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    ABSTRACT: Landing an aircraft is a complex task that requires effective attentional control in order to be successful. The present study examined how anxiety may influence gaze behavior during the performance of simulated landings. Participants undertook simulated landings in low visibility conditions which required the use of cockpit instruments in order to obtain guidance information. Landings were performed in either anxiety or control conditions, with anxiety being manipulated using a combination of ego-threatening instructions and monetary incentives. Results showed an increase in percentage dwell time towards the outside world in the anxiety conditions. Visual scanning entropy, which is the predictability of visual scanning behavior, showed an increase in the randomness of scanning behavior when anxious. Furthermore, change in scanning randomness from the pre-test to anxiety conditions positively correlated with both the change in cognitive anxiety and change in performance error. These results support the viewpoint that anxiety can negatively affect attentional control.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney transplantation is the preferred modality of renal replacement therapy. Long-term patient and graft survival have only improved marginally over the recent decade, mainly because of the development of cardiovascular disease after transplantation. Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is common before and after transplantation. This article reviews the literature assessing the role of pre- and post-transplant obesity on patient and graft survival, discusses the underlying obesity-related mechanisms leading to inferior kidney transplant outcomes, and explores the role of nutritional intervention on improving long-term outcomes of transplantation. Although the role of pretransplant obesity remains uncertain, post-transplant obesity increases the risk of graft failure and mortality. Nutritional intervention is effective in achieving post-transplant weight loss, but the effect on long-term outcomes has not been established. Future research should focus on conducting nutritional intervention studies aiming to improve long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Renal Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Acute bouts of high-intensity exercise modulate peripheral appetite regulating hormones to transiently suppress hunger. However, the effects of physical activity on central appetite regulation have yet to be fully investigated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare neural responses to visual food stimuli after intense exercise and rest. Fifteen lean healthy men (mean ± SD age: 22.5 ± 3.1 y; mean ± SD body mass index: 24.2 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) completed two 60-min trials-exercise (EX; running at ∼70% maximum aerobic capacity) and a resting control trial (REST)-in a counterbalanced order. After each trial, an fMRI assessment was completed in which images of high- and low-calorie foods were viewed. EX significantly suppressed subjective appetite responses while increasing thirst and core-body temperature. Furthermore, EX significantly suppressed ghrelin concentrations and significantly enhanced peptide YY release. Neural responses to images of high-calorie foods significantly increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation and suppressed orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and hippocampus activation after EX compared with REST. After EX, low-calorie food images increased insula and putamen activation and reduced OFC activation compared with REST. Furthermore, left pallidum activity was significantly elevated after EX when low-calorie images were viewed and was suppressed when high-calorie images were viewed, and these responses correlated significantly with thirst. Exercise increases neural responses in reward-related regions of the brain in response to images of low-calorie foods and suppresses activation during the viewing of high-calorie foods. These central responses are associated with exercise-induced changes in peripheral signals related to appetite-regulation and hydration status. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01926431.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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