range of qualitative and mixed-method approaches used in psychology. We achieve this by describing three areas of open research practice (contributorship, pre-registration, and open data) and explore how and why qualitative researchers might consider engaging with these in ways that are compatible with a qualitative research paradigm. We argue it is crucial that open research practices do not (even inadvertently) exclude qualitative research, and that qualitative researchers reflect on how we can meaningfully engage with open science in psychology.
Objectives: In China there is a cultural expectation (Xiao, - filial piety) that offspring should provide care for their parents. However, the sustainability of this is threatened by the impact of the One-Child Policy (1979-2015), which has resulted in a diminution in numbers of children available to care, rapid urbanisation and increase in the number of women in employment. In this context, the objective was to explore the motivations, meaning, and preparedness for future caregiving of offspring affected by the OCP. Design and methods: We adopted a constructivist position using a hermeneutic phenomenology approach and interviewed eight current and prospective caregivers aged 20-35 years about future caregiving responsibilities. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews, analysed using reflective Thematic Analysis. Results and conclusion(s): Three prominent themes: (i) Caregiving beliefs, (ii) Caregiving conditions and (iii) Contextual factors were identified under an overarching theme "Competing pressures- meanings, motivation and preparedness". Despite the inherent stress, participants envisaged providing or organising care in the future to fulfil Xiao, and most viewed long-term care settings as unviable. Ultimately, the findings suggested that the actual performance of caregiving would not always measure up to ideal expectations, resulting in 'filial discrepancy' i.e., a gap between societal expectations for caregiving to older relatives and actual caregiving performance. This could adversely impact the caregivers and quality of care provided. The findings highlighted the urgent need to develop culturally attuned services, including education and training for family caregivers, health and social care professionals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Round-ended recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tube (RE-RACFST) column is an innovative composite member, which holds the advantage of round-ended concrete-filled steel tube (RE-CFST) and expands the application of RAC in structural members. This paper presents the testing and numerical investigation on the axial compression behaviour of RE-RACFSTs. A total of 18 stub columns were tested to determine the failure mode, axial load versus strain response, vertical and circumferential strains of the round-ended steel tube, and the confinement effect from external steel tube in different positions. The effects of cross-sectional aspect ratio, coarse recycled aggregate (CRA) replacement and steel ratio were analyzed. In general, the ductile behaviour of the specimens reduced with increasing aspect ratio and decreasing steel ratio. The confinement effect during the entire compression process was investigated based on the vertical and circumferential strains. Finite element (FE) models were then developed, and a constitutive model suitable for core RAC in RE-RACFST columns was proposed. Parametric analysis was then carried out to evaluate the effects of the aspect ratio, steel ratio, CRA replacement level, and material strength on the axial compression response. Finally, several existing design provisions for rectangular CFST and RAC-FST members were assessed the feasibility of their application in RE-RACFSTs by using the equivalent method.
A novel prestressed precast reinforced concrete (RC) beam-column joint, composed of prestressed tendons, stiffened steel sleeves, and high-strength bolts, having improved self-centring ability and assembly efficiency is proposed in this paper. Four prestressed precast RC joints assembled by steel sleeves and one cast-in-place RC joint were tested under cyclic loading to investigate the seismic response of the proposed joint. The main parameters studied are the axial compression ratio of columns, stirrup ratio in the core area of the proposed joint and effective prestress of tendons. The energy dissipation capacity, bearing capacity, and self-centring ability of the prestressed precast RC beam-column joints assembled by steel sleeves are higher than those measured for the cast-in-place RC joint. For the prestressed precast RC joints assembled by steel sleeves, both yield and ultimate displacements increase with the increase of the axial compression ratio, stirrup ratio and effective prestress, but the ductility decreases with the increase of the axial compression ratio and effective prestress. The increasing of axial compression ratio can lead to an increase in the energy dissipation capacity, shear capacity and residual displacement. Finally, formulae to predict the shear capacity of prestressed precast RC joint assembled by steel sleeves are proposed, being in good agreement with the experimental results.
In recent years, there has been a focus in social psychology on efforts to improve the robustness, rigour, transparency and openness of psychological research. This has led to a plethora of new tools, practices and initiatives that each aim to combat questionable research practices and improve the credibility of social psychological scholarship. However, the majority of these efforts derive from quantitative, deductive, hypothesis-testing methodologies, and there has been a notable lack of in-depth exploration about what the tools, practices and values may mean for research that uses qualitative methodologies. Here, we introduce a Special Section of BJSP: Open Science, Qualitative Methods and Social Psychology: Possibilities and Tensions. The authors critically discuss a range of issues, including authorship, data sharing and broader research practices. Taken together, these papers urge the discipline to carefully consider the ontological, epistemological and methodological underpinnings of efforts to improve psychological science, and advocate for a critical appreciation of how mainstream open science discourse may (or may not) be compatible with the goals of qualitative research.
The paper proposes a re-assessment of Reichenbach’s ‘causal’ theory of time. Reichenbach’s version of the theory, first proposed in 1921, is interesting because it is one of the first attempts to construct a causal theory as a relational theory of time, which fully takes the results of the Special theory of relativity into account. The theory derives its name from the cone structure of Minkowski space–time, in particular the emission of light signals. At first Reichenbach defines an ‘order’ of time, a ‘before-after’ relationship between mechanical events. In his later work, he comes to the conclusion that the ‘order’ of time needs to be distinguished from the ‘direction’ of time. He therefore abandons the sole focus on light geometry and turns to Boltzmann’s statistical version of thermodynamics. However, as Einstein pointed out, the emission and reception of light signals have thermodynamic aspects. When this is taken into account, Reichenbach’s ‘causal’ theory turns out to be an entropic theory of time. It also emerges that Reichenbach discusses phase space and typicality arguments in support of his dynamic view of time. They provide a better understanding of the notion of entropy. This unifies his approach and helps to answer some of the standard objections against a causal theory of time.
In this article we investigate the influence that information asymmetry may have on future volatility, liquidity, market toxicity, and returns within cryptocurrency markets. We use the adverse‐selection component of the effective spread as a proxy for overall information asymmetry. Using order and trade data from the Bitfinex exchange, we first document statistically significant adverse‐selection costs for major cryptocurrencies. Also, our results suggest that adverse‐selection costs, on average, correspond to 10% of the estimated effective spread, indicating an economically significant impact of adverse‐selection risk on transaction costs in cryptocurrency markets. Finally, we document that adverse‐selection costs are important predictors of intraday volatility, liquidity, market toxicity, and returns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The comet assay is a versatile method to detect nuclear DNA damage in individual eukaryotic cells, from yeast to human. The types of damage detected encompass DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites (e.g., apurinic/apyrimidinic sites), alkylated and oxidized nucleobases, DNA-DNA crosslinks, UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and some chemically induced DNA adducts. Depending on the specimen type, there are important modifications to the comet assay protocol to avoid the formation of additional DNA damage during the processing of samples and to ensure sufficient sensitivity to detect differences in damage levels between sample groups. Various applications of the comet assay have been validated by research groups in academia, industry and regulatory agencies, and its strengths are highlighted by the adoption of the comet assay as an in vivo test for genotoxicity in animal organs by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The present document includes a series of consensus protocols that describe the application of the comet assay to a wide variety of cell types, species and types of DNA damage, thereby demonstrating its versatility.
Praseodymium (III)-doped M-type SrPrxFe12-xO19 (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00) hexa-ferrites were synthesized via micro-emulsion process followed by annealing of samples at 800 °C for 4 h. The effects of praseodymium particles on properties such as electrical, magnetic, and dielectric were studied. Via TGA the phase formation was observed to be started at 900 °C, and weight reduced to 5.27% at 1010 °C. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), hexagonal structure was confirmed and structural properties were studied: the crystalline size, lattice constant, bulk and X-rays densities, i.e., 4.446 nm, 5.90 Å, 4.167 g·cm−3 and 6.46 g·cm−3, respectively. The cation dispersion and shifting of frequencies were observed by FTIR at frequencies 430–590 cm−1 because of dopant of higher radii. Surface morphology, grain structure, and porosity were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrical properties were determined by impedance spectroscopy. The impact of Pr3+ doping on distinct metrics, i.e. dielectric constants, dielectric loss, tan loss, A.C conductivity, was studied: 1.890, 0.023, 0.012, 0.001, respectively. The effects of Pr3+ doping on retentivity, coercivity, saturation magnetization, and anisotropy were investigated by the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The increase in saturation and remanence is due to the increase of Pr3+ that retuned extra Fe3+ ions from the lattice plot. The prepared materials offer valuable potential for applications of high-density recording medium applications and high-frequency devices.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) control both innate and adaptive immunity with a wide expression on renal epithelial cells and leukocytes. Activation of TLRs results in the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons along with activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, resulting in inflammatory perturbations. TLR4 signaling pathway is the most extensively studied of TLRs. TLR4 is expressed on renal microvascular endothelial and tubular epithelial cells. So, targeting TLR4 modulation could be a therapeutic approach to attenuate kidney diseases that are underlined by inflammatory cascade. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities display valuable effects and are employed as alternative sources to alleviate renal disease linked with inflammation. Flavonoids and other phytochemicals derived from traditional medicines possess promising pharmacological activities owing to their relatively cheap and high safety profile. Our review focuses on the potent anti-inflammatory activities of twenty phytochemicals to verify if their potential promising renoprotective effects are related to suppression of TLR4 signaling in different renal diseases, including sepsis-induced acute kidney injury, renal fibrosis, chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity, diabetic nephropathy and renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Additionally, molecular docking simulations were employed to explore the potential binding affinity of these phytochemicals to TLR4 as a strategy to attenuate renal diseases associated with activated TLR4 signaling.
Designer benzodiazepines are one of the primary new psychoactive substances (NPS) threats around the world, being found in large numbers in post-mortem, driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) and drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases. Even though when compared to many other NPS types, such as opioids and cathinones, there are relatively few designer benzodiazepines being monitored. Recently a new NPS benzodiazepine has been reported in Europe, the USA and Canada, desalkygidazepam, also known as bromonordiazepam. This substance is a metabolite of the pro-drug gidazepam, a drug licenced for use in Ukraine and Russia under the name Gidazepam IC®. In the paper we review what is currently known about the use, pharmacology and analytical detection of gidazepam, its metabolite desalkygidazepam, and their other possible metabolites.
Background: Command centres have been piloted in some hospitals across the developed world in the last few years. Their impact on patient safety, however, has not been systematically studied. Hence, we aimed to investigate this. Methods: This is a retrospective population-based cohort study. Participants were patients who visited Bradford Royal Infirmary Hospital and Calderdale & Huddersfield hospitals between 1 January 2018 and 31 August 2021. A five-phase, interrupted time series, linear regression analysis was used. Results: After introduction of a Command Centre, while mortality and readmissions marginally improved, there was no statistically significant impact on postoperative sepsis. In the intervention hospital, when compared with the preintervention period, mortality decreased by 1.4% (95% CI 0.8% to 1.9%), 1.5% (95% CI 0.9% to 2.1%), 1.3% (95% CI 0.7% to 1.8%) and 2.5% (95% CI 1.7% to 3.4%) during successive phases of the command centre programme, including roll-in and activation of the technology and preparatory quality improvement work. However, in the control site, compared with the baseline, the weekly mortality also decreased by 2.0% (95% CI 0.9 to 3.1), 2.3% (95% CI 1.1 to 3.5), 1.3% (95% CI 0.2 to 2.4), 3.1% (95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) for the respective intervention phases. No impact on any of the indicators was observed when only the software technology part of the Command Centre was considered. Conclusion: Implementation of a hospital Command Centre may have a marginal positive impact on patient safety when implemented as part of a broader hospital-wide improvement programme including colocation of operations and clinical leads in a central location. However, improvement in patient safety indicators was also observed for a comparable period in the control site. Further evaluative research into the impact of hospital command centres on a broader range of patient safety and other outcomes is warranted.
The continuing COVID-19 pandemic and social restrictions have impacted on the cognitive decline and mental health of people with dementia. Social isolation and loss of activities due to social restrictions may also have implications as to sense of identity for people with dementia. As part of the INCLUDE (Identifying and Mitigating the Individual and Dyadic Impact of COVID-19 and Life Under Physical Distancing on People with Dementia and Carers) component of the IDEAL (Improving the Experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life) cohort study, the overall aim of this subtle realist qualitative study was to explore the perspectives of people with dementia on living through the COVID-19 pandemic within the context of the ‘post-vaccine’ period and the national lockdowns in England and Wales; and to determine perceived challenges to and facilitators of ‘living well’ during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond as restrictions were eased. In addition, the study findings are considered in relation to understandings of identity in dementia which the broader accounts of living through the pandemic have highlighted. Seven people with mild-to-moderate dementia were interviewed and themes were derived using framework analysis. Themes suggest interviewees' stoic acceptance of the pandemic and social restrictions but also fear of decline related to the temporality of their condition as well as loss of self-confidence to re-engage with the world. Interviewees managed threats to social identity by striving to maintain social and emotional connections, where the importance of a shared, social identity, particularly for people with young-onset dementia, was also apparent. Unlike in previous studies during the pandemic, the relevance of occupation for identity was observed, where maintaining previous or new activities or occupations was important to facilitate identity as well as to keep a sense of purpose. Therefore, as well as supporting people with dementia as the pandemic eases, future research into occupation and identity in dementia is of potential value.
Introduction: Care Opinion is an online feedback platform supporting patients to author stories about their care. It is not known whether authors would be willing to be involved in improving care through research. The aims of this study were to explore the views and preferences of Care Opinion authors about joining an online research community and to pilot new research community functionality. Methods: Five hundred and nine Care Opinion authors were invited to take part in an online survey in June 2019. Survey items included questions about participants' willingness to take part in research and their preferences for supporting processes. Data were analysed descriptively. Authors were invited to consent to join a research community and were asked to participate in three pilot studies. Results: One hundred and sixty-three people consented to take part in the survey (32%). Participants indicated they would like to know the time commitment to the project (146, 90%), details about the organization carrying out the research (124, 76%) and safeguarding information (124, 76%). Over half indicated that they did not know how to get involved in healthcare research (87, 53%). Subsequently, 667 authors were invited to join the research community, 183 (27%) accepted, and three studies were matched to their expressed preferences for project attributes or organization type. Conclusion: Many people who leave online feedback about their experiences of healthcare are also willing to join a research community via that platform. They have strong preferences for supporting University and NHS research. Eligibility and acceptance rates to join pilot research studies varied. Further work is needed to grow the research community, increase its diversity, and create relevant and varied opportunities to support research. Patient or public contribution: Four members of the Safety In Numbers patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) group advised about survey development.
Objective: To describe the use, effectiveness, and safety outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in Latin American countries. Materials and methods: Studies reporting MT outcomes for AIS in Latin America were identified in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, SciELO, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. Synthesis was conducted according to effectiveness (recanalization rates) and safety measures (mortality and functional independence at 90 days). Results: Seventeen studies were included, mainly from public and university hospitals. MT utilization varied from 2.6% to 50.1%, while successful recanalization ranged from 63% to 95%. Functional independence 90 days after stroke (a modified Rankin scale score of 0 to 2) was achieved in less than 40% across most studies. Mortality rates were below 30%; studies with posterior circulation strokes reported higher mortality rates. The randomized trial reported better health outcomes for functional independence among patients in the MT group (OR 2.28; 95% CI, 1.41 - 3.69), favoring MT over standard care. Conclusions: The included studies had great methodological heterogeneity due to differences in study design, the MT time window, and stroke location. The only randomized trial showed improved functional independence and lower mortality rates with MT than with standard care. The rest of the studies reported similar findings to available literature. Efforts to improve stroke care are reflected in improved patient outcomes in the region. Future studies should consider standard time window criteria and reduce the risk of bias by including representative samples and comparison groups.
Purpose Listening-related fatigue is a potential negative consequence of challenges experienced during everyday listening and may disproportionately affect older adults. Contrary to expectation, we recently found that increased reports of listening-related fatigue were associated with better performance on a dichotic listening task. However, this link was found only in individuals who reported heightened sensitivity to a variety of physical, social, and emotional stimuli (i.e., increased “sensory-processing sensitivity” [SPS]). This study examined whether perceived effort may underlie the link between performance and fatigue. Method Two hundred six young adults, aged 18–30 years (Experiment 1), and 122 older adults, aged 60–80 years (Experiment 2), performed a dichotic listening task and were administered a series of questionnaires including the NASA Task Load Index of perceived effort, the Vanderbilt Fatigue Scale (measuring daily life listening-related fatigue), and the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (measuring SPS). Both experiments were completed online. Results SPS predicted listening-related fatigue, but perceived effort during the listening task was not associated with SPS or listening-related fatigue in either age group. We were also unable to replicate the interaction between dichotic listening performance and SPS in either group. Exploratory analyses revealed contrasting effects of age; older adults found the dichotic listening task more effortful but indicated lower overall fatigue. Conclusions These findings suggest that SPS is a better predictor of listening-related fatigue than performance or effort ratings on a dichotic listening task. SPS may be an important factor in determining an individual's likelihood of experiencing listening-related fatigue irrespective of hearing or cognitive ability. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21893013
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