# University of Bojnord

• Bojnūrd, North Khorasan, Iran
Recent publications
The impact of task complexity on integrated writing performance is under‐researched. This study purports to investigate the effect of graph complexity and planning time on graph writing performance as well as graph description strategies. Ninety‐six EFL learners of English were assigned into three groups to examine the effect of three planning conditions, that is, pretask planning, within‐task planning, and no planning. Moreover, graph complexity, operationalized as the number of visual chunks in a graph, was the within‐subject variable. In general, there were some benefits of graph complexity for syntactic complexity and some planning benefits for fluency, accuracy, and lexical diversity. However, graph complexity had a negative impact on accuracy, and measures of lexical sophistication were not affected in any condition. On the graph description side, pretask planning and graph complexity had a positive impact on graph description strategies. The theoretical and pedagogical implications of these findings are discussed. The use of graph‐based writing tasks for second language learning and assessment is on the rise, posing new and unexplored questions. Can we extend the established theoretical frameworks of task complexity to capture task complexity in graph writing? If yes, how can graph complexity affect the linguistic and descriptive aspects of graph writing performance?
The solubility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in ionic liquids was modeled at various temperatures and partial gas pressures using two approaches. The first approach as a thermodynamic model, is a generic Redlich–Kwong (GRK) cubic EoS and the other is a Group method of data handling (GMDH) as an artificial intelligence approach. Results of modeling using both approaches were obtained by estimation of the percent relative deviation as well as the regression coefficients (R2) and root mean square error. The GMDH model in this paper showed it is a reliable development to be an alternative method for the thermodynamic approach in modeling of H2S solubility data in ionic liquids in the extended ranges of pressure and temperatures.
Characterization of a finite module with specified number of nontrivial submodules is one of the most important issues for researchers in module theory. In this paper, we will try to characterize a module with three or four nontrivial submodules by defining a new hypergraph on that module. Suppose that K is a module over a ring R. We introduce IHR(K) which we call intersection hypergraph of K. Any hyperedge in IHR(K), forms a complete subgraph of the complement of intersection graph of a module. A characterization of a finite module with exactly three nontrivial submodules via their associated hypergraphs are also presented. We provide a characterization of finite semisimple modules with exactly four nontrivial submodules in terms of their corresponded hypergraph. Some interesting examples are also included.
Background: The scheduling of clinical rehabilitative exercise should combine best possible delivery of exercise with the most efficient use of time, facilities, equipment, and personnel. However, it is not clear whether distribution of a fixed amount of exercise volume is more efficient over a longer time period in a week (distributed manner) than over a shorter time period in a week (massed manner). Objective: To evaluate the effects of distributed vs. massed within- and between- sessions exercise scheduling on balance, exercise performance and pain perception in middle-aged women with knee pain. Participants: Thirty-four middle-aged female volunteers (56.05±5.21 years old; 66.88±7.62 kg; 27.70±2.77 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned into one of the three groups consisting of Rehabilitative Massed Scheduling (RMS); Rehabilitative Distributed Scheduling (RDS); or Control group (CG). Main outcome measures: Isometric strength, balance, functional movement performance and pain perception were assessed at baseline (pre), at week eight (mid), and one week after the full 12-weeks (post) of exercise training or no-intervention (CG). Results: Significant improvements in balance, functional movement performance and pain perception were found after both rehabilitative distributed and massed scheduling after eight and 12 weeks compared to the control group (p˂0.05). When examining the net changes (% ∆) between RDS and RMS there was only a significant difference in the right 30s arm curl records of individuals in the RDS group which were significantly higher than the RMS group at the post-test (p˂0.05). Conclusion: Rehabilitative training providers are advised to distribute the drills of rehabilitative exercise training within and between the sessions of exercise per week only when a positive BURST effect of exercise training is needed. Otherwise, as long as the whole amount of rehabilitative exercise work is identical the benefit of going five vs three times per week to the rehabilitation centers would be similar. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
As teaching a foreign language (FL) is a demanding and frustrating career, FL teachers might face different challenges and difficulties which in turn would lead them to quit their jobs. Therefore, FL teachers need to keep their effort, energy, and passion to achieve their teaching goals. FL teacher grit (i.e., perseverance of effort and consistency of interest in FL teaching) is the concept that deals with these issues. In this study, we developed a new FL teacher grit scale (FLTGS) and investigated how FL teacher grit is related to their burnout and different discrete emotions. To this end, a total of 235 FL teachers filled out the questionnaires. The results of the study indicated, firstly, that the newly developed FL teacher grit scale had high reliability and a two-factor model fitted the data adequately. Secondly, findings indicated that both grit components had positive correlations with FL teaching enjoyment and negative correlations with FL teaching anxiety, boredom, and burnout. Finally, the results of relative weight analysis showed that FL teacher grit components can be as important as emotions in predicting burnout. Our findings suggested that the newly developed grit scale could provide us with a valid and reliable tool to assess FL teacher grit. Moreover, our findings suggested that higher levels of FL teacher grit can prevent them from leaving the profession.
Crown area is one of the key parameters in determining tree growth and an important basis for estimation of biophysical characteristics at single-tree levels in natural and man-made forests. Therefore, the present study was aimed to improve the estimation of crown area on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data using a novel method in a Pinus eldarica man-made forest. The UAV-based RGB images with spatial resolution of 2 cm were acquired from the study area and then resampled to four pixel sizes of 10, 30, 50 and 70 cm. The resampled images were classified by three methods, i.e., Support vector machine (SVM), Random forest (RF), and Artificial neural network (ANN), which are all ensemble (bagging) classification methods. In the next step, the maps of three classification methods for each pixel size were combined by majority voting algorithm at pixel level. The results showed the robustness of ANN in all pixel sizes compared to RF and SVM. Additionally, the combination of the machine learning method by majority voting algorithms had significantly improved the accuracy of P. eldarica crown delineation and its area estimation on the UAV orthoimages with the investigated pixel sizes.
The Impostor Phenomenon (IP) describes experiences of perceived intellectual fraudulence despite the existence of objectively good performances, and it is a robust predictor of experiences and outcomes in higher education. We examined the role of the IP in the domain of second language (L2) acquisition by testing its relations with a robust predictor of L2 use, willingness to communicate (WTC). We collected self-reports of 400 adult Iranian L2 learners and tested the associations between the IP and WTC. As expected, we found a negative association between IP and WTC (r = -.13). When testing a mediation model with perceived competence and communication anxiety as parallel mediators, we found evidence for full mediation via perceived competence. Our findings show the importance of considering self-evaluations in the domain of L2 acquisition. Further implications and limitations are discussed.
Introduction: Taking into account the growth of increase in the elderly population in Iran and the world, and the emergence of the phenomenon of feminization of aging, the present study has been conducted, with aim of examining the relationship between anxiety about aging and the perceived and experienced gender inequality among the women of Shiraz city (Iran). Methods: This cross-sectional study has been carried on 30 to 70 years old women in the city of Shiraz. The requied sample size is estimated to be 405 individuals, and the participants selected through a stratified random sampling. Data collection has taken place by a questionnaire which some of the questions of that were made by the authors and some are borrowed from anxiety about aging scale.The collected data were analyzed with SPSS 21 using pearson corellation tests. Results: Experienced inequality has a significant positive correlation with anxiety about aging (total) (r = 0.226; p < 0.01). The relation between perceived inequality has also been positive and significant with anxiety about aging (total) (r = 132; p < 0.05). Furthermore, there is a significant relationship between gender inequality (perceived and experienced) and anxiety about aging in different aspects, including social and economic fears, psychological fears, fear of losing the feminine position, fear of losing health, and fear of physical changes and changes in appearance. Conclusion: The anxiety about aging increases among women who experience and percive gender inequality. According to the accelerating process of population aging and the importance of paying attention to the social, psychological, and physical health of elderly women, it is necessary to take more considerations into account. In this regard, planning for decreasing the gender gap and inequality can be effective to some extent. Seemingly, the intersection of “the phenomenon of feminization of poverty,” due to gender inequality, with the phenomenon of “feminization of aging” in the future brings to the fore the necessity of paying attention to “anxiety about aging.”
Utilizing ultrasonic excitation as an active method for studying the rate of heat transfer has gained considerable attention recently. The present study investigated the effects of ultrasonic excitation on the heat transfer rate in a fin-and-flat tube heat exchanger experimentally. The performance of the heat exchanger was investigated with and without the presence of ultrasonic excitation. A comprehensive parameter study was attempted, so several parameters, including ambient temperature, flow rate, air passing velocity, Reynolds number, and Nusselt number, were studied in a relatively wide range. An adequate uncertainty test, as well as a validation assessment, is provided to certify the credibility of the obtained results and the hired facility. The results revealed that reducing the flow rate, ambient temperature, and air passing velocity on the heat exchanger increased the ultrasonic excitation’s effects. The highest heat transfer enhancement in the present experiment was 70.11%, measured at the lowest air passing velocity and ambient temperature with a Reynolds number 2166. The data presented in this paper will be useful for the optimal design of ultrasonic vibrating fin-and-tube heat exchangers.
In the modern world, foreign languages have acquired special importance, and their study is considered one of the fundamental and key conditions for the success of intercultural communication, as well as a tool for the formation of linguistic identity. For this reason, in the past few decades, special research has been carried out in educational psychology in order to find effective non-linguistic ways of mastering a second language. According to modern approaches, individual psychological characteristics have a great influence on the process of mastering foreign languages; therefore, this article attempts to show the relationship between psychological aspects and educational methods. The most important factors include motivation, gender, learning style, social factors, interest in learning a second language, the level of language and intellectual abilities, the presence of a language barrier, the cognitive style of the student, the ratio of language material and speech during learning, the level of development of verbal memory and the formation of ability to understand complex communication links. In this process, it is necessary to pay attention to essential factors that are outside linguistics. Students with the knowledge acquired over the years turn to different learning styles. It is important to show respect for their learning styles. It is essential for the instructor to design his curriculum in such a way that different students with different learning styles can follow them. When the activity seems meaningful to the student, his motivation for learning also increases. It seems that familiarity with psychology is essential for all teachers. Understanding what processes occur in the memory of a student while learning a foreign language, as well as what negative impact the delivery of a large volume of educational materials in a short period of time can have on him, is of great importance. Understanding this can have a significant positive impact on foreign language teachers in the preparation of educational programs for their correct presentation, which will be of great benefit and positive effect in the classroom.
The rapidly developing cultural relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and Russia predetermine the importance of studying the realities of Russian culture in teaching Russian as a foreign language. Despite the constantly growing interest of the Iranian reader in Russian fiction, we have not found translations of Russian folk tales. A distinctive feature of fairy tales is the presence of specific monsters and mythical creatures in them. The relevance of this study is emphasized by the fact that the opinions of researchers on the issue of translating these realities are divided: some researchers note that realities are untranslatable, others argue that there are no words that would be impossible to convey in another language. This research work presents methods and techniques for an adequate and equivalent translation of the proper names of mythical creatures that are the heroes of Russian folk tales of a magical nature. The translation experiment was conducted in student classes of the RFL departments of higher educational institutions of Iran. The main methods on which the study is based are the comparative method, the method of linguistic description, and the method of experiment. The students were asked to translate typical sentences, selected by continuous sampling, in which there was a mention of the magical characters of Russian folk tales. The purpose of the experiment is to identify what methods and techniques of translation strategies were used in the process of translating realities that do not have equivalents in the Persian language. Thus, the empirical basis of this study is the interpretation of fragments of Russian folk tales of a magical nature in Persian by students learning Russian as a foreign language. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that it is the first attempt to analyze the method of equivalent or adequate conveyance of national and cultural color of the Russian fairy tales characters into Persian. Based on the experiment, we can conclude that when translating the names of mythical heroes and monsters of Russian folk tales, students resorted to two main translation strategies − foreignization and domestication. Russian students chose the method of phonetic transliteration and transcription as the main method of foreignization, as well as calques that contribute to the preservation of Russian cultural and ethnic specificity and overcoming the difficulties of conveying semantic content and the national color of the mythical heroes of Russian folk tales. The main technique of the domestication strategy used by students is the borrowing of the designation of a fairy-tale character from the culture of other peoples with whom they were previously familiar. The results of our research can find practical application in literary translation in Iran. Theoretically, the material can contribute to the development of the theory of translation of literary texts of the folklore genre, as well as arouse interest in further research among undergraduates and graduate students studying in higher educational institutions of Iran.
Background Early marriage occurs in some regions of the world. Given that early marriage can have many negative consequences for girls by affecting their physical, mental, and social health, the purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for early marriage from the perspective of women who had experienced it in Zahedan, Iran. Methods This qualitative research was conducted based on the qualitative content analysis method in 2020–2021. The target population included women aged 18–35 living in Zahedan who were married under the age of 18 years. Purposeful sampling was used to select the participants. In order to collect data, in-depth interviews were performed to decipher the reasons for early marriage from these women’s perspectives. A total of 36 interviews were conducted from October to December 2020 until reaching theoretical saturation. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data and extract the relevant concepts and categories. Results The analysis of the interviews in this study revealed three main categories:(1) “early marriage as a transcendental coercion” ( early marriage as a cultural heritage and early marriage as a control tool, girls’ weaknesses and inability to resist, dominant attitudes toward gender and gender restrictions), (2) “early marriage as a solution or a kind of problem solving” (escape from undesirable family environment, escape from financial poverty, and strategic escape from an unpleasant situation), and (3) “early marriage as a voluntary act” (real agency and imaginary agency). To substantiate these findings, we presented excerpts from the interviews conducted with the participants. Conclusion The results of this study suggest a multidimensional picture of early marriage. It seems that improving cultural conditions and empowering families and girls in various areas, including marriage, can reduce the rate of early marriage and/or at least mitigate its undesirable consequences.
Fatigue cracking is a significant cause of failure in flexible pavements at moderate temperatures. Neat bitumen cannot properly perform at all temperatures and environmental conditions due to the increasing traffic volume. Consequently, this study examined the simultaneous usage of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the styrene-ethylene/propylene-styrene (SEPS) polymer as bitumen modifiers. The linear amplitude sweep (LAS) test and surface free energy (SFE) theory were used to determine the rheological characteristics and thermodynamic parameters of neat and modified bitumens, respectively. Using the SEPS nanocomposite up to 6% increased the fatigue life and moisture damage resistance of the asphalt mixtures by improving thermodynamic parameters such as adhesive free energy in dry and wet conditions. According to the LAS results, the modified bitumen outperformed the neat bitumen in terms of fatigue life under different strain levels. The fatigue life of the asphalt mixtures also decreased as the temperature increased from 10 to 20°C. However, for the mixtures containing the SEPS nanocomposite, the reduction in fatigue life was less noticeable due to the lower temperature sensitivity of the modified bitumen. The mixtures containing 6% SEPS nanocomposite demonstrated the highest performance.
This paper numerically investigates the effect of pulsating flow on the settling dynamics of rigid circular particles. This is an interdisciplinary subject and spans several areas ranging from mathematical and numerical modeling to fluid mechanics. For this purpose, pulsatile flow characteristics are embedded in the combination of the direct‐forcing immersed boundary method and the split‐forcing lattice Boltzmann method. Inter‐collision forces between the solid boundaries (particles and boundaries) and the added mass force due to acceleration are considered. Adequate verification tests are done to ensure the credibility of the findings. The critical parameters of pulsating flow, such as amplitude and frequency of pulsation, are investigated in detail. The paper especially puts emphasis on the interaction between particles and studies the well‐known drafting, kissing, and tumbling (DKT) phenomena. Two different scenarios are taken into account and also compared with the stationary flow. The first case is when the pulsating flow is in the direction of gravity (co‐flow), while in the latter, there is an opposing flow (counterflow). The sedimentation manners of 12 particles in a vertical channel are also presented. The findings shed light on the importance of pulsating flow and the extension of the proposed computational method for such problems. It is also revealed that pulsation and its variables can alter DKT by either postponing or speeding up the process. Also, in some cases, the cycle of DKT can be maintained incompletely, and particles would just stick together. The results can be useful for various engineering problems like filtration and particle sorting.
The current study mainly aimed at examining the link between perfectionistic cognitions on the one hand and L2 anxiety, willingness to communicate (WTC) and achievement on the other hand. The other purpose of the research was investigating the factor structure of perfectionistic cognitions as proposed by Stoeber et al. (2010). To this aim, 1,349 Iranian secondary school students completed questionnaires related to L2 anxiety, willingness to communicate, and perfectionistic cognitions. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that perfectionistic cognitions had only two dimensions: personal standards (PS) and concerns over mistakes (COM). As hypothesized, personal standards dimension had a positive correlation to L2 achievement and willingness to communicate and was negatively related to L2 anxiety. Moreover, concern over mistakes was positively related to L2 anxiety. In both cases, anxiety mediated the relationship between perfectionism and outcome variables (i.e., L2 achievement and willingness to communicate). Therefore, although concern over mistakes was not directly related to L2 achievement and willingness to communicate, it was indirectly related to them through L2 anxiety.
We study the lattice structure of fuzzy A-ideals in an mv-module M (fai (M), symbolically) and show that it is a complete Heyting lattice and so the set of its pseudocomplements forms a Boolean algebra. In the sequel, the properties of fuzzy congruences in an mv-module are investigated and using them some structural theorems are stated and proved. Finally, it is proved that fai (M) can be embedded into the lattice of fuzzy congruences.
The rapid growth of the electronics industry and the increase in processor power levels requires new techniques to improve the heat transfer rate in their cooling systems. In this study, ultrasonic vibration technology was introduced as an active method to enhance the thermal performance of water-cooling systems. The effects of ultrasonic vibrations at power levels of 30, 60, and 120 watts for different cooling airflow rates were investigated experimentally. The results were validated with available empirical correlations to ensure the accuracy of the measurement systems. The findings indicated that the ultrasonic vibrations enhanced the heat transfer in the liquid-cooling heat exchangers. In addition, the thermal performance of the ultrasonic vibrations was improved by reducing the airflow rate and increasing the ultrasonic power. In addition to the feature of heat transfer improvement, ultrasonic waves are widely used for the cleaning of different types of heat exchangers. Regarding the anti-fouling and anti-accumulation effects of the ultrasonic vibrations, the introduced technology could provide a practical way for developing high-performance nanofluids-based computer cooling systems.
The COVID-19 pandemic has induced changes in global air quality, mostly short-term improvements, through worldwide lockdowns and restrictions on human mobility and industrial enterprises. In this study, we explored the air pollution status in Tehran metropolitan, the capital city of Iran, during the COVID-19 outbreak. To this end, ambient air quality data (CO, NO2, O3, PM10, SO2, and AQI) from 14 monitoring stations across the city, together with global COVID-19-related records, were utilized. The results showed that only the annual mean concentration of SO2 increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly due to burning fuel oil in power plants. The findings also demonstrated that the number of days with a good AQI has significantly decreased during the pandemic, despite the positive trend in the global AQI. Based on the spatial variation of the air quality data across the city, the results revealed that increasing pollution levels were more pronounced in low-income regions.
The main goal of this paper is to investigate some related characterizations of pseudo-(pre)valuations on EQ-algebras. To begin with, an another form of congruence relation induced by a pseudovaluation on EQ-algebras is introduced and its properties are characterized. In the follow, it is proved that if EQ-algebras L is a separated EQ-algebra, then there are one-to-one correspondences among the set of all relative congruences of L (RCon(L)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathbf {RCon(L)}$$\end{document}), the lattice of filters of L (F(L))\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$(\mathbf {F(L)})$$\end{document} and the set of all pseudovaluations on L (PV(L)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathbf {PV(L)}$$\end{document} ). Moreover, the quotient EQ-algebra induced by a strong pseudovaluation and positive implicative pseudovaluation are studied. In addition, the concepts integral and fantastic pseudo-(pre)valuations on EQ-algebras are introduced and the quotient EQ-algebra induced by them are studied. Finally, it is proved that a real-valued function on good EQ-algebra is an implicative pseudo-pre-valuation if and only if it is a positive implicative and fantastic pseudo-pre-valuation.
In this research, the electronic structure and optical properties of La2CoO4 and LaSrCoO4 are such as dielectric function, refractive and extinction coefficients, the optical conductivity, reflectivity and absorption spectra were investigated using the generalized gradient (GGA and GGA + U) and modified Becke–Johnson (MBJ and MBJ + U) approximations. To compare the theoretical data with experimental results, both samples were synthesized using sol–gel method and their structure, morphology and optical properties were characterized using XRD analysis, FE-SEM imaging and UV–vis spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that the energy band gap of La2CoO4 has been decreased with substitution of La³⁺ ions by Sr²⁺ in both the theoretical and experimental methods. According to our results, MBJ and MBJ + U approaches provide better description of band gap and optical properties of La2CoO4 and LaSrCoO4 compounds. This study can provide a reference for future research and helps to extend the properties of Ruddlesden-Popper materials into the optical applications.
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• Mechanical Engineering
• Department of Foreign Languages
• Chemical Engineering
• Department of Mathematics
• Department of Industrial Engineering
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